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Anatomy of respiratory system

  1. 1. ANATOMY OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM SELINA SRAVANTHI SAROJINI NAIDU VANITA PHARMACY MAHA VIDYALAYA, TARNAKA, HYDERABAD, TELANAGANA
  2. 2. Respiration provides homeostasis Cells require energy.  Most of the energy from chemical reactions in presence of O2  Waste product of these reactions is CO2 .  Respiratory system provides route for the supply of O2 and excretion of CO2.  As the air moves through the passages, to reach lungs, the air is warmed or cooled to body temperature, saturated with vapour, cleaned as the dust particles stick to the mucus lining the membrane.  Blood provides the transport system for O2 and CO2 between lungs and cells of the body. Types of Respiration External respiration – b/w blood and lungs  Internal respiration - b/w blood and cells  Branch of Science – Ears, Nose, Throat (ENT)- OTORHINOLARYGOLOGY Pulmonologist
  3. 3. ANATOMY OF RESPIRATION  Organs of the Respiratory system Nose Pharynx (Throat) Larynx (Voice Box) Trachea Two bronchi Bronchioles and smaller air passages Two Lungs and their pleura  Muscles of breathing – intercostal muscles and diaphragm
  4. 4. Human Respiratory System Figure 10.1
  5. 5. Respiratory System Conductin g Zone Nose, Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Layrnx, Trachea, Bronchi Resiratory Zone Respiratory Bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, Alveoli
  6. 6. Divisions of the Respiratory System  Upper respiratory tract (outside thorax)  Nose  Nasal Cavity  Sinuses  Pharynx  Larynx
  7. 7.  Lower respiratory tract (within thorax)  Trachea  Bronchial Tree  Lungs Divisions of the Respiratory System
  8. 8. NOSE • Divided into external and internal portion. • External nose- supporting framework of bone (frontal bone, nasal bones and maxillae) and hyaline cartilage (septal nasal cartilage, lateral nasal cartilage and alar cartilages), covered by muscle and skin. • Two openings called the external nares or nostrils.
  9. 9. NOSE • Posterior part of the septum – ETHMOID BONE AND VOMER •Roof is formed by cibriform plate of ETHMOID BONE and SPHENOID BONE, FRONTAL BONE and NASAL BONES. • Floor of the nose is formed by the roof of the Mouth. •Consists of hard palate (maxilla and palantine bones) and soft palate (involuntary muscle).
  10. 10. NOSE• Nasal Cavity large space in the anterior nose. • Lined by muscle and mucous membrane (Ciliated epithelium with mucous secreting goblet cells). • Anteriorly merges with external nose, Posteriorly connects to pharynx through two openings – Internal nares/ Choanae. •Paranasal sinuses – cavities in the bones of the face, lined with mucous membrane and continuous with nasal cavity. (responsible for speech) •Naso lacrimal ducts
  11. 11. •Para nasal sinuses – 3 types •Maxillary sinuses (lateral walls) •Frontal and sphenoidal sinus (roof) •Ethemoidal sinus (upper part of the lateral walls) •Nasal Cavity is divided into •Larger inferior respiratory region- Lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells/ Respiratory epithelium. •Smaller superior olfactory region - Olfactory Epithelium – Specialised receptors located in the roof of the nose. Stimulated by airborne odours. NOSE
  12. 12. FUNCTIONS OF THE NOSE •FILTERING AND CLEANING: •WARMING •HUMIDIFICATION •SMELL Air enters nostrils Three nasal chonchae divide nasal cavity into superior, middle and inferior meatuses – lined by mucous membrane-increase surface area and prevents dehydration by trapping water droplets during exhalation Inhaled air whirls around chonchae and meatuses- warmed by blood in capillaries. Mucous secreted by goblet cells traps dust particles, drainage from nasolacrimal ducts help moisten air assisted by secretions from paranasal Cilia move mucus and dust particle towards pharynx- swallowed or spit out pass through vestibule lined by skin with coarse hairs- FILTERING FUNCTIONS OF THE NOSE •SPEECH •WARMING •HUMIDIFICATION •SMELL
  13. 13. •Funnel shaped, 13 cm long. •Starts at nares end at cricoid cartilage of larynx. •Walls composed of skeletal muscle, lined with mucous membrane. PHARYNX Superior- base of skull Anterior wall incomplete- openings of nose, mouth and larynx Posterior- aerolar tissue, involuntary muscle, 6 cervical vertebrae
  14. 14. NASOPHARYNX OROPHARYNX LARYNGOPHARYNX • Behind nose, above soft palate. •5 Openings- 2 internal nares, 2 openings lead to eustachian tubes, 1- oropharynx •Posterior wall contains adenoid/ pharyngeal tonsil (Lymphoid tissue) • Connected to the auditory tubes. •Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium • Behind mouth, below soft palate- upper part of 3rd cervical vertebra. •Fauces – opening into mouth •Lateral walls blend with soft tissue to form folds- between the fold- palantine tonsil and Lingual. •Respiratory and digestive pathway •Nonkeratinised stratified squamous epithelium •Connects to larynx anteriorly. •Continues as oesophagus. •Respiratory and digestive pathway •Nonkeratinised stratified squamous epithelium
  15. 15. Wall of the pharynx ix composed of inner mucous membrane and outer skeletal muscle (outer circular and inner longitudinal) FUNCTIONS •Passage for airway and food •Skeletal muscle contraction- deglutition (swallowing) •Warming and Humidifying. •Hearing- allows air into middle ear- maintain pressure, protecting tympanic membranes •Protection –Pharyngeal and Laryngeal tonsils produce antibodies (immunological reactions) •Speech – resonanting chamber
  16. 16. LARYNX • Voice box. •Connects laryngopharynx with trachea •Middle of neck anterior to oesophagus, from 4th through 6th cervical vertebrae. •Wall of Larynx – nine pieces of cartilage •Thyroid cartilage •Epiglottis •Cricoid •Arytenoid •Cuneiform •Corniculate Occur singly Occur in pairs
  17. 17. • Thyroid cartilage (Adam’s Apple) – consists of two fused hyaline cartilage, triangular shape. •Epiglottis : •Large leaf shape elastic cartilage, stem is tapered, attached to thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone. •Broad leaf portion is unattached and free to move up and down like a trap door. •During swallowing the pharynx and larynx rise. •Elevation of pharynx- widens to receive food or drink. •Elevation of Larynx – causes epiglottis to move down and form a lid over the glottis. •Glottis is a pair of folds of the mucous membrane, vocal cords, and space between them called rima glottidis. •Closing of larynx during swallowing of foods and liquids prevents them from entering the larynx and airways. •If food passes into larynx, cough reflex occurs expelling the material.
  18. 18. • Cricoid cartilage - ring of hyaline carilage. Attached to trachea and thyroid cartilage •Arytenoid Cartilage (influence changes in position and tension of true vocal cords for speech)–triangular pieces of cartilage. Have wide range of mobility. •Corniculate Cartilage – horn shaped pieces of elastic cartilage at the apex of the each arytenoid cartilage. •Cuneiform cartilage – club shaped elastic cartilage. Support the vocal folds and the lateral aspects of epiglottis. •Linings of larynx superior to vocal cords – nonkeratinised stratified squamous epithelium. •Linings of larynx inferior to vocal cords – pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium. •Goblet cells secrete mucous that trap dust not removed by upper passages. •Cilia move mucous upwards towards the pharynx
  19. 19. FUNCTIONS OF LARYNX •Production of sound •Speech •Protection of lower respiratory tract •Passage for airway •Humidifying, filtering and warming
  20. 20. VOICE PRODUCTION •Mucous membrane of larynx- 2 pairs of folds- •Superior Pair – Ventricular folds- false vocal cords •Inferior pair – vocal folds – true vocal folds •Space between them – rima vestibuli • when the ventricular folds are brought together – they hold breath against pressure in thoracic cavity. •Deep to the vocal folds- elastic ligaments are stretched between rigid cartilage like strings on a guitar. •Intrinsic laryngeal muscles attach to cartilage and vocal folds •When muscles contract – ligaments and vocal cords are stretched, so that rima glottidis is narrowed. •If air is directed towards vocal folds- vibrate and produce sound. •Pitch is controlled by tension on vocal cords. •In males- vocal folds are thicker – lower pitch than females. •Pharynx, mouth and nasal cavity- act as resonating chambers. •Whispering – all closed except posterior rima glottidis
  21. 21. TRACHEA • Wind pipe •Anterior to oesophagus, extends from larynx upto 5th thoracic vertebrae. •Divides into right and left primary bronchi. •It consists of 16-20 incomplete horizontal C shaped rings connected by dense connective tissue. •Open part of the C is posterior to oesophagus. •The solid C shaped cartilage provides semirigid support so that the tracheal wall does not collapse.
  22. 22. •Layers from innermost to outermost are •Mucosa – protects against dust •Epithelial layer- pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium •Underlying layer – lamina propia- elastic and reticular fibres. •Submucosa- Aerolar connective tissue – seromucous glands and their ducts. •Hyaline cartilage •Adventia –Aerolar connective tissue TRACHEA
  23. 23. FUNCTIONS OF TRACHEA • Support and Patency •Hold trachea permanently open. •Soft tissue between cartilage provide flexibility for head and neck •Absence of cartilage posterior to oesophagus allows it to expand. •Mucociliary escalator •Cilia move mucous upwards towards the larynx where it is either swallowed or coughed up. •Cough reflux •Nerve endings are sensitive to irritation-nerve impulse by vagus nerves to respiratory center. Reflex motor respose- closure of glottis-abdominal and respiratory muscles contract – sudden pressure in lungs – glottis opens expelling air along with mucous.
  24. 24. BRONCHI •Trachea divides into right and left bronchi which goes into respective lungs. •Point where trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi – CARINA •Mucous membrane of the carina is sensitive for triggering cough reflex. TRACHEA 10 BRONCHI 20 BRONCHI 30 BRONCHI TERMINAL BRONCHI BRONCHIAL TREE Clara cells in bronchioles protect from harmful effects of inhaled toxins and
  25. 25. • The incomplete C shaped rings gradually disappear in primary bronchi and are replaced by plates of cartilage. •Cartilage is disappeared in distal bronchioles. •As the amount of cartilage decreases, smooth muscle increases. • Smooth muscle encircles lumen and maintain patency. •Muscle spasms close off airways – asthma attack FUNCTIONS OF BRONCHI • Control of air entry •Warming and humidifying •Support and Patency •Removal of particulate matter •Cough reflex
  26. 26. LUNGS •Paired , cone shaped organs. •Located in the thoracic cavity •Separated by heart and other structures in the mediastinum. •Each lung is enclosed and protected by a double layer serous membrane- Pleural membrane. •Superficial membrane- parietal pleura •Deep layer - Visceral Pleura •Between the visceral and parietal pleura- pleural cavity filled with fluid •Extend from diaphragm to slightly superior to clavicles and lie against ribs anteriorly and posteriorly. •Lung is divided into • Broad inferior portion- Base •It is concave and fits over the convex area of the diaphragm. • Narrow Superior portion- Apex •Surface lying against the ribs – Costal surface •Medial / Mediastinal surface – contains Hilum – triangular shape-
  27. 27. •Lungs are divided into lobes- by fissures •Right lung – three lobes – divided by Oblique fissure and Horizontal fissure –into Superior, Middle, Inferior Lobes •Left Lung – two lobes – divided by Oblique fissure – into Superior and Inferior Lobes •Each lobe receives its own secondary (lobar) bronchus. •Right – 3 Bronchioles •Left – 2 bronchioles • Each lung contains 10 tertiary bronchi. •Lungs has many small compartments- Lobules – contain Lymphatic vessel, arteriole, venule and branch from terminal bronchiole. •Terminal Bronchioles- divide into microscopic branches – respiratory bronchioles. •Respiratory bronchioles- divide into Alveolar Ducts
  28. 28. ALVEOLI•Around alveolar ducts – Alveoli and alveolar sacs •Alveolus is cup shaped- lined by simple squamous epithelium supported by basement membrane. •Alveolar sac- consist of 2 or more alveoli •Walls of alveoli- 2 types of epithelium •Type I alveolar cells- simple squamous epithelium- continuous lining •Type II alveolar cells/ septal cells - rounded or cuboidal epithelium with free surfaces containing microvilli – secrete alveolar fluid •Alveolar fluid- contains surfactants (phospholipids+ phospho proteins)- prevent collapse of alveoli. •Alveolar walls have alveolar macrophages (dust cells)- phagocytes- remove fine dust and debris from alveolar spaces. •Exchange of O2 and CO2 between air spaces and blood – Diffusion. •Respiratory membrane- 4 layers •Alveolar wall – Type I and II alveolar cells •Epethelial basement Membrane •Capillary Basement Membrane
  29. 29. FUNCTIONS OF ALVEOLI •External Respiration- between alveoli and blood vessels. •Defence against infection – lymphocytes and plasma cells (produce antibodies and phagocytes), alveolar macrohages. •Warming and Humidifying •Breathing- Movement of air in and out of lungs •Exchange of gases – internal and external respiration

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