Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Why people don't share their knowledge

13,829 views

Published on

Published in: Business
  • Login to see the comments

Why people don't share their knowledge

  1. 1. Why people don’t share their knowledge – and what to do about it Stan Garfield September, 2014
  2. 2. Background • Ferdinand Fournies wrote Why Employees Don't Do What They're Supposed To Do and What To Do About It • The book provides a comprehensive list of reasons people don’t do what they are supposed to do • I adapted 13 of these reasons to help answer the question about knowledge sharing 2
  3. 3. Why people don’t share their knowledge 1. They don't know why they should do it 2. They don't know how to do it 3. They don't know what they are supposed to do 4. They think the recommended way will not work 5. They think their way is better 6. They think something else is more important 7. There is no positive consequence to them for doing it 8. They think they are doing it 9. They are rewarded for not doing it 10. They are punished for doing it 11. They anticipate a negative consequence for doing it 12. There is no negative consequence to them for not doing it 13. There are obstacles beyond their control 3
  4. 4. 1. They don't know why they should do it Leadership has not made a strong case for knowledge sharing • Have the leader of the organization communicate regularly on knowledge sharing expectations, goals, and rewards • Tell stories of how sharing and asking helped those involved and the organization to achieve personal and business goals 4
  5. 5. 2. They don't know how to do it They have 5 1. Not received training and communications on how to share knowledge 2. Difficulty in sharing tacit knowledge • Regularly communicate, conduct training and webinars, and present and operate information booths at Aeetings • Provide web-based training and webinar recordings for all knowledge-sharing tools • Provide easy ways to share tacit knowledge o Discussions o Calls o Interviews
  6. 6. 3. They don't know what they are supposed to do One or more of these conditions applies 1. Leadership has not established and communicated clear goals for knowledge sharing 2. People don’t think that their knowledge is valuable to others, so they don’t know that they should share it 3. People don’t realize that if they ask for help in public a. They will get more varied and useful responses b. Not only will they benefit, but so will others • Establish and communicate clear knowledge-sharing goals • Communicate and train on the value of o What they know, if it is shared o Asking and responding in public 6
  7. 7. 4. They think the recommended way will not work They have received training and communications, but they 1. Don't believe what they are being asked to do will work 2. Don’t like change In small groups or one-on-one, show people that knowledge sharing does work by o Trying out actual examples o Sharing success stories from others o Providing personal tutorials on how to use the tools 7
  8. 8. 5. They think their way is better They believe that what they are used to doing is the best way 1. Working on their own 2. Collaborating only with a small group of trusted comrades 3. Using email, phone, instant messaging, and other, less-open methods • Regularly share stories of how others are benefiting from sharing knowledge using the recommended ways • Use the examples of respected leaders and experts to sway those stuck in their current ways to consider using better ways 8
  9. 9. 6. They think something else is more important They believe that there are higher-priority tasks than knowledge sharing • Get all managers to model knowledge-sharing behavior for their employees • Get all managers to inspect compliance to knowledge-sharing goals with the same fervor with which they inspect other goals 9
  10. 10. 7. There is no positive consequence to them for doing it For sharing knowledge, they receive no 1. Rewards 2. Recognition 3. Promotions 4. Other benefits • Implement rewards and recognition programs for those who share their knowledge • Award points to those who share knowledge • Give desirable rewards to those with the top point totals • Let it be known that promotions depend in part on a consistent track record of knowledge sharing 10
  11. 11. 8. They think they are doing it They are sharing knowledge differently than the recommended ways 1. Phoning, instant messaging, or emailing trusted colleagues 2. Sending email to distribution lists 3. Private messaging • Assign people to work with each community and organization to show them how o To use the recommended ways o The recommended ways work better than other ways • Provide a new tool or process which is viewed as a killer app o Catches on quickly and widely o Best way for the old ways to be replaced by new ways 11
  12. 12. 9. They are rewarded for not doing it They 1. Hoard their knowledge, and thus get people to beg for help 2. Receive rewards, recognition, or promotions based on doing other tasks Work with all managers in the organization to encourage them to o Reinforce the desired behaviors o Stop rewarding the wrong behaviors 12
  13. 13. 10. They are punished for doing it As a result of spending time on knowledge sharing 1. They don't achieve other goals which are more important to the organization 2. They are told not to waste time doing this • Align knowledge-sharing processes and goals with other critical processes and performance goals • Train managers on how to support, not punish, time spent sharing knowledge and learning 13
  14. 14. 11. They anticipate a negative consequence for doing it They are afraid that if they share or ask in public, they will 1. Lose their status as a guru – no one will have to come begging to them at the time of need 2. Fail to achieve other more important goals 3. Be perceived as wasting time 4. Be criticized or ridiculed for being ignorant • Position knowledge sharing as being a critical success factor for the organization • Train managers on how to support, not punish, time spent sharing knowledge and learning • Provide positive reinforcement for those who share and ask in public, and monitor interactions to intervene to mitigate any negative responses 14
  15. 15. 12. There is no negative consequence to them for not doing it Knowledge sharing is not 1. Set as a performance goal, inspected, and enforced 2. Tied to advancement 3. Part of the culture of the organization • Set knowledge-sharing goals, and get all managers to o Implement o Inspect o Enforce • This needs to come from the top – it will happen if o The leader of the organization insists on it o Managers check up on compliance • Let it be known that promotions are denied for those who have not shared their knowledge • Help promote a positive culture where asking and sharing are valued and celebrated 15
  16. 16. 13. There are obstacles beyond their control They 1. Are discouraged or not allowed to spend time sharing 2. Don't have access or can’t connect to systems for sharing 3. Don't have strong English language skills for sharing with those outside of their country • Embed knowledge sharing into normal business processes • Provide ways to collaborate when not connected (e.g., using mobile devices or email for threaded discussions) • Encourage those with weak English skills to share within their countries in their native languages • Offer language translation tools and services 16
  17. 17. Knowledge Sharing Process Repositories Team Sites Discussions Answer or solution Question, problem, or need Knowledge in Documents and Databases Explicit Knowledge in People Tacit Measurements & Rewards Policies & Procedures Search Post Reply Share insights, problem solutions, & reusable content 17 Archive answers for future reuse
  18. 18. Demand-driven knowledge sharing 1. Someone has a question, problem, or need 2. They search existing knowledge repositories and communities to see if there is an existing answer – if so, they use it 3. If no answer is found, they post their question, problem, or need to the relevant community 4. Other members of the community respond with their answers – the answers may include links to content in other repositories 5. The answers are automatically archived so that future searches will produce useful results 18
  19. 19. Sharing tacit knowledge 1. Someone wants to share • an insight • a nugget of knowledge • a solution to a problem which others may face 2. They post to a relevant community 3. They may choose to write up their knowledge more formally, thus turning it into explicit knowledge 19
  20. 20. Sharing explicit knowledge 1. Someone wants to share reusable content • a document, presentation, or recording • a process, procedure, or template • a tool • a software source code module • some data 2. They upload the file containing the content to the appropriate repository 3. They post to related communities to let the members know about the file, including a link to it 20
  21. 21. Knowledge-sharing components People 1. Person with a question, problem, or need 2. Community members who respond with answers and solutions 3. Knowledge brokers who monitor discussions to ensure that answers are provided Process 1. Collaboration process to support asking and answering questions 2. Policies and procedures for sharing knowledge 3. Measurements and rewards for sharing knowledge Technology 1. Structured repositories 2. Collaborative team sites 3. Threaded discussions 21
  22. 22. Explain the available options for sharing knowledge 1. Community 2. Enterprise Social Network 3. Repository 4. Intranet 5. Team site 6. Wiki 22
  23. 23. Tell people how to share knowledge Share a link. “Here is a link to the latest Forrester Wave report on social networking.” Ask a question. “Has anyone encountered this problem before, and if so, how was it solved?” Find a resource. “Looking for a specialist in retirement benefits to help win a bid in Calgary.” Answer a post. “Here are links to three relevant quals in the quals database.” Recognize a colleague. “Thanks to @dpalmer for hosting an excellent planning session today.” Inform about your activities. “Will be in the Philadelphia office today; does anyone wish to meet?” Suggest an idea. “Local office TV screens should display the global Yammer conversation stream.” 23
  24. 24. For additional information • Join the SIKM Leaders CoP http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/sikmleaders/ • Twitter @stangarfield • Site http://sites.google.com/site/stangarfield/ Stan Garfield Implementing a Successful KM Program (author) Gaining Buy-in for KM (chapter author) Successful Knowledge Leadership: Principles and Practice (chapter author) The Modern Knowledge Leader: A Results-Oriented Approach
  25. 25. LinkedIn Posts https://www.linkedin.com/today/author/2500783

×