Brine Disposal Alternatives
Options for Disposing of Desalination
Concentrate and Water Treatment Residuals
Anthony E. Ben...
Anthony E. Bennett, R.S.
Technical Director
AECOM Water
Introduction
Background
Offshore Discharge
Inland Surface Water Discharge
Irrigation
Surface impoundment
Underground Injec...
Background
Desalination initiative
Seawater desalinationSeawater desalination
Brackish groundwaterBrackish groundwater
Rec...
Discharge to freshwater surface water
(TPDES individual permit required)
Freshwater surface water use
can be adversely aff...
Discharges to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs)
(no TCEQ permit required)
Ability of the POTW to accept the wastewate...
Irrigation
(TLAP individual permit required)
Any buildup of salt constituents can become toxic to the
crop and/or the soil...
Surface Impoundment Evaporation
(TLAP individual permit required)
No discharge to water in the
state is authorized by this...
Solid Waste Disposal
Treatment residuals which can de dried
Treatment residuals which can pass the TCLP can be
disposed of...
Discharge to marine surface waters
(TPDES individual permit required)
No numerical water quality standards for TDS or Chlo...
Underground Injection
(UIC permit required)
Under Federal and Texas Statutes and regulations, a
permit is required if disp...
Class I Injection Well
Injection of non Oil and Gas Waste below a Useable
Source of Drinking Water (USDW)
HB 2567 exempts ...
Class II Injection Well
Salt water co-produced with oil and gas
Fluids for enhanced recovery of oil and gas
Storage of hyd...
UIC Revisions Under HB 2654
HB 2654 passed by 80th Texas Legislature
Provides for
State rules to allow desalination and ot...
TCEQ Non-Hazardous General Permit
Has not yet been adopted by TCEQ
Would apply only to disposal of desalination and drinki...
From UT Bureau of Economic Geology
From AECOM display of TXRRC data
Class V Injection Wells
Much faster and simpler approval process
Injection must not cause pollution in the receiving
groun...
Conclusion
Multiple options for Desalination Residual disposal
Offshore DischargeOffshore Discharge
Inland Surface Water D...
Questions?
2009-02-17  Brine Disposal Alternatives
2009-02-17  Brine Disposal Alternatives
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2009-02-17 Brine Disposal Alternatives

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This presentation includes: Background, Offshore Discharge, Inland Surface Water Discharge, Irrigation, Surface Impoundment, and Underground Injection.

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2009-02-17 Brine Disposal Alternatives

  1. 1. Brine Disposal Alternatives Options for Disposing of Desalination Concentrate and Water Treatment Residuals Anthony E. Bennett, R.S. Technical Director AECOM Water
  2. 2. Anthony E. Bennett, R.S. Technical Director AECOM Water
  3. 3. Introduction Background Offshore Discharge Inland Surface Water Discharge Irrigation Surface impoundment Underground Injection
  4. 4. Background Desalination initiative Seawater desalinationSeawater desalination Brackish groundwaterBrackish groundwater Recent Drinking Water Standards ArsenicArsenic RadionuclidesRadionuclides Stage 2 Surface Water TreatmentStage 2 Surface Water Treatment
  5. 5. Discharge to freshwater surface water (TPDES individual permit required) Freshwater surface water use can be adversely affected by increases in salinity Concentrate TDS typically much greater than water quality standards Salinity, Metals, toxic substances, and naturally occurring radioactive materials are concentrated by membrane technology desalination and can be a possible concern
  6. 6. Discharges to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) (no TCEQ permit required) Ability of the POTW to accept the wastewater volume of the concentratevolume of the concentrate salinity of the concentratesalinity of the concentrate
  7. 7. Irrigation (TLAP individual permit required) Any buildup of salt constituents can become toxic to the crop and/or the soil biosphere Without the crop and soil mechanisms, there is an increased probability of impacting surface waters and/or impacting groundwater
  8. 8. Surface Impoundment Evaporation (TLAP individual permit required) No discharge to water in the state is authorized by this disposal method Disposal is entirely dependent on the evaporation rates in the location of the facility Impoundments must be sized properly and lined to appropriately deal with overflow and prevent discharges (percolation) to groundwater
  9. 9. Solid Waste Disposal Treatment residuals which can de dried Treatment residuals which can pass the TCLP can be disposed of in municipal waste sites Treatment residuals which cannot pass TCLP must be handled as hazardous waste
  10. 10. Discharge to marine surface waters (TPDES individual permit required) No numerical water quality standards for TDS or Chloride Discharges can adversely affect aquatic ecosystems of estuaries and tidal rivers Metals, toxic substances, and naturally occurring radioactive materials can be a concern Discharges further than 3 leagues offshore are under EPA jurisdiction
  11. 11. Underground Injection (UIC permit required) Under Federal and Texas Statutes and regulations, a permit is required if disposal will occur below the base of underground source of drinking water Disposal of a waste stream into a Useable Source of Drinking Water (USDW) that is not hazardous and cannot degrade an underground drinking water source is authorized by rule (Class V)
  12. 12. Class I Injection Well Injection of non Oil and Gas Waste below a Useable Source of Drinking Water (USDW) HB 2567 exempts Class I Desal disposal wells from contested case hearing
  13. 13. Class II Injection Well Salt water co-produced with oil and gas Fluids for enhanced recovery of oil and gas Storage of hydrocarbons that are liquid at standard temperature and pressure Without further federal rulemaking, desalination concentrate would have to be injected into oil and gas producing zones for legitimate enhanced recovery
  14. 14. UIC Revisions Under HB 2654 HB 2654 passed by 80th Texas Legislature Provides for State rules to allow desalination and other drinking waterState rules to allow desalination and other drinking water treatment residuals into enhanced recovery wells permitted bytreatment residuals into enhanced recovery wells permitted by TXRRC without a Class I permit from TCEQTXRRC without a Class I permit from TCEQ Class I permits by TCEQ for wells that are constructed to nonClass I permits by TCEQ for wells that are constructed to non-- hazardous waste standards for disposal of desalination andhazardous waste standards for disposal of desalination and drinking water treatment residualsdrinking water treatment residuals General permits to authorize nonGeneral permits to authorize non--hazardous waste disposal ofhazardous waste disposal of desalination and drinking water treatment residualsdesalination and drinking water treatment residuals TCEQ rules addressing these provisions were adopted by TCEQTCEQ rules addressing these provisions were adopted by TCEQ in June 2008, Effective July 10, 2008in June 2008, Effective July 10, 2008
  15. 15. TCEQ Non-Hazardous General Permit Has not yet been adopted by TCEQ Would apply only to disposal of desalination and drinking water treatment residuals Intended to apply also to dual permitting of Class II disposal wells There are approximately 31,000 Class II wells inThere are approximately 31,000 Class II wells in TexasTexas
  16. 16. From UT Bureau of Economic Geology
  17. 17. From AECOM display of TXRRC data
  18. 18. Class V Injection Wells Much faster and simpler approval process Injection must not cause pollution in the receiving groundwater (30 TAC 331.5) injectate is "as good or betterinjectate is "as good or better”” than receivingthan receiving groundwatergroundwater TCEQ has developed a list of other factors for consideration in making the needed determinations This type of injection well authorization was utilized by El Paso Water Utilities
  19. 19. Conclusion Multiple options for Desalination Residual disposal Offshore DischargeOffshore Discharge Inland Surface Water DischargeInland Surface Water Discharge IrrigationIrrigation Surface impoundmentSurface impoundment Discharge to sanitary sewerDischarge to sanitary sewer Underground InjectionUnderground Injection Selection of an appropriate and affordable residuals management option is often the determining factor in project feasibility
  20. 20. Questions?

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