Atoms for the Future 2013 – SFEN Jeune Generation,
Paris, France, 21 – 22 October 2013

Small Modular Reactors
and their u...
Motivation – Driving Forces …

• The need for flexible power generation for wider

•
•
•
•

range of users and application...
Electric Capacity additions and required
investment 2011 – 2035 Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2011, New Policies Scenar...
Use of SMRs for electricity grid-stabilization
• In the EU:
• large power markets & well interconnected grid
• large power...
Countries considering SMR technology
deployment – domestically
Middle-East

Africa

Europe

Asia

America

Algeria

Jordan...
Grid Characteristics

Interconnected and Regional Grids preferred
IAEA

6th IAEA INPRO Dialogue Forum on
Licensing and Saf...
Site Selection issues 50
45

Very Important
40

More Important
Important

35

Less Important
30

Not Important

25
20
15
1...
Siting for NPP and/or specific for SMR
• Russia: KLT-40S FNPP construction near completion; site for

•
•
•
•
•
•

SVBR-10...
SMRs for Non-Electric Application

18%
Desalination
H2 production
54%
20%

District heating
Process heat for industry

8%
...
Current Newcomer Countries Plan
Country
Bangladesh

Grid Capacity
in GWe
5.8

Current Deployment Plan
2 x 1000 MWe PWRs in...
Status of Countries on SMR Initiatives

Which countries
deploy SMRs?

Technology developer countries
(NPPs in operation)
C...
Countries preference in particular
SMR design and technology

• Integral-PWR type SMRs with modularization are
•
•
•
•

un...
Countries preference in particular
SMR design and technology
Africa
Algeria

Middle-East

FNPP

Jordan iPWR

Europe

Asia
...
On modularization technology

Capable of adding
modules within a
common building

22%

39%

39%

Separate secondary sys
fo...
Innovative Application of SMRs with Non-Nuclear
Source: U.S. DOE, 2010

IAEA

15
Application of Hybrid Energy System of SMRs with
Cogeneration and Renewable Energy Sources
Source: J. Carlsson, D. Shropsh...
Issues of Integrating SMR + Cogeneration + Wind
Source: J. Carlsson, D. Shropshire, EC – JRC, 2011

• Challenge in finding...
Economic Trade-offs
Source: J. Carlsson, D. Shropshire, EC – JRC, 2011

Hybrid System with RES
Compensates variable RES
El...
Impediments on Introducing SMRS
over Large NPPs

Key Impediments: operating records of advanced SMRs/proven
technology; sa...
Issues on licensing and regulation in
SMR deployment
• The need to develop legal and institutional frameworks, particularl...
What’s New in Global SMR Development?
mPower
NuScale
W-SMR
Hi-SMUR
EM2, GTMHR

B&W received US-DOE funding for mPower desi...
What’s New in Global SMR Development? (cont’d)
CEFR
HTR-PM
ACP-100
CAP-150

IRIS

2 modules of HTR-PM under construction;
...
Reactors Under Construction in SMR category
Country

Reactor
Model

Output
(MWe)

Designer

Number
of units

Argentina

CA...
SMRs for Near-term Deployment
Name

Design
Organization

Country of
Origin

Electrical
Capacity,
MWe

1

System Integrated...
Perceived Advantages and Challenges
IAEA Observation
Advantages

Challenges

Technological Issues
Non-Technological
Issues...
Summary
• Studies needed to evaluate the potential benefits of deploying SMRs in
•

•
•

•

grid systems that contain larg...
… Thank you for your attention.

IAEA

For inquiries, please contact:
Dr. M. Hadid Subki <M.Subki@iaea.org>

27
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Hadid Subki technical head of the SMR program at the International Atomic Energy Agency (Atoms for the Future 2013)

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Hadid SUBKI, Technical Head of the SMR Program at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) explained the needs for SMR development and the different designs of reactors. Then he showed to participants the interest of using SMR for grid-stabilization, for strengthen power grids or for the areas with small needs in electricity.

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Hadid Subki technical head of the SMR program at the International Atomic Energy Agency (Atoms for the Future 2013)

  1. 1. Atoms for the Future 2013 – SFEN Jeune Generation, Paris, France, 21 – 22 October 2013 Small Modular Reactors and their use for Specific Power Grids Dr. M. Hadid Subki Technical Lead, SMR Technology Development Division of Nuclear Power, Department of Nuclear Energy IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency
  2. 2. Motivation – Driving Forces … • The need for flexible power generation for wider • • • • range of users and applications; Replacement of aging fossil-fired units; Potential for enhanced safety margin through inherent and/or passive safety features; Economic consideration – better affordability; Potential for innovative energy systems: • Cogeneration & non-electric applications • Hybrid energy systems of nuclear with renewables IAEA 2
  3. 3. Electric Capacity additions and required investment 2011 – 2035 Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2011, New Policies Scenario Capacity addition, GWe Power generation investment, billion $ Transmission & Distribution investment, billion $ North America 880 1,738 1,271 Europa 938 1,976 915 East Europe, Eurasia 331 588 442 Asia 2,893 4,106 3,486 Other 854 1,383 978 5,986 9,791 7,092 Regions World total Asia has the largest capacity addition in the next 2 decades - that requires the largest investment for transmission and distribution IAEA
  4. 4. Use of SMRs for electricity grid-stabilization • In the EU: • large power markets & well interconnected grid • large power additions/subtractions could cause grid instabilities. • future systems will have increasing shares of renewable energy sources (mainly wind power) that will affect the electrical grid operation and require a different and more flexible back-up approach. • Most SMR concepts intended for generating base-load power; however innovative concept can be operated in a load-following • Some new concepts will have enhanced load follow capability • If SMRs cost competitive with clean coal & natural gas, they could be used as peak and back-up power units. • The EU and some countries also studying a “smart grid” and energy storage systems • Allow greater use of decentralized sources of renewable energy which would also enable economic operation of nuclear reactors producing base-load electricity. Source: D. Shropshire, EC – JRC, 2011 IAEA
  5. 5. Countries considering SMR technology deployment – domestically Middle-East Africa Europe Asia America Algeria Jordan Albania Bangladesh Argentina Egypt UAE Armenia China Canada Kenya Bulgaria India Chile Nigeria Finland Indonesia USA South Africa France Japan Tunisia Germany Korea Hungary Malaysia Italy Pakistan Poland Singapore Romania Thailand Russia Vietnam Legend / Results Considering 20/37 Not considering 14/37 Undecided Country 3/37 technology 13/37 developer Spain UK IAEA IAEA INPRO Dialogue Forum on Ukraine 6th Licensing and Safety Issues of SMRs 29 July - 2 August 2013 5
  6. 6. Grid Characteristics Interconnected and Regional Grids preferred IAEA 6th IAEA INPRO Dialogue Forum on Licensing and Safety Issues of SMRs 29 July - 2 August 2013 6
  7. 7. Site Selection issues 50 45 Very Important 40 More Important Important 35 Less Important 30 Not Important 25 20 15 10 5 0 Distance from application centres Space Access to External events Grid structure cooling water (EE) & and potential combined EE other Off-grid remote power requirements, public acceptance etc. IAEA 6th IAEA INPRO Dialogue Forum on Licensing and Safety Issues of SMRs 29 July - 2 August 2013 7
  8. 8. Siting for NPP and/or specific for SMR • Russia: KLT-40S FNPP construction near completion; site for • • • • • • SVBR-100 construction prepared; China is constructing HTR-PM in Shiadowan; Argentina completed site excavation for CAREM-25 US-DOE sponsors deployment of mPower for TVA in Clinch River Site for 2022 time frame; Potential utilities identified for NuScale, W-SMR and SMR-160 Canada’s comprehensive study on deployment of SMRs in remote areas in the southern and northern territories; Embarking countries in South East Asia with archipelago have several candidate sites for SMRs; Korea: several local governments invite SMR construction IAEA 6th IAEA INPRO Dialogue Forum on Licensing and Safety Issues of SMRs 29 July - 2 August 2013 8
  9. 9. SMRs for Non-Electric Application 18% Desalination H2 production 54% 20% District heating Process heat for industry 8% In addition to Desalination – SMRs expected to produce process heat for industry, and district heat in arctic sites IAEA 6th IAEA INPRO Dialogue Forum on Licensing and Safety Issues of SMRs 29 July - 2 August 2013 9
  10. 10. Current Newcomer Countries Plan Country Bangladesh Grid Capacity in GWe 5.8 Current Deployment Plan 2 x 1000 MWe PWRs in Rooppur in 2018 Vietnam 15.19 4 x 1000 MWe PWRs in Ninh Thuan #1 by 2020 4 x 1000 MWe PWRs in Ninh Thuan #2 by 2025 Jordan 2.6 2 x 1000 - 1100 MWe PWR + interest in SMR UAE 23.25 4 x 1400 MWe PWR in Braka by 2018 Belarus 8.03 2 x 1200 MWe PWR in Ostrovets by 2018 Turkey 44.76 4 x 1200 MWe PWR in Akkuyu by 2022 4 x 1100 MWe PWR in Sinop by 2025 Malaysia 25.54 2 x 1000 MWe LWRs by 2025 + interest in SMR Indonesia 32.8 2 x 1000 LWRs, with potential interest of deploying Small Reactors for industrial process and non-electric applications by 2024 IAEA Commercial unavailability limits Newcomer Countries in advanced SMR Technology Selection 10
  11. 11. Status of Countries on SMR Initiatives Which countries deploy SMRs? Technology developer countries (NPPs in operation) Countries with NPPs Newcomer countries Asia Europe Africa IAEA Latin America 11
  12. 12. Countries preference in particular SMR design and technology • Integral-PWR type SMRs with modularization are • • • • under in Argentina, China, India, Korea, Russia and the United States; RF prioritizes FNPP and LMFR-SVBR-100 France & Russia develop marine-based SMRs Embarking countries undecided on designs, but preferred proven-technology. Some embarking countries have started deployment of large reactors, due to lack of commercial availability of advanced SMRs; IAEA 6th IAEA INPRO Dialogue Forum on Licensing and Safety Issues of SMRs 29 July - 2 August 2013 12
  13. 13. Countries preference in particular SMR design and technology Africa Algeria Middle-East FNPP Jordan iPWR Europe Asia Albania Bangladesh Egypt Finland iPWR Kenya Poland HTRs Nigeria Romania iPWRs China HTR, FBR, iPWR Tunisia Legend / Results Technology Neutral Russia FNPP, LMFRs, iPWRs, SBRs India PHWR, HTR, FBR, LWR America Argentina iPWR Canada iPWR, HTRs, LM-FRs U S A iPWR Indonesia Korea iPWR, HTR, LM-FBR Malaysia Pakistan iPWRs, PWR Thailand IAEA IAEA INPRO Dialogue Forum on 6th Licensing and Safety Issues of SMRs 13 29 July - 2 August 2013
  14. 14. On modularization technology Capable of adding modules within a common building 22% 39% 39% Separate secondary sys for additional modules Modularization not necessary ~80% preferred SMR with Modularization to be competitive with LRs and NG and clean-coal plants ~ construction schedule wise IAEA 6th IAEA INPRO Dialogue Forum on Licensing and Safety Issues of SMRs 29 July - 2 August 2013 14
  15. 15. Innovative Application of SMRs with Non-Nuclear Source: U.S. DOE, 2010 IAEA 15
  16. 16. Application of Hybrid Energy System of SMRs with Cogeneration and Renewable Energy Sources Source: J. Carlsson, D. Shropshire, EC – JRC, 2011 Max Output of 1061 MWe to the power GRID ►► Regional Biomass (80 Km radius or ~2 million hectares) Composite Wind Farms Variable Electricity ► 1.000.000 t/DM/yr Node 104 GWh heat at 200C 1018 MWe Offsetting SMR ▲ Electricity Reactor Heat ► Dynamic Energy Switching Nuclear reactor 347 MWe (755 MWth) IAEA Hydrogen Electrolysis 1169 GWh heat at 500C Drying and Torrefaction Processes Torrified Product + Pyrolysis Pyrolyzed oil + char + offgas 42.000 t H2/yr +Synfuel Production 753m3/day bio-diesel 597m3/day bio-gasoline 16
  17. 17. Issues of Integrating SMR + Cogeneration + Wind Source: J. Carlsson, D. Shropshire, EC – JRC, 2011 • Challenge in finding the optimal ratio of the wind farm capacity to nuclear capacity, while providing adequate heat to support biomass processing while matching power demands • Variability of power to grid relative to instantaneous demand should be minimized • If nuclear is sized too large, variability of power production may be reduced, however, process heat and electricity are wasted • Biomass availability is a key constraint IAEA
  18. 18. Economic Trade-offs Source: J. Carlsson, D. Shropshire, EC – JRC, 2011 Hybrid System with RES Compensates variable RES Electricity price in balancing/peaking markets Conventional System with RES Highly variable RES Electricity price in base-load electricity market Value from Synfuels Additional capital and operating costs, some loss of thermal efficiency Little or no backup capacity needed, no carbon emitted Cost to remove waste heat Addition of grid upgrades and energy storage for balancing, subject to fuel price volatility 100% backup for RES, using natural gas, subject to C-tax IAEA
  19. 19. Impediments on Introducing SMRS over Large NPPs Key Impediments: operating records of advanced SMRs/proven technology; safety concerns in post-Fukushima. IAEA 6th IAEA INPRO Dialogue Forum on Licensing and Safety Issues of SMRs 29 July - 2 August 2013 19
  20. 20. Issues on licensing and regulation in SMR deployment • The need to develop legal and institutional frameworks, particularly for • • • • • • • deployment in foreign market; Lack of human resource, skills and capacity, limited operating experience in advanced SMRs; Public acceptance, lack of persistent support from governments, and no laws and regulations for both NPP and SMR in new entrants; The need to assure that SMR regulatory framework is applied commensurate with attended risk, so deployment can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner and competitive with alternative energies; Long lead-time to prepare for and receive regulatory review; The need to get sufficient regulatory credit for inherent safety and security in the design; For SMR with innovative features: review code & standards that impact licensing. Could take 2 – 5 years to develop and approve revisions. Embarking countries lack of infrastructure and HR to conduct technology assessment and R&D for HR development; IAEA 6th IAEA INPRO Dialogue Forum on Licensing and Safety Issues of SMRs 29 July - 2 August 2013 20
  21. 21. What’s New in Global SMR Development? mPower NuScale W-SMR Hi-SMUR EM2, GTMHR B&W received US-DOE funding for mPower design. The total funding is 452M$/5 years for 2 out of 4 competing iPWR based-SMRs. Some have utilities to deploy in specific sites. US-DOE also announced the second round of SMR funding in March 2013. SMART On 4 July 2012, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission issued the Standard Design Approval for the 100 MWe SMART – the first iPWR received certification. KLT-40s SVBR-100 BREST-300 SHELF Construction of 2 modules of barge-mounted KLT-40s near completion; Lead Bismuth cooled SVBR-100 & Lead-cooled BREST-300 to deploy by 2018, SHELF seabed-based conceptual design Flexblue DCNS originated Flexblue capsule, 50-250 MWe, 60-100m seabed-moored, 5-15 km from the coast, off-shore and local control rooms CAREM-25 Site excavation for CAREM-25 completed; licensed for construction, first concrete pouring ~ November 2013 4S PFBR-500 PHWRs: 220, 540 & 700, AHWR300-LEU IAEA Toshiba had promoted the 4S for a design certification with the US NRC for application in Alaska and newcomer countries. The Prototype FBR ready for commissioning and start-up test. 4 units of PHWR-700 under construction, 4 more units to follow. AHWR300-LEU at final detailed design stage and ready for construction. 21
  22. 22. What’s New in Global SMR Development? (cont’d) CEFR HTR-PM ACP-100 CAP-150 IRIS 2 modules of HTR-PM under construction; CNNC developing ACP-100 which will be constructed by 2018 SNPTC developing CAP-150 and CAP-S Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI) and universities in Croatia & Japan are continuing the development of IRIS design - previously lead by the Westinghouse Consortium Recently introduced at the 2012 – 2013 IAEA SMR Meetings: ACP-100, CNNC, China CAP-150, SNERDI, China IAEA Flexblue, DCNS, France 22
  23. 23. Reactors Under Construction in SMR category Country Reactor Model Output (MWe) Designer Number of units Argentina CAREM-25 (a prototype) 27 CNEA 1 China HTR-PM 250 Tsinghua Univ./Harbin 2 mods, 1 turbine India PFBR-500 (a prototype) 500 IGCAR 1 Russian Federation KLT-40S (ship-borne) 30 OKBM Afrikantov 2 FNPP IAEA Site, Plant ID, and unit # Commercial Start CAREM-25 2017 ~ 2018 Shidaowan unit 1 2017 ~ 2018 Kalpakkam 2013 Akademik Lomonosov units 1 & 2 2015 23
  24. 24. SMRs for Near-term Deployment Name Design Organization Country of Origin Electrical Capacity, MWe 1 System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor (SMART) Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Republic of Korea 100 2 SVBR-100 JSC AKME Engineering 100 3 mPower Babcock & Wilcox 180/module 4 NuScale NuScale Power Inc. Russian Federation United States of America United States of America 5 Westinghouse SMR Westinghouse United States of America 225 6 ACP100 CNNC/NPIC China 100 IAEA 45/module Design Status Standard Design Approval Received 4 July 2012 Detailed design for prototype construction Design Certification Application starts mid 2014 Design Certification Application starts mid 2014 Design Certification Application starts mid 2014 Basic Design, Construction Starts in 2016
  25. 25. Perceived Advantages and Challenges IAEA Observation Advantages Challenges Technological Issues Non-Technological Issues • Shorter construction period (modularization) • Potential for enhanced safety and reliability • Design simplicity • Suitability for non-electric application (desalination, etc.). • Replacement for aging fossil plants, reducing GHG emissions • Licensability (due to innovative or first-of-a-kind engineering structure, systems and components) • Non-LWR technologies • Operability performance/record • Human factor engineering; operator staffing for multiple-modules plant • Post Fukushima action items on design and safety • Fitness for smaller electricity grids • Options to match demand growth by incremental capacity increase • Site flexibility • Reduced emergency planning zone • Lower upfront capital cost (better affordability) • Easier financing scheme • Economic competitiveness • First of a kind cost estimate • Regulatory infrastructure (in both expanding and newcomer countries) • Availability of design for newcomers • Infrastructure requirements • Post Fukushima action items on institutional issues and public acceptance 25 IAEA
  26. 26. Summary • Studies needed to evaluate the potential benefits of deploying SMRs in • • • • grid systems that contain large shares of renewable energy. Studies needed to assess SMR “target costs” in future cogeneration markets, the benefits from coupling SMRs with wind turbines to stabilize the power grid, and impacts on sustainability measures from deployment. There are technical challenges in integrating nuclear with RES, however “no solution that allows significant increases to renewable energy penetration in the grid will be simple” SMR is an attractive option to enhance energy supply security in newcomer countries with small grids and less-developed infrastructure and in advanced countries requiring power supplies in remote areas and/or specific purpose; Innovative SMR concepts have common technology development challenges, including regulatory and licensing frameworks IAEA 26
  27. 27. … Thank you for your attention. IAEA For inquiries, please contact: Dr. M. Hadid Subki <M.Subki@iaea.org> 27

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