Why is groundwater   neglected in watermanagement discussions?             Anders Berntell            Executive Director  ...
Is it neglected?• Google hits:   – River management 122 000 000   – Lake management 74 000 000   – Water management 47 500...
Precious resource•   Distributed•   Clean – compared to surface waters in most places•   Relatively inexpensive to abstrac...
Agricultural   Agricultureproduction                             Number of                               wells
Green revolution in India
According to theInternational Groundwater  Resources Assessment          Centre    http://www.igrac.nl/:
Overexploitation
India, traditional view
Grace Tellus,satellite mapping
An example• EU Framework Directive on Water, 2000
Surface water quality            objectives• Detailed annexes, chemistry and biology
Groundwater quality              objectives• “to reverse any significant and sustained upward trendin the concentration of...
• New Groundwater Directive, 2006   – Quality standards   – Methodology for setting national standards
European Environment          Agency• 136 maps on surface-water• 7 maps on groundwater
Surface water monitoring        stations
Groundwater bodies -    Aquifer type
Nitrate in surface water
Nitrate in groundwater
Salt water intrusion, due to      overexploitation
Danger to groundwater from         pesticides
First classification of status,Framework Directive on Water   Darker blue = higher risk of not  reaching “good      status”
Getting better……
Insufficient knowledge –               Why?•   Monitoring expensive•   Mapping expensive•   Characterisation expensive•   ...
Countries where monitoring     data is available
• International collaboration often required   – Many examples in developing countries are results of     international pr...
The tragedy of the commons•   Land     – Land rights defined     – Defined boundaries     – Has a price     – Visible•   G...
Legal regimes• UN Watercourses Convention, 1997 – No Groundwater• UN-Interational Law Commission   – Committee on Groundwa...
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell
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Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell

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Grundvatten i ett globalt perspektiv Anders Berntell

  1. 1. Why is groundwater neglected in watermanagement discussions? Anders Berntell Executive Director Stockholm International Water Institute
  2. 2. Is it neglected?• Google hits: – River management 122 000 000 – Lake management 74 000 000 – Water management 47 500 000 – Freshwater management 6 700 000 – Surfacewater management 2 580 000 – Groundwater management: 576 000
  3. 3. Precious resource• Distributed• Clean – compared to surface waters in most places• Relatively inexpensive to abstract• Relatively stable supply over time• Inexpensive storing• Supplies surface water• Water for the poor, in many developing countries
  4. 4. Agricultural Agricultureproduction Number of wells
  5. 5. Green revolution in India
  6. 6. According to theInternational Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre http://www.igrac.nl/:
  7. 7. Overexploitation
  8. 8. India, traditional view
  9. 9. Grace Tellus,satellite mapping
  10. 10. An example• EU Framework Directive on Water, 2000
  11. 11. Surface water quality objectives• Detailed annexes, chemistry and biology
  12. 12. Groundwater quality objectives• “to reverse any significant and sustained upward trendin the concentration of any pollutant……….”Member states could not agree on detailed quality objectives, they could only agree to start developing them
  13. 13. • New Groundwater Directive, 2006 – Quality standards – Methodology for setting national standards
  14. 14. European Environment Agency• 136 maps on surface-water• 7 maps on groundwater
  15. 15. Surface water monitoring stations
  16. 16. Groundwater bodies - Aquifer type
  17. 17. Nitrate in surface water
  18. 18. Nitrate in groundwater
  19. 19. Salt water intrusion, due to overexploitation
  20. 20. Danger to groundwater from pesticides
  21. 21. First classification of status,Framework Directive on Water Darker blue = higher risk of not reaching “good status”
  22. 22. Getting better……
  23. 23. Insufficient knowledge – Why?• Monitoring expensive• Mapping expensive• Characterisation expensive• Modelling complicated and expensive Few good examples (i.e. Rhine, Danube……)But more important: “Tragedy of the commons”• Private use – Common good• Diffuse pollution – Common good
  24. 24. Countries where monitoring data is available
  25. 25. • International collaboration often required – Many examples in developing countries are results of international projects
  26. 26. The tragedy of the commons• Land – Land rights defined – Defined boundaries – Has a price – Visible• Groundwater – Public good – Water rights unclear – Is free – Flowing – Invisible/Unknown – Delayed response
  27. 27. Legal regimes• UN Watercourses Convention, 1997 – No Groundwater• UN-Interational Law Commission – Committee on Groundwater• UN-ECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, 1992• SADC Protocol on Shared Watercourse Systems, 2001

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