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Simple Process Mapping Techniques

This presentation gives simple but effective techniques for mapping a business process. Process Mapping is a strong initial step in continuous improvement of any business process.

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Simple Process Mapping Techniques

  1. 1. Simple Process Mapping Techniques
  2. 2. Why Process Mapping? <ul><li>Process mapping: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visually represents the work process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies problem areas and opportunities for process improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a common understanding of the entire process and specific roles and contributions of process participants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before you can improve a process, you must understand it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process maps are good for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Streamlining work activities and telling new people, as well as internal and external customers, &quot;what we do around here.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping in the effort to reduce cycle time, avoid rework, eliminate some inspections or quality control steps, and prevent errors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process maps are a great problem solving tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps us determine what is the problem/what it is not </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Process? A process converts inputs into outputs
  4. 4. How to Create a Simple Process Flow Diagram <ul><li>Determine the start and stop points to your flow of process steps . The stop point is typically near the customer. </li></ul><ul><li>Walk through the flow, writing down the process steps as they exist now (Rule of thumb: Pretend your are the part). Make sure you use a verb to describe the process step. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can be very general or very specific. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General: “Machine Part” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific: “Turn part, grind outside diameter, and deburr part” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>At a minimum, record the process steps, decision points, and transportation methods </li></ul><ul><li>Once you have roughly mapped out the process, make it more formal by adding symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>Once finished, sign and date the flow diagram with a revision level. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Can Be Included in a Simple Process Flow Diagram <ul><li>Transportation methods </li></ul><ul><li>Start and Stop points </li></ul><ul><li>Decision points </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory/Storage points </li></ul><ul><li>How many operators at each process step </li></ul><ul><li>Process parameters for each step: Cycle time, throughput time, scrap rate, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities for each step </li></ul>
  6. 6. Process Flow Diagram Symbols Activity (Process Step) Decision Point Start/Stop External Transportation Inventory/Storage Push Material Data Box c/t c/o u/t FTQ Data box for recording cycle time, first time quality and other process operating characteristics
  7. 7. Exercise for Process Map <ul><li>Take a critical operation in your work place and map it with a simple process flow diagram. </li></ul>
  8. 8. A Deployment Flow Chart (Swim Lane) <ul><li>Here a &quot;department&quot; or &quot;agency&quot; dimension is added horizontally along the top of the chart. You may use individuals, groups, departments, functions, etc. - whatever kinds of 'units' play major roles in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw vertical lines to separate the functional boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>When the flow moves from one function to another, a horizontal line denotes this. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw the sequence of activities from top to bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the task and decision-making symbols as before and always connect symbols with arrows indicating the direction of flow. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Exercise for Deployment Chart <ul><li>Convert your simple flow diagram into a deployment chart </li></ul>
  10. 10. SIPOC <ul><li>Suppliers: The entities that provide whatever is worked on in the process (information, forms, material). The supplier may be an outside vendor or another division or a coworker (as an internal supplier). </li></ul><ul><li>Input: The information or material provided by the supplier and used by the process.. </li></ul><ul><li>Process: The steps used to convert inputs into outputs. (some steps are value added and some are not value added) </li></ul><ul><li>Output: The product, service or information being sent to the customer. This is what the customer pays for. He/she wants output: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With good quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivered on time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At a competitive price </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customers: The next step in the process, or the final (external) customers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How To Create a SIPOC Diagram <ul><li>Create an area that will allow the team to post additions to the SIPOC diagram. This could be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A transparency (shown with an overhead projector) made of the SIPOC template </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flip charts with headings (S-I-P-O-C) written on each </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headings written on post-it notes posted to a wall. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Begin with the process. Map it in four to five general steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the outputs of this process. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the customers that will receive the outputs of this process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can add a sixth column and list the customer’s requirements (CR) such as a blueprint number, specification number, quality goals, and delivery goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify the inputs required for the process to function properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the suppliers of the inputs that are required by the process. </li></ul>CR C O P I S
  12. 12. SIPOC Examples
  13. 13. SIPOC Diagram Exercise <ul><li>Take your simple process flow diagram and use it to build a SIPOC diagram. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other Mapping Techniques <ul><li>Value Stream Mapping: Every lean event or initiative should start with a value stream map (VSM). In addition to showing the sequence of process steps, the map helps identify areas of process waste. </li></ul>