Learning Set 2: Lesson 2

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Learning Set 2: Lesson 2

  1. 1. Cell Activity Videos Additional Videos1) Plant Cells Meiosis2) Mitosis Mitosis 23) Phagocytosis Mitosis 34) Listeria Exocytosis 25) Neutrophil Exocytosis 36) Exocytosis Bacteria 27) Bacteria Learning Set 2 : Lesson 2 : Slide 1 Optional
  2. 2. Where are proteins in our bodies? Testing for Protein Where are proteins in chicken parts? Part being tested Prediction – Is protein Result – Is protein present? present? Mixing solution without any chicken skin liver muscle fat bone feather Learning Set 2 : Lesson 2 : Slide 1
  3. 3. Special Skin Cells Make Melanin body tissue epidermis melanocytes epidermis cells Melanosomes- organelles containing melanin found in melanocytes and other skin cells. Other skin cellsHow is melanin made inside the melanocytes? Learning Set 2 : Lesson 3 : Slide 2
  4. 4. MelanocyteMelanin(blackdots)taken upby skincellscalledkeratinocytes “Octopus ” like arms of Melanocyte cell Other skin cells Learning Set 2 : Lesson 3 : Slide 3
  5. 5. Looking inside a melanosome Large protein molecule called Tyrosinase. It is special type of protein that assists Other skin cells chemical reactions in the body. Learning Set 2 : Lesson 3 : Slide 4
  6. 6. Looking inside a melanosome Tyrosine- small molecule. Building block needed to Oxygen build melanin. OO First step in making melanin: Reaction between two molecules, one Other skin cells tyrosine and one O2 to make a new molecule (called DOPA) Learning Set 2 : Lesson 3 : Slide 5
  7. 7. How can a large proteinmolecule like theTyrosinase help to startthe chemical reactions OOthat form melanin? Oxygen Tyrosine • Other skin cells Tyrosinase Learning Set 2 : Lesson 3 : Slide 6
  8. 8. Tyrosinase helps to position the molecules so that they can react. Learning Set 2 : Lesson 3 : Slide 7
  9. 9. Learning Set 2 : Lesson 3 : Slide 8 Tyrosinase (protein) O •nuc New MoleculeSkin cell Other skin cells Other proteins help turn the new molecule (called DOPA) into melanin.
  10. 10. What happened to Sammy Sosa? Learning Set 2 : Lesson 3 : Slide 9
  11. 11. Ponds Skin Lightening CreamWhat is the message of this ad? www.advertolog.com/ponds-5419455/print-outdoor/swan-7423605/ Learning Set 2 : Lesson 3 : Slide 10
  12. 12. Lactose intolerance• Cannot break down lactose, a sugar found in dairy products• Instead, bacteria in the intestine break down the lactose, producing gas• Most children can break down lactose• Most adults in the world cannot break down lactose - making them lactose intolerant Learning Set 2 : Lesson 4 : Slide 11
  13. 13. Cells in Small Intestine Lactose Break Down Lactose from diet Lactose brought into intestine cells intestine cells small Lactose intestine broken downHow is lactose broken down in intestine cells? Learning Set 2 : Lesson 4 : Slide 12
  14. 14. Looking inside small intestine cells lactose galactose glucoseSmall intestine cells Learning Set 2 : Lesson 4 : Slide 13
  15. 15. Looking inside small intestine cellsHow does the shapeof the large protein lactasemolecule Lactase lactosehelp the chemicalreaction that formsglucose fromlactose?Small intestine cells Learning Set 2 : Lesson 4 : Slide 14
  16. 16. Looking inside small intestine cells lactase glucose galactoseSmall intestine cells Learning Set 2 : Lesson 4 : Slide 15
  17. 17. inventorspot.com www.pcrm.org/newsletter/jun05/milk_ad Lactose intolerance? .html Is it really an illness or are we victims of false advertising? Learning Set 2 : Lesson 4 : Slide 16
  18. 18. Protein ModelsCartoon Model Space-filling Model Backbone Model Learning Set 2 : Lesson 6 : Slide 17
  19. 19. PROTEIN STRUCTURE A protein Learning Set 2 : Lesson 6 : Slide 18
  20. 20. PROTEIN STRUCTUREAmino Acid Chain When amino acids form a long chain, the chain folds and makes a protein. The amino acids cause the protein to twist and bend, as shown on the left.Chain of amino acidsfolded into a protein. Learning Set 2 : Lesson 6 : Slide 19
  21. 21. ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDSCircle that portion of each molecule that is the same in every molecule. Adapted from Carolina Supply Company Learning Set 2 : Optional Lesson: Slide 20
  22. 22. BASIC STRUCTURE OF AN AMINO ACID Basic structure of an amino acid Learning Set 2 : Optional Lesson: Slide 21
  23. 23. AMINO ACID STRUCTURE ALANINE Learning Set 2: Optional Lesson: Slide
  24. 24. Chemical Structure: Chains and Rings Tryptophan Learning Set 2: Optional Lesson: Slide 23
  25. 25. ASSEMBLY OF AMINO ACIDS Learning Set 2 : Lesson 7 : Slide 24
  26. 26. Protein Models…again Learning Set 2 : Lesson 7 : Slide 25
  27. 27. Key to ToobersRed = positive charge (+) K, R, HYellow = negative charge (-) D, EGreen = hydrophobic A, V, L, I, P, M, F, WBlue = hydrophilic G, S, T, N, Q, Y Learning Set 2 : Lesson 7 : Slide 26
  28. 28. Toober Model (Step 1) Learning Set 2 : Lesson 7 : Slide 27
  29. 29. Lactase Amino Acid Sequence Learning Set 2 : Lesson 7 : Slide 28
  30. 30. Preparing a GelHoles for samples to be tested gel Image from powerful microscope Learning Set 2 : Lesson 8 : Slide 29
  31. 31. Put Protein Sample in HolesPipet withsolution ofproteins Lots of different sized proteins Learning Set 2 : Lesson 8 : Slide 30
  32. 32. Samples We Want to Test lactase tyrosinase Learning Set 2 : Lesson 8 : Slide 31
  33. 33. Adding Electricity to the ElectrodesNegatively charged proteins move towards positive electrode Learning Set 2 : Lesson 8 : Slide 32
  34. 34. Proteins Move Based on Size lactase tyrosinase Learning Set 2 : Lesson 8 : Slide 33
  35. 35. Record Data with a Picture Learning Set 2 : Lesson 8 : Slide 34
  36. 36. Lactase Sample for 3 Different People Lactose intolerance: 1) No 2) ??? 3) ??? Should person 2 drink milk? Person 3? Explain your reasoning. Learning Set 2 : Lesson 8 : Slide 35

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