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Case Study: Data Analytics and PEMS Testing for a Final Tier 4 Excavator

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Case Study: Data Analytics and PEMS Testing for a Final Tier 4 Excavator

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The US NTE method and EU WBW approaches both experience obstacles when it comes to calculating final emission rates for NRMM using Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS).
SGS presented results of an experiment conducted in Michigan, USA. To better understand and characterize the emission rates during individual modes of operation, SGS performed an in-field experiment to measure the emission rates of a Final Tier 4 Excavator.
The following modes of operation were measured and compared: cold start, auto-warm up, idle, crawl, trenching, and excavation. CO, CO2, NO, NO2, THC and PM were collected and analyzed for each operational mode.

The US NTE method and EU WBW approaches both experience obstacles when it comes to calculating final emission rates for NRMM using Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS).
SGS presented results of an experiment conducted in Michigan, USA. To better understand and characterize the emission rates during individual modes of operation, SGS performed an in-field experiment to measure the emission rates of a Final Tier 4 Excavator.
The following modes of operation were measured and compared: cold start, auto-warm up, idle, crawl, trenching, and excavation. CO, CO2, NO, NO2, THC and PM were collected and analyzed for each operational mode.

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Case Study: Data Analytics and PEMS Testing for a Final Tier 4 Excavator

  1. 1. PEMS IN THE UNITED STATES: AND A BROAD LOOK AT ITS APPLICATIONS Prepared by: Brent Schuchmann, Ph.D. Senior Research Engineer SGS North America, Inc October 24-26, 2017 Automotive Testing Expo North America
  2. 2. 2 OVERVIEW  SGS AT A GLANCE  PEMS TESTING IN THE LAST YEAR  THE ROLE OF TESTING SERVICES WITH PEMS  MODAL EMISSIONS OF NON-ROAD EXCAVATOR  ROAD-TO-LAB PEMS CORRELATION  PSEUDO IN-USE PEMS ROUTES FOR RDE  PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS USING MACHINE LEARNING  TRANSPORTATION ANALYTICS PLATFORM (TAPSM)
  3. 3. 3 CHEMICAL CONSUMERGOODS ANDRETAIL MINING OIL AND GAS PUBLIC SECTORLIFE SCIENCES TRANSPORTATIONAGRICULTURE AND FOOD ENERGY INDUSTRIAL MANUFACTURING CONSTRUCTION
  4. 4. 4 AURORA, CO  High Feature Test Cells with Extreme Environmental Conditions  Variable Altitude Engine and Chassis Dynamometer Testing • Diesel and Spark Ignited Engines • AWD/FWD/RWD Vehicles • Motorcycle and ATV Chassis Dynamometer • EPA and CARB Compliant Cells  Particulate Matter Characterization  PEMS & RDE Real Driving Emissions Testing  Variable Temperature SHEDs for Evaporative Emissions  Ideal for catalyst conversion efficiency determination, light-off, drive cycle effects, complete system performance  On-Road program design, consulting and data analytics  7 Eddy Current absorbing, Single 40” Roll, FWD/AWD, rapid non-road Mileage Accumulation Dynamometers in a modern, secure facility. Research, Development and Emissions Certification Testing Mileage Accumulation Facility in Jackson, MI
  5. 5. 5 PEMS TESTING IN THE LAST YEAR  NON-ROAD CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT  IN-USE, MODAL, ALTITUDE, COLD-START EMISSIONS  ON-ROAD HEAVY-DUTY DEVELOPMENT  ON-TRACK HEAVY-DUTY DEVELOPMENT  LIGHT-DUTY CORRELATION CVS TO PEMS  LIGHT-DUTY RDE DEVELOPMENT  LIGHT-DUTY IN-USE VERIFICATION  LIGHT-DUTY ROAD TO LAB
  6. 6. 6 MODAL EMISSIONS OF NON-ROAD EXCAVATOR USING PEMS  Available Non-road Excavator  MY 2015, Final Tier 4 engine  124kW rated engine  Emission Control Technologies: • Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Turbocharger, Charge Air Cooler, Direct Fuel Injection, SCR-U, AMOX  PM standard: 0.02 g/kWhr (0.015 g/hphr)  NOx standard: 0.4 g/kWhr (0.3 g/hphr)  Series of modal operations were performed mimicking in-use applications  Several ambient conditions (ambient temperature and elevations)  Data were analyzed for cold starts, warmups, crawls, operation, shutdowns and the whole test
  7. 7. 7 MODAL EMISSIONS OF NON-ROAD EXCAVATOR USING PEMS
  8. 8. 8 MODAL EMISSIONS OF NON-ROAD EXCAVATOR USING PEMS  AVL 493 GAS PEMS  CO/CO2, NO/NO2, THC  AVL 494 PM PEMS  Real-time soot concentration (black carbon)  Gravimetric collection of total PM  40CFR1065 compliant 494 PM PEMS 493 GAS PEMS
  9. 9. 9 MODAL EMISSIONS OF NON-ROAD EXCAVATOR USING PEMS Brake-Specific g/kWh < -1 °C > 1670 m > 1670 m  13 days of testing:  300m (MI) • 1400 ft  1980-2650m (CO) • 6500 – 8700 ft  -10C to 35C • 14 - 95F  Data processed with no exclusions comparing similar “modal operations”  Warmups, crawls, operations Outside NTE Zone ~ 20x NOx emissions at 2650 m
  10. 10. 10 MODAL EMISSIONS OF NON-ROAD EXCAVATOR USING PEMS Outside NTE Zone < -1 °C > 1670 m > 1670 m  13 days of testing:  300m (MI) • 1400 ft  1980-2650m (CO) • 6500 – 8700 ft  -10C to 35C • 14 - 95F  Data processed with no exclusions comparing similar “modal operations”  Warmups, crawls, operations Fuel-Specific g/kg ~ 20x NOx emissions at 2650 m
  11. 11. 11 MODAL EMISSIONS OF NON-ROAD EXCAVATOR USING PEMS < -1 °C 1670 m 2650 m  NOx emission reduction strategies can be observed in real-time with PEMS streaming data  It is easy to observe when EGR and urea dosing are shut off or reduced when above the altitude requirements for NTE
  12. 12. 12 MODAL EMISSIONS OF NON-ROAD EXCAVATOR USING PEMS Outside NTE Zone < -1 °C > 1670 m > 1670 m  NOx emissions during “operations” are similar to the overall result for each testing day  An “operation” represents the work performed for a specific job (i.e. excavation, trenching) Fuel-Specific g/kg
  13. 13. 13 MODAL EMISSIONS OF NON-ROAD EXCAVATOR USING PEMS Outside NTE Zone < -1 °C  Average NOx g/mi during a “crawl” event are nearly 2x during cold temperatures excluded from the NTE Zone at the same elevation  A “crawl” event represents the machine traveling to or from job site, refueling, or maintenance  The “crawls” shown to the right represent a distance of 0.6 - 1 km  2000 – 3000 ft
  14. 14. 14 MODAL EMISSIONS OF NON-ROAD EXCAVATOR USING PEMS Outside NTE Zone < -1 °C  Average NOx emissions during a “Warmup” event are 37g/kg for multiple conditions outside of the NTE Zone  A “Warmup” event represents first stationary 10-15 minutes after engine start. In most cases the ECU controlled the RPM until the coolant reached a certain temperature > 1670 m > 1670 m > 1670 m < -1 °C
  15. 15. 15 ROAD TO LAB CORRELATION Highwa y FTP and City Real World Cycle LA9 2 Downhi ll Uphill SR C US0 6 Accel s  NOx vs CO2 (g/mi) for a variety of drive cycles for on-road and on-dyno  2013 Jeep Wrangler  3.6L V6  T2B4: 40 mg/mi NOx  Similar emissions are measured within the standards for both on-road and on-dyno cycles  Simulated road-grade for on-dyno cycles
  16. 16. 16 ROAD TO LAB CORRELATION 12mg/mi Average (±3mg/mi St.Dev) 18.2mpg Average (±0.5mpg St.Dev) 50mg/mi Average (±6mg/mi St.Dev) 21mpg Average (±0.4mpg St.Dev)
  17. 17. 17 PSEUDO IN-USE PEMS ROUTES FOR RDE American WLTP Duration Stop Duration Distance p_stop v_max v_ave w/o stops v_ave w/ stops a_min a_max s s miles mi/h mi/h mi/h m/s² m/s² Low 589 156 1.9 26.50% 35.1 16.0 11.7 -1.47 1.47 Middle 433 48 3.0 11.10% 47.6 27.7 24.5 -1.49 1.57 High 455 31 4.4 6.80% 60.5 37.8 35.2 -1.49 1.58 Extra-High 323 7 5.1 2.20% 81.6 58.4 57.2 -1.21 1.03 Total 1800 242 14.5 81.6 28.9 Phase PEMS route IUVP Duration Stop Duration Distance p_stop v_max v_ave w/o stops v_ave w/ stops a_min a_max s s miles mi/h mi/h mi/h m/s² m/s² Low 471 - 1.8 - 25.5 - 7.3 -2.361 2.0809 Middle 259 - 2.1 - 41.0 - 15.3 -1.944 2.3611 High 591 - 5.2 - 63.4 - 21.9 -2.639 3.1944 Extra-High 738 - 7.5 - 70.2 - 35.5 -2.5 2.6389 Total 2059 16.6 70.2 29.3 Phase Urban Rural Motorway % % % Low 100 0 0 Middle 58.9 41.1 0 High 23 55.5 21.5 Extra-High 14.4 18.1 67.5 Whole Trip 32.4 30.6 37 Phase  An IUVP on-road test route was created based from the WLTP  26.7km (16.6 miles) and 34 minutes long
  18. 18. 18 PSEUDO IN-USE PEMS ROUTES FOR RDE  On-road NOx emissions for gasoline vehicles were at or below their respective standard.  On-road NOx emissions for the diesel vehicle were 4- 5x greater than its respective standard (200 mg/mi)
  19. 19. 19 PSEUDO IN-USE PEMS ROUTES FOR RDE  On-road routes were driven for different durations and over different locations  Urban, Rural, and Motorway sections were driven in different orders and magnitudes
  20. 20. 20 CASE STUDY: PREDICTIVE ANALYTICS FOR LIGHT DUTY VEHICLE PERFORMANCE Chassis Dyno Testing On-Road Testing  PEMS provides laboratory-grade fuel consumption and emissions data but may not be practical for testing all fleet vehicles over long duration test campaigns  SGS has used “machine learning” to determine if vehicle performance can be learned in the chassis dyno lab and then used to predict on-road fuel consumption and emissions  MY 2013 Jeep Wrangler, 3.6L V6, PFI, EPA T2B4, no MAF • On Dyno: 122 micro trips, 3.1 hours of operation • On Road: 93 micro trips, 3.8 hours of operation  Predictions were compared to measurements from AVL 493 MOVES
  21. 21. 21 LDV FUEL ECONOMY PREDICTION USING MACHINE LEARNING The range of engine operation on-dyno was similar to on-road tests Micro Trip R2 = 0.972 Good fuel economy predictions were achieved, and were more accurate than “OBD dongle” estimates (not shown)
  22. 22. 22 LDV EMISSIONS PREDICTION USING MACHINE LEARNING  Vehicle Specific Power bins were used to compare overall emissions rates  The predictions showed potential to faithfully represent the real-world emissions rate distribution by Vehicle Specific Power operating mode  More explanatory data would improve predictions at the highest power conditions
  23. 23. 23 THANK YOU

Editor's Notes

  • Welcome thoughts and thanks. Introduction to SGS and overview of presentation
  • INNOVATION ACROSS 11 GLOBAL INDUSTRIES

    We deliver innovative solutions across 11 global industries throughout the value chain
    Across all industries, and throughout our global network of offices and laboratories, we are developing innovative SOLUTIONS and SERVICES that aim to drive our customers’ continued SUCCESS, locally and globally
  • High level overview of services provided in Colorado
  • SGS has performed a wide variety of PEMS testing over the last calendar year. Only data that SGS owns will be presented. The role of PEMS in testing services is evolving. We are seeing a lot of interest in development, in-use, verification, research, correlation, and after-market applications.
  • Present the description of the test candidate and the emissions technologies involved. Non-road engine and its emissions standards for PM/Nox. This presentation will focus on the modal observations of emissions for the non-road engine. Without spending too much time, mention that current in-use regulation often excludes a majority of the data. Non-road engines that perform work in a stationary mode won’t qualify for the NTE method. Both NTE and EU methods allow exclusions of important emisisons (cold-start, extended temperature and altitude, etc). This study will show how PEMS can be used as a development and verification tool during in-use operations.
  • Photos of the conditions and locations covered in this testing campaign.
  • PEMS equipment used for all testing
  • All 13 days of PEMS in-use emissions collection. No exclusions are used and the final emission result represents the total mass and total work during measurement operation. Black bars represent sea-level altitude and nominal temperatures for the NTE zone. Bars within the yellow box represent conditions that are outside the NTE zone or would be excluded from analysis based on NTE zone criteria. Nox standard for this engine in the US is 0.4 g/kWh. PEMS measurement over entire day’s worth of data does show that in-use performance can produce conforming emission values. PEMS also shows that emissions control strategies are still functioning at the extended conditions of the NTE zone, both for cold temperature and high altitude. However, there is a point where emissions control strategies will turn off and PEMS captured these emissions at 8700 ft elevation at our Rocky Mountain Test center (Red bars). These emissions represent around 20x greater values compared to sealevel.
  • Same as the previous slide but the units have changed to Fuel-specific, g Pollutant/ kg of fuel. These units are better served when compared modal emissions where not a lot of work is being performed but fuel is still being used.
  • PEMS can show the real-time emission reduction strategies indirectly through second-by-second measurement. The graph shows the first 30 minutes of each condition. Similar trends are observed for black, green and blue where emissions controls are turned-on. Trends are also observed between blue and red where emissions controls are turned off or where conditions are not ideal for the control system to fully function.
  • Different types of “operations” were tested for this campaign and the full breakdown of the different operations are explored in a separate analysis. The “operations” show proportional results compared to the overall day since the machine spent a majority of the time performing these operations.
  • Average emissions for each condition were analyzed due to changing variables during a “crawl” event. Variables included crossing train tracks, operator differences, weather related concerns of the ground during movement.
  • The “warmup” event was developed after the first campaign and those data are unavailable. However, we can assume that the green bars represent a close resemblance to what the black bars could have been based on the results of the whole day and operations emission. The PEMS data show that the emissions during a warmup event are very high and highlight the importance of cold-start emissions. A warmup event was not fully collected for one day for the red bars. The purple bar represents a true cold soak overnight in a controlled chamber to -10C.
  • Switching to light-duty. Are read driving emissions measured in a test cell? How comparable are emissions measurements using PEMS for certification drive cycles currently used and on-road drive cycles? To start, this slide shows only PEMS data measurements for one vehicle. Many drive cycles were tested both on the road and in the test cell. This chart shows very similar Nox results for City/FTP cycles (road vs lab), Highway cycles (road vs lab), and a Real World cycle (road vs lab).
  • This slide shows the emissions results for PEMS a test cell analyzer bench for the same cycles. Both CVS dilute bag results and raw tailpipe results are presented for the test cell. The OR-RWC represents a On-road Real World Cycle that was developed on the road to be used as an in-use verification route. The WLTP cycle was used as a parent drive cycle for the RWC construction. The on-road route was then used to program the test cell dynamometer including road-grade data from GPS measurements.
  • A breakdown of the RWC cycle developed for in-use verification applications. The WLTP was used as a parent drive cycle. Urban, rural and motorway contributions are shown for each of the individual phases of the RWC. 4 phases: low, middle, high and extra high.
  • Drive cycle effects for 3 different engine families. 2013 Gasoline Wrangler, 2016 Gasoline F150, 2011 Diesel F250. A second Wrangler was procured and tested with the same engine family as the first vehicle and the emissions results were compared. Both vehicles produce similar on road emissions. Both Wranglers produced similar on-road emissions for a T2B4 emission standard. The triangles represent trucks, circles represent the Wrangler. Filled in triangles represent the diesel vehicle. Blue symbols represent the same RDE route. Red symbols represent the same RWC/WLTP. The green triangles show the emission breakdown of the diesel vehicle for each phase of the RWC/WLTP on road route. Each gasoline vehicle produces Nox emissions at or below their respective standard. The diesel vehicle produces Nox emissions 4-5x its respective standard (0.2 g/mi).
  • Bar chart breakdown of all on-road drive cycles from previous slide. White boxes represent <20% Trip share, Green boxes represent 20-40% Trip share, Red boxes represent >40% Trip share. DS NOx emissions are shown below for each route. Cycle effects are mixed amongst the test vehicles. The Wranglers show less sensitivity to the choice of on-road route; 4 different drive cycles were run on the Wrangler. The F150 also shows low sensitivity to the on-road route but does show increased NOx when driven at higher elevations (route 1); route 2-3 were the same but driven in reverse, routes 4-5 were the same but 4 was warm start and 5 was cold start. The RWC/WLTP breakdown shows that the low-middle phase produce more NOx than the high-extrahigh phases for the diesel F250, but these differences are irrelevant when the absolute values are compared to the standard (i.e. all four phases were several times greater than the standard).

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