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Futures Wheel: Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design by Mazi Javidiani & Majid Behboudi

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Presented at Impact: 2018 Canadian Service Design Conference, November 29 & 30, 2018 (Montreal, Quebec)

Further workshop-related materials available at http://javidiani.com/futures-wheel

It may come as a surprise to some that services designed to improve our quality of life often end up creating unintended suffering for users. While service design is intentional by nature, there are can be unintended consequences that have negative impacts on users.

Using systems thinking, we can apply an ethical rigor that moves beyond measuring the immediate impact of a system. Systemic design tools such as implication wheels, or Nancy Bocken’s value mapping wheel, can help us not only consider the second or third order impact of an innovation, but also allow us to see how value created for one group can destroy value for another.

The workshop intends to provide exercises that practitioners can easily integrate into their various workplace processes to enable teams to imagine and be aware of the impact of their unintended design intentions.

Published in: Design
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Futures Wheel: Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design by Mazi Javidiani & Majid Behboudi

  1. 1. Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design Mazi Javidiani Majid Behboudi November2018
  2. 2. Service Design Design & Ethics “Ethics is concerned with the question of ‘how to live.’ Designers engage in “ethics by other means”; that is, their products codetermine the outcome of moral considerations, which in turn determine human action and their definition of ‘the good life.’” Peter-PaulVerbeek What Things Do Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 2 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  3. 3. Service Design Design & Ethics Ethics is Plural Unfixed Negotiated Agreed Upon Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 3 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  4. 4. Service Design Design & Ethics Ethics is Plural Unfixed Negotiated Agreed Upon Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 4 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  5. 5. Service Design Design & Ethics Ethics is Plural Unfixed Negotiated Agreed Upon Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 5 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  6. 6. Service Design Design & Ethics Ethics is Plural Unfixed Negotiated Agreed Upon Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 6 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  7. 7. Service Design Why do designers design? Humans make their attributes because they don’t have any. PrometheusBoundoilpaintingbytheFlemishartistPeter PaulRubens Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 7 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  8. 8. Service Design Why do designers design? Empathy Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 8 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  9. 9. Service Design Why do designers design? Empathy Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 9 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  10. 10. Service Design Example Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 10 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  11. 11. Service Design Example Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 11 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  12. 12. Service Design Designing for Emergence Empathy Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 12 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  13. 13. Service Design Designing for Emergence Empathy Thing Design Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 13 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  14. 14. Service Design Designing for Emergence Empathy Thing Impact DesignAdoption Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 14 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  15. 15. Service Design Designing for Emergence Empathy Thing Impact DesignAdoption Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 15 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  16. 16. Service Design Designing for Emergence Empathy Emergence Emergence Thing Impact DesignAdoption Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 16 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  17. 17. Service Design Designing for Emergence Empathy Emergence Emergence Thing Impact DesignAdoption Present FUTURE Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 17 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  18. 18. Service Design Designing for Emergence Characterized by the intentionality of the human designer Cognitive and conceptual Top-down Controlling Fixing relationships Setting constraints Characterized by the autonomy of massively multiple agents or components A-cognitive and a-conceptual Bottom-up Influencing Maintaining relationships Exploring/testing constraints Design Emergence Greg Van Alstyne1, & Robert K. Logan, Beal Institute for Strategic Creativity, Ontario College of Art and Design, and Department of Physics, University of TorontoMajid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 18 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  19. 19. Service Design Designing for Emergence Designing FOR Emergence Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 19 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  20. 20. Service Design Designing for Emergence EmergenceImpact Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 20 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  21. 21. Service Design Design Focus Speed to Market vs. Longevity of Impact Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 21 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  22. 22. Service Design Event 1 2 22 Futures Wheel Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 22 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  23. 23. Service Design Event 1 2 22 Futures Wheel Helps Us: • Design with an awareness of possible futures • Decision-making: Build consensus through considering all outcomes and measuring desirability • Promote critical thinking and encourage design thinking to move beyond activities • Identify opportunities and risks • Brainstorm ideas, solutions, services, and products that amplify future opportunities, and mitigate potential risk Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 23 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  24. 24. Service Design Futures Wheel Design Implement Learn Futures Wheel Futures Wheel Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 24 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  25. 25. Service Design Facebook Futures Wheel Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 25 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design Service Product Policy Event Connects People Enables Sharing Content Stores Social Profile Enables Conversation Enables Reaction "Likes" Events Content Curation Algorithm
  26. 26. Service Design Facebook Futures Wheel Service Product Policy Event Connects People Enables Sharing Content Stores Social Profile Enables Conversation Enables Reaction "Likes" Events Content Curation Algorithm Targets ads based on your profile Privacy Concerns Facilitates Gathering Facilitates Organizing (e.g. Ticket sale) Reconnect with Old friendsAddress Book Online Stalking Political Debate Connects Strangers Less Face2Face Interactiom Instant Feedback Instant Gratification What I See is what I Like, What I like is what I see Share Photos Share News Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 26 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  27. 27. Service Design Facebook Futures Wheel Service Product Policy Event Social Technological Economic Environmental Political Custom:____________ Connects People Enables Sharing Content Stores Social Profile Enables Conversation Enables Reaction "Likes" Events Content Curation Algorithm Targets ads based on your profile Privacy ConcernsTargeted Political Campaign Scam having your coworkers on FB Facilitates Gathering Facilitates Organizing (e.g. Ticket sale) Sharing Economy Mobilizing Protest Encourages Community Reconnect with Old friendsAddress Book Online Stalking Harassment Harder Process of forgetting harmful Realize why you are not friends, really Never Lose connection Political Debate Connects Strangers Less Face2Face Interactiom Enables Bullying Populism Slacktivism Addiction Social Isolation Instant Feedback Instant Gratification What I See is what I Like, What I like is what I see Echo Chambers Share Photos Share News Decline in Revenue for Journalism Envy (FOMO) Journalism's Dependence Social Connection Service Product Policy Event Social Technological Economic Environmental Political Custom:____________ Connects People Enables Sharing Content Stores Social Profile Enables Conversation Enables Reaction "Likes" Events Content Curation Algorithm Targets ads based on your profile Privacy ConcernsTargeted Political Campaign Scam having your coworkers on FB Facilitates Gathering Facilitates Organizing (e.g. Ticket sale) Sharing Economy Mobilizing Protest Encourages Community Reconnect with Old friendsAddress Book Online Stalking Harassment Harder Process of forgetting harmful Realize why you are not friends, really Never Lose connection Political Debate Connects Strangers Less Face2Face Interactiom Enables Bullying Populism Slacktivism Addiction Social Isolation Instant Feedback Instant Gratification What I See is what I Like, What I like is what I see Echo Chambers Share Photos Share News Decline in Revenue for Journalism Envy (FOMO) Journalism's Dependence Social Connection Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 27 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  28. 28. Service Design Facebook Futures Wheel Service Product Policy Event Social Technological Economic Environmental Political Custom:____________ Connects People Enables Sharing Content Stores Social Profile Enables Conversation Enables Reaction "Likes" Events Content Curation Algorithm Targets ads based on your profile Privacy ConcernsTargeted Political Campaign Scam having your coworkers on FB Facilitates Gathering Facilitates Organizing (e.g. Ticket sale) Sharing Economy Mobilizing Protest Encourages Community Reconnect with Old friendsAddress Book Online Stalking Harassment Harder Process of forgetting harmful Realize why you are not friends, really Never Lose connection Political Debate Connects Strangers Less Face2Face Interactiom Enables Bullying Populism Slacktivism Addiction Social Isolation Instant Feedback Instant Gratification What I See is what I Like, What I like is what I see Echo Chambers Share Photos Share News Decline in Revenue for Journalism Envy (FOMO) Journalism's Dependence Social Connection Service Product Policy Event Social Technological Economic Environmental Political Custom:____________ Connects People Enables Sharing Content Stores Social Profile Enables Conversation Enables Reaction "Likes" Events Content Curation Algorithm Targets ads based on your profile Privacy ConcernsTargeted Political Campaign Scam having your coworkers on FB Facilitates Gathering Facilitates Organizing (e.g. Ticket sale) Sharing Economy Mobilizing Protest Encourages Community Reconnect with Old friendsAddress Book Online Stalking Harassment Harder Process of forgetting harmful Realize why you are not friends, really Never Lose connection Political Debate Connects Strangers Less Face2Face Interactiom Enables Bullying Populism Slacktivism Addiction Social Isolation Instant Feedback Instant Gratification What I See is what I Like, What I like is what I see Echo Chambers Share Photos Share News Decline in Revenue for Journalism Envy (FOMO) Journalism's Dependence Social Connection Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 28 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  29. 29. Service Design Facebook Futures Wheel Service Product Policy Event Social Technological Economic Environmental Political Custom:____________ Connects People Enables Sharing Content Stores Social Profile Enables Conversation Enables Reaction "Likes" Events Content Curation Algorithm Targets ads based on your profile Privacy ConcernsTargeted Political Campaign Scam having your coworkers on FB Facilitates Gathering Facilitates Organizing (e.g. Ticket sale) Sharing Economy Mobilizing Protest Encourages Community Reconnect with Old friendsAddress Book Online Stalking Harassment Harder Process of forgetting harmful Realize why you are not friends, really Never Lose connection Political Debate Connects Strangers Less Face2Face Interactiom Enables Bullying Populism Slacktivism Addiction Social Isolation Instant Feedback Instant Gratification What I See is what I Like, What I like is what I see Echo Chambers Share Photos Share News Decline in Revenue for Journalism Envy (FOMO) Journalism's Dependence Social Connection Service Product Policy Event Social Technological Economic Environmental Political Custom:____________ Connects People Enables Sharing Content Stores Social Profile Enables Conversation Enables Reaction "Likes" Events Content Curation Algorithm Targets ads based on your profile Privacy ConcernsTargeted Political Campaign Scam having your coworkers on FB Facilitates Gathering Facilitates Organizing (e.g. Ticket sale) Sharing Economy Mobilizing Protest Encourages Community Reconnect with Old friendsAddress Book Online Stalking Harassment Harder Process of forgetting harmful Realize why you are not friends, really Never Lose connection Political Debate Connects Strangers Less Face2Face Interactiom Enables Bullying Populism Slacktivism Addiction Social Isolation Instant Feedback Instant Gratification What I See is what I Like, What I like is what I see Echo Chambers Share Photos Share News Decline in Revenue for Journalism Envy (FOMO) Journalism's Dependence Social Connection Opportunity Opportunity Risk Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 29 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  30. 30. Service Design Futures Wheel Work Session Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 30 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design
  31. 31. Work Session Futures Wheel Work Session Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 31 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design 1.ProblemFraming 2.DirectImpact 3.IndirectImpact(2nd&3rdOrder) 4.RankDesirability 5.IdentifyOpportunities 6.Ideate
  32. 32. ProblemFraming1 1. Discuss and choose a “change” from the determined list. Tip: You want to choose one that the group collectively is more informed about. 2. Select a team facilitator in your group that will guide the team through the steps and play time keep. The facilitator ideally has strong knowledge of the topic and can assist the group. Change: 1. Cannabis Legalization 2. Unlimited Vacation Info: Change can include New Policy, New Product, New Service, New Feature, Organizational Change, Emerging Trends, Strategic Goals or Objectives, Any Event Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Problem Framing Direct Impact Indirect Impact (2nd & 3rd Order) Rank Desirability Identify Opportunities Ideate 3 MIN
  33. 33. DirectImpact2 1. Individually write down direct implications and consequences of the change. Do not place them on the canvas yet. Collect them in front of you. Direct Implication: Direct implications are immediate consequences of the change event. If you have doubts, ask yourself: How does [change event] result in [implication]? if you have an answer, that is the more direct consequence. STEEP: Stands for Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental, Political Tip: While remaining brief, try to describe your point in a way that the rest of your group can comprehend without you there. Tip: Use the STEEP categories if you are stuck. Try to think of all of the different contexts. Tip: At this point you may come across implications that are 2nd, or 3rd order. Place them in the parking lot for later. Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Problem Framing Direct Impact Indirect Impact (2nd & 3rd Order) Rank Desirability Identify Opportunities Ideate 5 MIN
  34. 34. DirectImpact2 1. Go around the table and place your top 2 implications on the inner circle. 2. In 1 or 2 sentences explain each post-it you are placing. 3. Once everyone places theirs, now that you have seen everyone’s contribution, observe the canvas as a whole, and discuss whether there is any important immediate implication missing. Tip: If an implication is mentioned, avoid duplicates, and offer another one. Tip: If a quadrant is empty try to suggest for that quadrant. Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Problem Framing Direct Impact Indirect Impact (2nd & 3rd Order) Rank Desirability Identify Opportunities Ideate 10 MIN
  35. 35. IndirectImpact3 1. Individually or in a group: Focus on each direct implication, and discuss what may be its consequences. For each direct implication ask ‘‘If this occurs, then what might happen next?’’ 2. Repeat the same process and you will have your 3rd order implication. 3. Reorganize: As a group reconsider connections and make any adjustments. 2nd Order Implication: these are the implications that are the consequences of any of the direct implications 3rd Order Implication: these are the implications that are the consequences of any of the 2nd order implications. (2nd & 3rd Oder Impact) Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani 15 MIN Problem Framing Direct Impact Indirect Impact (2nd & 3rd Order) Rank Desirability Identify Opportunities Ideate
  36. 36. RankDesirability4 1. Each individual has 5 green and 5 red dots. 2. Use the green dots to indicate your most desirable implications on the board. 3. Use the red dots to indicate your least desirable implications on the board. Tip: You may place more than one dot on one implication Desirable: These are the implications you would want to see happen. Undesirable: These are the the negative implications that we want to avoid, prevent, or mitigate. Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani 5 MIN Problem Framing Direct Impact Indirect Impact (2nd & 3rd Order) Rank Desirability Identify Opportunities Ideate
  37. 37. Opportunity&Risk5 1. As a Group, use the Green marker and Red marker to identify the Opportunities (Green) and Risks (Red). 2. Opportunity areas are places with highest concentration of green dots. 3. Risk areas are places with highest concentration of red dots. Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani 3 MIN Problem Framing Direct Impact Indirect Impact (2nd & 3rd Order) Rank Desirability Identify Opportunities Ideate
  38. 38. Ideate6 1. In a group or individually ideate ideas, solutions, products, policies, or services that can either: Amplify Opportunities or Mitigate and Manage Risks Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Problem Framing Direct Impact Indirect Impact (2nd & 3rd Order) Rank Desirability Identify Opportunities Ideate 10 MIN
  39. 39. Discussion
  40. 40. Thank You Mazi Javidiani maziar.j@gmail.com @mazi_j Majid Behboudi majid.behboudi@gmail.com November2018
  41. 41. Service Design Event 1 2 22 Futures Wheel Helps Us: • Design with an awareness of possible futures • Decision-making: Build consensus through considering all outcomes and measuring desirability • Promote critical thinking and encourage design thinking to move beyond activities • Identify opportunities and risks • Brainstorm ideas, solutions, services, and products that amplify future opportunities, and mitigate potential risk Majid BehboudiMazi Javidiani Slide 41 Futures Wheel Practical Frameworks for Ethical Design

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