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Asexual reproduction

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Asexual reproduction

  1. 1. Four main methods of asexual reproduction are: 1. BINARY FISSION e.g. Amoeba
  2. 2. Four main methods of asexual reproduction are: 2. SPORE FORMATION e.g. fungi Spores : Mucor (a pin-mould fungus)
  3. 3. Four main methods of asexual reproduction are: 3. BUDDING e.g. yeast
  4. 4. Four main methods of asexual reproduction are: 4. VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION  is asexual reproduction in flowering plants
  5. 5. Vegetative propagation can be:  Natural  bulbs, runners and tubers (have buds which grow into a new plant)  Artificial  tissue culture  cuttings
  6. 6. Natural Vegetative propagation: Bulbs Narcissus bulbs Onion: a bulb
  7. 7. Natural Vegetative propagation: Runners Runners in strawberries
  8. 8. Natural Vegetative propagation: Tubers ‘eye’ is a bud and is sprouting
  9. 9. Artificial Vegetative propagation is by means of:  cuttings
  10. 10. Artificial Vegetative propagation is by means of:  tissue culture  means growing tissues on their own
  11. 11. Tissue culture is also called:  micro-propagation  is the growing of small plants from pieces of tissue using sterile laboratory techniques  produces clones
  12. 12. Explain why the nutrient medium must be sterile. Microbes do not infect the cells. Name two nutrients that must be present in the medium, besides water. Sugar
  13. 13. Small masses of cells form new plantlets. Name the type of cell division that is involved in tissue culture. Mitosi
  14. 14. When choosing the parent plant to propagate the new individuals from it: 1. Check that it has the particular features you want e.g.  the right sort of flowers or fruit,  resistance to disease / fire / drought  grows fast
  15. 15. When choosing the parent plant to propagate the new individuals from it: 2. It should be:  genetically strong and healthy  must not contain harmful genes 3. It should be free from disease and not contain any harmful microbes or viruses
  16. 16. Advantages of vegetative propagation: 1. It is a very sure way of producing new plants 2. It does not depend on pollination and seed dispersal 3. There is no need for a dormant period 4. There are large food reserves for the new plants to feed on when they start developing 5. Plants produced are genetically identical, i.e. CLONES and so all show the desired feature
  17. 17. Question: [MAY, 2006 IIA] Plant tissue culture (or micro propagation) involves cloning plants. Plant tissue culture is a form of vegetative propagation and has many advantages over the more traditional methods such as cuttings. List TWO advantages of plant tissue culturing. (2)
  18. 18. Disadvantages of vegetative propagation: 1. The quality of the plants cannot be improved 2. The offspring show no variation, meaning that after many generations, diseases will show up 3. The plants may be overcrowded as they have not been dispersed as seeds do
  19. 19. Question: [SEP, 2005] Plant tissue culture or micropropagation involves cloning plants. a) What do cloned plants have in common? (2) The same DNA and so the same characteristics.
  20. 20. Question: [SEP, 2005] b) Clones are taken from stock plants that have desirable good qualities. Name TWO such good desirable characteristics? (4) - Resistance to disease - Resistance to fire - Plants grow fast - Large fruit/Flowers
  21. 21. Question: MAY, 2009 Describe each of the following processes and explain the benefits of each. Vegetative propagation in plants (4)  this is a form of asexual reproduction in plants that takes place naturally by the formation of runners and stem tubers or artificially by cuttings/tissue culture. 2 marks  By this method a large number of plants is produced in a relatively short time, and there is no need of external agents for pollination or dispersal or complex germination process; good plant qualities are retained; only one parent is required. 2 marks
  22. 22. ‘Dolly’ became the most famous sheep in history. Since 1996 cloning of: horses, cows, rabbits mice, cats, a mule, a dog and, even a camel. 1996 – 2003
  23. 23. Dolly died in 2003: respiratory disease but is on show in an Edinburgh museum.
  24. 24. Cloned camel In April 2009 Injaz, or ‘Achievement’ in English, became the world’s first ever cloned camel. Injaz, a female one-humped camel, was born in Dubai on April 8, 2009 at the city’s Camel Reproduction Centre . Injaz’s real mother was slaughtered for camel meat in 2005, but scientists saved the DNA and injected it into an empty egg cell of Injaz’s surrogate camel mother. With camel racing big business in Dubai the implications of camel cloning are significant.
  25. 25. 5 cloned pigs Pigs are extremely important as providers of organs for human transplants. On March 5, 2000 five cloned piglets were born– Millie, Christa, Alexis, Carrell and Dotcom. Since then science and technology have moved on and pigs are being specifically engineered so that their tissues are not rejected by the human body.

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