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Manufacturing of micro-moulds


                       Benedikt Gellissen

                       Fraunhofer Institute for...
Economic Developments in MST
The booming of micro            Batelle (1990)                                 SEMI (1995)
sy...
Economic and Technical Developments
Patent analysis of MST           Number of patent registrations
for microPRO Study    ...
International comparison - microPRO Study
Switzerland
§ Predominantly affiliation of enterprises to mechanical engineering...
Summary of mikroPRO Study
§ Numerous applications of micro manufacturing technologies in various
    industrial sectors

§...
Typical branches –
MST are found in different branches with the tendency for mass production

      Automotive industry   ...
Due to developments in the industry -
MST is still a chance for mould and die makers
Precision Engineering                ...
Focus of this presentation –
Conventional Technologies in MST
                               Chip removal                 ...
Production processes in MST –
 Compromises and alignment with the costumer product


                                     ...
Photolithography Etching of Silicon –
Advantages are clearly visible but the limitations too
                             ...
Typical products –
The requirements towards the products functionality is spread
widely
Facette mirror                    ...
Conventional Technologies in MST
                               Chip removal                        EDM                 La...
Micro Clip (Design)
Micro Clip for medical applications -                                Insert with electrodes
detail of ...
Micro Clip (Mould Insert)
                          Mould Insert (SEM image)




                                         ...
Application -
Intracardiac Pump System
Intracardiac pump system
for patient-friendly and
economic treatment of
acute heart...
Recover® Technology: Manufacturing of Impeller
Former process: Five axis milling of
  PEEK




                           ...
Recover® Technology: Manufacturing of Impeller
Former process: Five axis milling of                Now: Injection moulding...
Manufacturing of Mould Inserts
Former process: Micro-EDM        Now: Five axis micro milling




< High process knowledge ...
Conventional Technologies in MST
                               Chip removal                        EDM                 La...
UP-processes –
Structures and processes strategies




                         Face milling   Fly Cutting




           ...
UP-planing-machine for large-scaled structured surfaces
n Ultraprecision machine for
    the machining of large
    workpi...
Manufacturing technology for micro and nano structures
Fly cutting                                Planing
                ...
Fly-Cutting – Applications




        100 mm
 Masterstruktur
 einer Beleuchtungs-                                        ...
Large area structuring with the fly-cutting process
n   Long time machining
n   Structure: triangular corner cubes (1 mm)
...
Hybrid optics




  Sinus curve-surface   Hybrid
                         FTS




                                 10 mm
 ...
Machine for the production of hybrid optics
n MTC
410
 – Travel length of axis        410 mm
                             ...
Freeform reflectors - computable, but not to manufacture?
Reflector surface
                                              ...
Summary –
Limitation of UP Machining
                            Ultra precision machining
                            wit...
Competitiveness
Precision Glass Molding vs. Alternative Manufacturing Technologie
     Grinding and Polishing          Pre...
Precision Glass Molding:
An Integrative Approach

                                           Data Handling

Optic         ...
Precision Glass Molding
The Process
Process cycle                                          Temperatur and force cycle
1. L...
An Integrative Approach:
Data Handling
n Data flow (forward):                Ideal data flow
   – Optic design (IGES file)...
Tool making for Precision Glass Molding
                        Challenges
                        n High Accuracy (shape ...
Precision Glass Molding
Examples




                                                                                   10...
Machine set-up for ultrasonic assisted turning

          control                                          monitor
       ...
Comparison of Tool Wear in Diamond Cutting –
Conventional Cutting versus Ultrasonic Assisted Cutting
n Conventional cuttin...
Ultrasonic Assisted Diamond Tools (40kHz) - The Principle and
Advantages
n diamond tool is loaded           1 vrel > 0    ...
Molds for micro optics manufacturing
Concave and Convex Aspheres
n Manufacturing on Moore      Form deviation [nm]
   Nano...
µ-Moulds – Process combinations for new ideas
Demonstrator Mould by the Fraunhofer IPT




© WZL/Fraunhofer IPT           ...
µ-Moulds – Process combinations for new ideas
Demonstrator with optimized Top Surface – Microscope Image




             ...
Your contact to Fraunhofer IPT
                       Dipl.-Ing. Benedikt Gellissen

                       Fraunhofer Ins...
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Manufacturing of micro-moulds.

Palestrante: Msc. Benedikt Gellissen - Instituto Fraunhofer de Tecnologias da Produção - FhG IPT - Alemanha

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Palestra 3 - Fabricação de moldes por micro-usinagem.

  1. 1. Manufacturing of micro-moulds Benedikt Gellissen Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT International Seminar: Application of new technologies in the metal mechanic sector Joinville, Brazil, September 2011 © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT
  2. 2. Economic Developments in MST The booming of micro Batelle (1990) SEMI (1995) system technology (MST): 9 billion US$ 12 billion US$ 8 10 7 - Main focus on industries 6 8 5 like life science, IT, bio- 4 6 and sensor technology 3 4 2 2 1 - Annual growth of 18% 91 93 95 98 00 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 from 1996 to 2002 SPC (1994) NEXUS (1998) - Estimated growth of the 16 billion US$ 40 billion US$ 14 35 market from 2002 to 2005 12 30 of 28 to 65 billion US$ 10 25 8 20 6 15 4 10 2 5 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 Source: NEXUS, VDI VDE-IT © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 1
  3. 3. Economic and Technical Developments Patent analysis of MST Number of patent registrations for microPRO Study 180 in 2002: 160 - Based on the 140 World Patent Index 120 - The following terms were 100 taken under consideration: 80 MST, Micro -mechanic, 60 -optic, -fluidic, -assembly, UP- and micro machining 40 20 - 29.7% of the patent categories come from the field of plastics processing 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 USA (880) e.g. 23 Fraunhofer Gesellschaft Indications of upcoming 21 Robert Bosch GmbH Japan (445) 16 Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH mass production Germany (378) 15 Siemens AG © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 2
  4. 4. International comparison - microPRO Study Switzerland § Predominantly affiliation of enterprises to mechanical engineering and precision engineering § Industrially practiced miniaturization is closely connected to the watch industry § Technical know-how is currently used to open up new market segments like information and communications technology USA § Strong influence by electronics production and semiconductor technology § High process automation demanded (due to prevailing high quantities in the above named sectors) § Future market segments are seen in medical engineering, bio-technology and in electro-optical products Japan, Taiwan, Singapore § Company activities were focused on optics, electronics production and the production of tools and machine tools § Trend towards integration of miniaturized systems into new (mass) products § Development of extremely downscaled machine tools and complete assembly systems © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 3
  5. 5. Summary of mikroPRO Study § Numerous applications of micro manufacturing technologies in various industrial sectors § Broad basic research - some excellent results in single manufacturing technologies § There are deficits in the transfer of the technologies into real products, partly due to - low industrial maturity of the manufacturing technologies (process stability) - lack of technological knowledge for the design and development of new products (manufacturing specific design, technology limits, design rules) - limited accessible knowledge of industrial product and process requirements © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 4
  6. 6. Typical branches – MST are found in different branches with the tendency for mass production Automotive industry Life sciences Telecommunication - Sensor technology - Medical technology - Optical data transfer and - Optical elements - Biotechnology coupling for interior and exterior - Techniques for analysis - Display technology - Micro mechanical devices - ... - ... - ... Source: Cooke Corp., microparts, Euronano © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 5
  7. 7. Due to developments in the industry - MST is still a chance for mould and die makers Precision Engineering Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Micro Mould Making Example of micro cast Micro channel Bioreactor products (Source: FZK) Example of powder injection molding products; gear Micro pumps Detection (MIM), (Source: IFAM) cell Micro-structuring 10 µm Test piece and human hair structured with dicing blades Measuring instrument for alcohol (Source: Grundig) (Source: DISCO Corp.) (Source: IMT, TU Braunschweig) © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 6
  8. 8. Focus of this presentation – Conventional Technologies in MST Chip removal EDM Lasering Diamond Carbide Wire-EDM Sink-EDM Nd:YAG Workpiece Nickel Steel Metals Metals Metals material Brass Ceramics (Ceramics) (Ceramics) Graphite Aluminium Graphite Ceramics Plastics Lateral 10 - 1000 µm 10 - 1000 µm 20 - 50 µm 20 - 40 µm 5 - 1000 µm structures Aspect ratio 10 - 50 2 - 10 25 - 80 10 - 25 10 - 100 Geometric ++ ++ + + ++ freedom Surface quality Ra 0.01 µm 0.3 µm 0.04 – 0.06 µm 0.2 – 0.4 µm 0.1 – 1.3 µm 200µm 700mm 200µm 200mm 200µm © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 7
  9. 9. Production processes in MST – Compromises and alignment with the costumer product 1 Silicon etching Silicon etching (40%) Laser LIGA 5 Structure [µm] Chip removal Chip removal 10 (22%) EDM Grinding 25 Grinding EDM (9%) (16%) 50 Complexity of geometry LIGA (11%) planar freeforms 200 100 50 25 10 5 Surface roughness Ra [nm] Source: IPA, ILT, IPT © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 8
  10. 10. Photolithography Etching of Silicon – Advantages are clearly visible but the limitations too industrial wave length min. use of illuminate structure 1980 - 1986 436 nm 0.60 µm 1986 - now 365 nm 0.35 µm 1992 - now 248 nm 0.20 µm 1998 - now 193 nm 0.15 µm R+D 157 nm 0.12 µm R+D 013 nm 0.08 µm Silicon dioxide Source: Cranfield University, Zeiss film to be etched © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 9
  11. 11. Typical products – The requirements towards the products functionality is spread widely Facette mirror Intracardial blood pump Micro fuel cell Reflecting structures Lab on a chip Sources: Scholz, Impella, Wikipedia.de, Fraunhofer IPT © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 10
  12. 12. Conventional Technologies in MST Chip removal EDM Lasering Diamond Carbide Wire-EDM Sink-EDM Nd:YAG Workpiece Nickel Steel Metals Metals Metals material Brass Ceramics (Ceramics) (Ceramics) Graphite Aluminium Graphite Ceramics Plastics Lateral 10 - 1000 µm 10 - 1000 µm 20 - 50 µm 20 - 40 µm 5 - 1000 µm structures Aspect ratio 10 - 50 2 - 10 25 - 80 10 - 25 10 - 100 Geometric ++ ++ + + ++ freedom Surface quality Ra 0.01 µm 0.3 µm 0.04 – 0.06 µm 0.2 – 0.4 µm 0.1 – 1.3 µm 200µm 700mm 200µm 200mm 200µm © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 11
  13. 13. Micro Clip (Design) Micro Clip for medical applications - Insert with electrodes detail of clip mechanism Electrode • Electrode ƒ Electrode ‚ Insert Insert Source: Zumtobel Staff Challenges Solution to date Aim - Steel mould insert - Complex fabrication and - Direct fabrication of - Micro free-form surfaces positioning of the three the inserts by 5-axis - Undercut of 54 µm electrodes micro milling © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 12
  14. 14. Micro Clip (Mould Insert) Mould Insert (SEM image) Feature A with undercut Feature A 200 µm Source: Zumtobel Staff © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 13
  15. 15. Application - Intracardiac Pump System Intracardiac pump system for patient-friendly and economic treatment of acute heart diseases < Replacement of heart-lung machines via intrabody < No surgical intervention < On site placement in the heart through the leg artery < Post operation heart support for up to 7 days < Outer diameter of pump 4.0 and 6.4 mm respectively < Pump performance up to Measurements: 4,5 l/min 3.55mm x 7.7mm Source: Impella CardioSystems AGMaterial: PEEK © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 14
  16. 16. Recover® Technology: Manufacturing of Impeller Former process: Five axis milling of PEEK Quelle: IBMT < Single part manufacturing < High effort for manual finishing < Low reproducability © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 15
  17. 17. Recover® Technology: Manufacturing of Impeller Former process: Five axis milling of Now: Injection moulding PEEK Source: Horst Scholz GmbH + Co. KG Quelle: IBMT < Single part manufacturing < Batch production < High effort for manual finishing < Low effort for manual finishing < Low reproducability < Extremely high reproducability © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 16
  18. 18. Manufacturing of Mould Inserts Former process: Micro-EDM Now: Five axis micro milling < High process knowledge < 5 axis manufacturing necessary < Two-step process < One-step process < Effort for manual finishing © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 17
  19. 19. Conventional Technologies in MST Chip removal EDM Lasering Diamond Carbide Wire-EDM Sink-EDM Nd:YAG Workpiece Nickel Steel Metals Metals Metals material Brass Ceramics (Ceramics) (Ceramics) Graphite Aluminium Graphite Ceramics Plastics Lateral 10 - 1000 µm 10 - 1000 µm 20 - 50 µm 20 - 40 µm 5 - 1000 µm structures Aspect ratio 10 - 50 2 - 10 25 - 80 10 - 25 10 - 100 Geometric ++ ++ + + ++ freedom Surface quality Ra 0.01 µm 0.3 µm 0.04 – 0.06 µm 0.2 – 0.4 µm 0.1 – 1.3 µm 200µm 700mm 200µm 200mm 200µm © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 18
  20. 20. UP-processes – Structures and processes strategies Face milling Fly Cutting UP-Planing Turning © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 19
  21. 21. UP-planing-machine for large-scaled structured surfaces n Ultraprecision machine for the machining of large workpieces by means of diamond milling and planing n Max. working area 1000 x 1000 x 200 mm³ n Rotary table (C-axis) n Hydrostatic bearings for all axis (not realised in vertical direction) n Two portal slides for either mass compensation or usage of two tools n Equipped with standard NC controller © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 20
  22. 22. Manufacturing technology for micro and nano structures Fly cutting Planing Tool shaft Tool Diamond tool Manufactured surface Vorschub z x f - Cut direction Spindle rotation a a p Roughness Part n Tools: mono crystalline diamond n Structure size 3 µm, surface roughness 10 nm Ra n Highest form accuracy n Work pieces up to 1 x 1 m2 n High manufacturing times for big parts © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 21
  23. 23. Fly-Cutting – Applications 100 mm Masterstruktur einer Beleuchtungs- 10 mm optik Element eines Retroreflektors 10 mm 100 µm Masterstruktur eines großflächigen Heißprägewerkzeug Reflektors 0,5 mm 0,5 mm 2 mm 50 mm © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 22
  24. 24. Large area structuring with the fly-cutting process n Long time machining n Structure: triangular corner cubes (1 mm) n Size of workpiece: 400 x 400 mm2 n Distance of cut: 6.15 km n Machining time: 5.3 d n Machined at tangential feed n Investigation on tool wear 2 mm Sample part with structure Machined master (CuNi18Zn20 400 x 400 mm2) © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 23
  25. 25. Hybrid optics Sinus curve-surface Hybrid FTS 10 mm Facet mirror © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 24
  26. 26. Machine for the production of hybrid optics n MTC 410 – Travel length of axis 410 mm Fast Tool – Max. work piece diameter 800 mm – Total weight 3.800 kg Case – Dimensions 1900x1500x1500 Granite base plate Height adjustment B-axis n Dynamic axis – Total weight 90 kg – Moving mass 10 kg – Max. acceleration 62 m/sec² © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 25
  27. 27. Freeform reflectors - computable, but not to manufacture? Reflector surface Light source n Freeform surface Freeform- n Scaleable geometry mirror Projection n Diameter = 20 mm n Non-rotationally symmetric portion: 0,45 mm n Data type: NURBS (Non Uniform Rational B- Splines) Simulated tool path NURBS-Mirror surface Brightness distribution Manufacturing requirements y [mm] n Harmonic tool path n Very high frequency position control NC code correction x [mm] Source: OEC AG © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 26
  28. 28. Summary – Limitation of UP Machining Ultra precision machining with mono crystalline diamond tools Recent developments < ultra precision machining of nonferrous materials by turning, milling and fly cutting < extremely high surface quality of a few nanometers Ra < shape accuracy in the submicron range Restrictions < machining of ferrous materials causes high wear < life time of nonferrous metals cavities is not sufficient in many cases < galvanic process chain is time consuming, expansive and with limited reproducibility Galvanic layer separation There is a huge demand for flexible production technologies to machine wear resisted mould inlays © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 27
  29. 29. Competitiveness Precision Glass Molding vs. Alternative Manufacturing Technologie Grinding and Polishing Precision Glass Molding Conventional Molding – Oldest technology for – Technology for mass – Technology for mass glass optics production production manufacturing – Obtainable accuracy – Non-isothermal – Large variety geometries satisfying for imaging optics – Accuracies satisfying for possible lighting optics – Isothermal process – Nearly all optical glasses – Limitation in glass – Nearly all optical glass machinable moldable material choice – Highest accuracies – Ceramic molds – Geometric variability obtainable – Accuracies in the range limited by mold l to l/5 manufacturing © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 28
  30. 30. Precision Glass Molding: An Integrative Approach Data Handling Optic FEM Mold Molded Mold Design Molding Design Simulation Manufact. Lens Idea n Optimization of the process sequence for precision glass molding towards higher efficiency and more complex optical elements n Generation of an integrated approach for the data handling Concept n Consideration of each single process step including the different interfaces © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 29
  31. 31. Precision Glass Molding The Process Process cycle Temperatur and force cycle 1. Loading and N2-purging Homogizing N2 Gas Tg 2. Heating of glass IR -lamps Heating Cooling Temperatur and mold Force Pressing Mold 3. Pressing Time F Force Temperatur 4. Cooling and unloading N2 Gas Isothermal molding process leads to high accuracies! Source: Fraunhofer IPT © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 30
  32. 32. An Integrative Approach: Data Handling n Data flow (forward): Ideal data flow – Optic design (IGES file) Metrology – FE process simulation Data and NC code generation, both based on IGES file – Mold manufacturing – Molding n Data flow (feedback) Data Metrology – Metrology data from mold manufacturing to create adapted NC code – Metrology data from molding to improve FE process simulation Source: Zemax, Toshiba, ModuleWorks © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 31
  33. 33. Tool making for Precision Glass Molding Challenges n High Accuracy (shape deviation < 1µm) n Optical surface quality (Ra < 10 nm) n Mold material: carbide (HV10: 2825 GPa, Density: 15,75 g/cm³) Process n Ultra precision grinding (resolution < 1nm, air guided spindle) n Resin bonded grinding tools for ductile machining n 4-axis process for freeform applications Source: Faunhofer IPT © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 32
  34. 34. Precision Glass Molding Examples 10 mm 5 mm n Double sided condensor lens for homogenization of coherent (excimer lasers) or incoherent light sources (ultra high power lamps) n Appr. 1800 single cavities with optical quality (1.2 mm in diameter) © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 33
  35. 35. Machine set-up for ultrasonic assisted turning control monitor unit oszilloscope HF-generator spindle amplifier personal computer adjustable ultrasonic tool system clamping device dynamometer workpiece capacitive sensor © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 34
  36. 36. Comparison of Tool Wear in Diamond Cutting – Conventional Cutting versus Ultrasonic Assisted Cutting n Conventional cutting n US-assisted cutting – cutting length < 50 m – cutting length > 5000 m 35µm 35µm SVy~4 µm SVy~4 µm rake face rake face nose radius rε = 0,899mm nose radius rε = 0,899mm material: X3 CrNiMoAl 13-8-2 depth of cut: ap = 8 µm feed: f = 5 µm © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 35
  37. 37. Ultrasonic Assisted Diamond Tools (40kHz) - The Principle and Advantages n diamond tool is loaded 1 vrel > 0 2 vrel = 0 3 vrel < 0 4 vrel > 0 5 vrel > 0 6 vrel = 0 top dead with ultrasonic vibration in centre cutting direction bottom – Amplitude 1 µm dead centre vc-rot vc-os – Frequency 80 kHz 6 amplitude [µm] n reduction of effective point of separation (Ta) (Ta) workpiece 4 contact duration and point of entrance (Te) movement 2 process forces 0 tool n better inflow of coolant -2 movement contact point (Te) n reduction of friction -4 Ta T Te Ta between tool and chip -6 0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,5 reduced tool wear contact period without contact contact ductile cutting contact time [µs] © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 36
  38. 38. Molds for micro optics manufacturing Concave and Convex Aspheres n Manufacturing on Moore Form deviation [nm] Nanotech 350 FG 600 PV 144 nm n On machine measurement 400 200 and compensation applied 0 -200 n Shape accuracies on -400 aspheres < 210 nm -600 -800 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 n Tools with non controlled Radial Position [mm] waviness Form deviation [nm] 200 PV 204 nm 100 0 -100 -200 -300 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Radial Position [mm] © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 37
  39. 39. µ-Moulds – Process combinations for new ideas Demonstrator Mould by the Fraunhofer IPT © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 38
  40. 40. µ-Moulds – Process combinations for new ideas Demonstrator with optimized Top Surface – Microscope Image burr formation © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 39
  41. 41. Your contact to Fraunhofer IPT Dipl.-Ing. Benedikt Gellissen Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT Steinbachstraße 17, 52074 Aachen Phone: +49 241 89 04-256 Fax: +49 241 89 04-6256 Mail: benedikt.gellissen@ipt.fraunhofer.de © WZL/Fraunhofer IPT Page 40
  • NEOKAN168

    Jun. 2, 2017
  • FredericoCarvalho4

    Jul. 26, 2013

Manufacturing of micro-moulds. Palestrante: Msc. Benedikt Gellissen - Instituto Fraunhofer de Tecnologias da Produção - FhG IPT - Alemanha

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