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Dyslexia: What works?

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Dyslexia: What works?

  1. 1. Dyslexia: What Works?
  2. 2. Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD) • Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLDs), affect the way information is learned and processed. • Neurological (rather than psychological) • usually run in families and • occur independently of intelligence. • Can have significant impact on education and learning and on the acquisition of literacy skills. • SpLD is an umbrella term used to cover a range of frequently co-occurring difficulties, more commonly: Dyslexia Dyspraxia /DCDDsycalculia ADD/ADHD
  3. 3. Dyslexia: When can we spot it? Pre-school children signs can include: • Delayed speech development compared with children of same age. • Speech problems, such as not being able to pronounce long words properly and ‘jumbling’ up phrases such as ‘hec-i-lop-ter’ or ‘beddy tear’. • Remembering the right words to use • Little understanding of rhyming words • Little interest or difficulty with learning letters.
  4. 4. Dyslexia: When can we spot it? School Children (5-12) • problems learning the names and sounds of letters • spelling that's unpredictable and inconsistent • Letter reversal • confusing the order of letters in words • reading slowly or making errors when reading aloud • visual disturbances when reading • answering questions well orally, but having difficulty writing the answer down • difficulty carrying out a sequence of directions • struggling to learn sequences, such as days of the week or the alphabet • slow writing speed • poor handwriting • problems copying written language and taking longer than normal to complete written work • poor phonological awareness and word attack skills
  5. 5. Dyslexia: When can we spot it? Teenagers and Adults: • poorly organised written work that lacks expression (for example, even though they may be very knowledgeable about a certain subject, they may have problems that knowledge in writing) • difficulty planning and writing essays, letters or reports • difficulties revising for examinations • trying to avoid reading and writing whenever possible • difficulty taking notes or copying • poor spelling • struggling to remember things such as a PIN or telephone number • struggling to meet deadlines
  6. 6. Dyslexia: Talking about it
  7. 7. Dyslexia: Research so far… • Dyslexia is a hidden disability thought to affect around 10% of the population, 4% severely. • It is the most common of the SpLDs. • Dyslexia is usually hereditary. • A child with dyslexia may mix up letters within words and words within sentences while reading. • They may have difficulty with spelling words correctly while writing; letter reversals are common. • Dyslexia is not only about literacy, although weaknesses in literacy are often the most visible sign. Dyslexia affects the way information is processed, stored and retrieved, with problems of memory, speed of processing, time perception, organisation and sequencing. • Some may also have difficulty navigating a route, left and right and compass directions.
  8. 8. Dyslexia: What can I do? • If you're concerned about your child's progress with reading and writing, first talk to their teacher. • If you or your child's teacher has an ongoing concern, take your child to see your GP so they can check for signs of any underlying health issues, such as hearing or vision problems, that could be affecting their ability to learn. • If your child doesn't have any obvious underlying health problems to explain their learning difficulties, different teaching methods may need to be tried. • You may also want to request an assessment to identify any special needs they may have.
  9. 9. Dyslexia: Strategies • High expectations for intellectual stimulation but reasonable for written response. • Ready to explain things many times, in a variety of ways, individually. • Correct only spellings they have been taught specifically. • While you are looking at a child’s work, try to understand the reasons for their mistakes and give them the chance to explain their difficulties to you. This will help you to know what they need to be taught or to practise. • Watch out for signs of tiredness and fatigue – dyslexic children have to work much harder than other pupils which is exhausting. • Be slow, quiet and deliberate in your instruction giving, allowing time for the meaning of the words to ‘sink in’. Ensure they understand, by getting them to explain it back to you.
  10. 10. Dyslexia: Strategies • Where possible, use multi-sensory methods of learning. These use all the senses so that information is most effectively absorbed and stored. • Enable dyslexic children to show their interest, knowledge and skills, despite their difficulties with writing. • Give guidance about how to tackle tasks systematically. Dyslexic children often need to be taught many things that other children pick up without specific adult help. This might include: how to tidy a drawer; put their toys away; get dressed; look for something they have lost; pack their school bag; tie a tie or shoelaces. • Watch out for signs of falling confidence and self-esteem.
  11. 11. Dyslexia: Strategies • Display written/visual reminders somewhere prominent • Recognising words forms a crucial part of learning to read. Irregular words need ‘whole word’ learning and there are a number of dyslexia friendly techniques that can be used to good effect. • Presenting new words in small batches of no more than six at a time, preferably with similar structures • Teach handwriting using ‘continuous cursive handwriting’. This technique is particularly useful because the child’s pencil stays on the page throughout and so the motor- memory in their hand will help them memorise the order of the letters. Practise in sand and in the air.
  12. 12. Dyslexia: Strategies • Use computers whenever possible to enhance specific aspects of teaching. Good software is available for all aspects of learning at primary school level and one of the many advantages is that children can receive one-to-one help for long periods of time. Many programmes are written with dyslexic children in mind. The BDA computer committee booklets are updated frequently. • Check that children are keeping up, and not just sitting passively, during shared reading and writing times. One idea is to give dyslexic children the books or text to be used in shared reading the week before, so that they can practise. • Help dyslexic children understand the text they are reading. Comprehension can be a continuing problem for dyslexic people of all ages. Dyslexic children may be able to read a passage but get no meaning from it at all. Constant reference to the meaning of what they are reading is essential and should be practised frequently. Tips include reading each word or sentence twice; reading aloud, thinking or explaining the meaning of words or sentences as they read them or picturing what they have just read at full stops or commas.
  13. 13. Dyslexia: The Don’ts • Don’t get cross when they lose or forget things, miss the meaning of something or have a ‘bad day’. • Don’t expect enormous quantities of written work • Overload children with instructions. • Ask them to read in front of others unless they are comfortable with the idea. • Make sudden changes in their timetable • Expect them to learn strings of facts by heart, e.g. multiplication tables.
  14. 14. Dyslexia: Recommended Progammes • Nessy – reading and spelling support • Touch Typing • Don’t worry about spelling rules – learn until they become automatic. • Learn homophones • Layered approach to writing • Mnemonics • Big Elephants Can Always Understand Small Elephants
  15. 15. Dyslexia: Nessy • Secret Word: FLUFFYRAKE • wcann

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