Respiration

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Respiration

  1. 1. Two types of Respiration1 Internal / Cellular Aerobic respiration Anaerobic Ventilation /2 External breathing respiration Gaseous exchange
  2. 2. Cellular respiration is:the series of chemical changes which release energy from food material
  3. 3. Aerobic respirationBalanced equation:C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + energyWord equation:glucose + oxygen carbon + water + energy dioxide
  4. 4. There is energy locked up in each bond Energy is released when bonds breakA glucose molecule Wastes C6H12O6 CO2 & H2O
  5. 5. TWO forms of energy are released from food:1. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)2. heat
  6. 6. ATP:can be moved about inside a cellis a store of energy inside cells ADENOSINE
  7. 7. What do you conclude from this experiment:A drop of glucose A drop of ATPsolution is put on solution is put on a muscle: a muscle:nothing happens it contracts Glucose by itself cannot provide the energy but ATP can.
  8. 8. Respiration builds ATPADP + P + energy from → ATP glucose Adenosine Phosphate Adenosinediphosphate triphosphate energy from glucose
  9. 9. The body can use the energy released whenATP is broken down: energy ableATP → ADP + P + to do work
  10. 10. Where doaerobic & anaerobic respiration occur?
  11. 11. Aerobic respiration occurs inside mitochondria Anaerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm
  12. 12. muscle contraction Respiration suppliesthe energy for transmission of impulses building proteins in cells cell division
  13. 13. Which chemical is used to test for CO2 as in exhaled air ?
  14. 14. Lime water turns milky
  15. 15. AIM: To find out if a person breathes out CO2 BLOW
  16. 16. AIM: To show that respiration produces heat.
  17. 17. RESULT: Living seeds: Temperature rises CONCLUSION: The temperature rose because germinating pea seeds release heat energy during respiration.
  18. 18. Important:soda lime / lime water /sodium hydroxide: calcium hydroxide:Absorbs CO2 Tests for CO2
  19. 19. AIM: To show that animals release CO2.Bottle A: Bottle B:Lime water Lime water
  20. 20. Result:Bottle A: Bottle B:Lime water [colourless] Lime water [milky] Describe a suitable control for this experiment.
  21. 21. Which one is correct as a control? Dead mouse Empty jar
  22. 22. Why is a dead mouse wrong as a control? Bacteria decompose the dead body and release carbon dioxide.
  23. 23. AIM: To show that germinating seeds release CO2.What do you conclude if lime water in Flask B becomes milky?
  24. 24. CO2 is present before air enters jar with seeds.What must be done to conduct theexperiment correctly ? Add soda lime.
  25. 25. AIM: To show that a green plant releases carbon dioxide.
  26. 26. What is the control? No plant
  27. 27. RESULT: Lime water A: Lime water B: remains clear. turns milky.
  28. 28. CONCLUSION:Since lime water A remained clear, this indicates that all of the carbon dioxide in the original incoming air had been removed by the sodium hydroxide.Since lime water B turned milky, shows that carbon dioxide was produced by the green plant during respiration.
  29. 29. Anaerobic respiration occurswithout the need of oxygenin animals, plants and yeast Yeast cell
  30. 30. Anaerobic respirationglucose → lactic acid + energyC6H12O6 2C3H6O3 + 150kJ carbonglucose → ethanol + carbon + energy dioxideC6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 210 kJ
  31. 31. Why is aerobic respiration moreefficient than anaerobic respiration?C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + 2830 kJC6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 210 kJC6H12O6 2C3H6O3 + 150kJ
  32. 32. releasesthan
  33. 33. Look at equations & fill in: Glucose iscompletely broken down during………….. aerobicC6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + 2830 kJC6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 210 kJC6H12O6 2C3H6O3 + 150kJ
  34. 34. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN ANIMALS
  35. 35. When does anaerobic respiration occur in animals?During heavy exercise
  36. 36. Why does it occur? Muscles resort to anaerobic respiration when oxygen is not delivered to them fast enough.I need 10 units of oxygen BUT am getting 5 units!!
  37. 37. Lactic acidis a mild poison and causes the muscles to achecauses:  fatigue  & sometimes cramps
  38. 38. Lactic acid is removed frommuscle by the bloodstream and is glucose lactic acid Blood CO2 lactic H2O acid broken down Liver in the liver
  39. 39. What is needed for lactic acid to be broken down in the liver?
  40. 40. Oxygen debt:is the oxygen needed to get rid of the lactic acid lactic acid + O 2 CO2 + H2O
  41. 41. Explain why: After activity that has lead to anaerobic respiration, the person involved pants and breathes heavily.To pay the oxygen debt.
  42. 42. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN YEAST
  43. 43. Anaerobic respiration is also called alcoholic fermentationglucose → ethanol + carbon dioxide + energyC6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 210 kJ
  44. 44. Why has the balloon inflated?Yeast & sugar in warm water After 15 After 30were poured into minutes. a bottle. minutes.
  45. 45. AIM: To show anaerobic respiration in yeast.
  46. 46. Test for CO2: limewater turns milky
  47. 47. How would you modify the apparatus tokeep a constant temperature?Place flask in a water bath.
  48. 48. RESULT: Living yeast: The lime water turned milky. Boiled yeast: No colour change in the lime water.CONCLUSION: The living yeast respired anaerobically and released carbon dioxide. This can be concluded since the carbon dioxide turns lime water (calcium hydroxide) cloudy.
  49. 49. If apparatus is left for many days, no bubbles are given off. Give two reasons.1. No glucose left.2. Yeast died.
  50. 50. Question: SEP, 2012A biology student compared the rates offermentation of glucose and sucrosesolutions using yeast. The student set upthe apparatus above using water instead oflimewater. The time to produce 10 gasbubbles was recorded. The experimentalapparatus was first set up with glucose andthen repeated with sucrose.i) What other apparatus would the students need to obtain their results? (1) A control.
  51. 51. Question: SEP, 2012i) Identify the solution that would give a faster rate of reaction and give ONE reason for your answer. (4) Glucose. Monosaccharide which is used right away. Sucrose is a disaccharide and must be first broken down into monsaccharides before used for respiration.
  52. 52. Question: SEP, 2010Give a biological explanation for each ofthe following statements:Lactic acid builds up in muscle cells afterheavy exercise. (4)
  53. 53. Question: SEP, 2011Give a biological explanation for each ofthe following statements:The rate and depth of breathing changeduring and after exercise. (5)
  54. 54. DIFFERENCES BETWEENAEROBIC & ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
  55. 55. Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration1) More energy is released Less energy is released2) Needs oxygen Oxygen is not needed3) Occurs inside Occurs in the cytoplasm mitochondria4) Glucose is completely Glucose is partially broken broken down down5) CO2 and H2O are the Wastes in yeast: waste materials CO2 & ethanol Waste in animals: lactic acid
  56. 56. List four ways in which respiration differs from photosynthesis.
  57. 57. Respiration Photosynthesis1. Occurs all the time. 1. Occurs only in light.2. Occurs in all 2. Occurs in green organisms. plants.3. Releases carbon 3. Releases oxygen dioxide.4. Uses food. 4. Builds food.
  58. 58. THE END It’s great to be energetic – I can study all day long!!!

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