Writing EffectiveConclusionsThe so what of your paper
What should writers accomplishin a conclusion?An effective conclusion :o is the last chance to get your point across to the reader.o should provide a sense of closure, or of coming full circle.o should motivate the reader to think further.
So how do you do that?First, by restating the thesis. Do not simply repeat. It may be restated in a more complex, qualified or emphatic way than in the introduction. Summarize the main points. Do NOT introduce any new information.All conclusions will have these points in common. Whatelse you write depends on the rest of the paper.
What else? If you used a story or quote in the introduction, refer to it here. If you asked a question, answer it. Or conclude with a forceful example or image.
Argumentative or persuasivepapersHopefully, you have convinced your readers to see yourside, so now you want to: Call for some action on their part Offer a recommendation or solution Pose other unanswered questions your paper exposes Suggest implications for the future
Conclusions are the opposite of introductions and theirstructure is often the opposite also. Introductions generallygo from general to specific while conclusions will start outspecific and end more generally.Restatement of thesis General conclusion
An Example: The farmers ofMake readers feel their time nineteenth-century Americawas well spent by showing could afford to do here whatthe importance of the they had not dared to do inAmerican dream: the Old World: hope.
This hope- for greater economic security, for more opportunity for themselves, theirRestate thesis: (American children, and theirdream=hope for greatersecurity, opportunity) grandchildren- is the optimism and idealism that has carried forward and that, indeed, still carries us forward.
Although the American dream has evolved across the centuries, it survivesAchieve closure by referring today and is a cornerstoneto the introduction with of the American philosophy.mention of the American It is what underlies ourdream: Constitution and our laws, and it is a testimony to the vision of the farmers who founded this nation.
Some examples in this presentation came from RececcaHoward Moore’s textbook Writing Matters. The example ofthe conclusion is by Leonard Lin, University of SouthernCalifornia, “The Middle Class Farmers and the AmericanPhilosophy”, quoted by Moore.