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Biology tissues class 9

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Biology tissues class 9

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FOR CLASS 9 BIOLOGY TISSUE BY S.DHANESWAR
FOR VIDEOS https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCY-vBFPvKcc4PvMNOOgmzXg

FOR CLASS 9 BIOLOGY TISSUE BY S.DHANESWAR
FOR VIDEOS https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCY-vBFPvKcc4PvMNOOgmzXg

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Biology tissues class 9

  1. 1. BIOLOGY- PLANT TISSUES BY S.DHANESWAR A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 1
  2. 2. TISSUES • A group of cells which are similar in Origin, Structure And Functions are called tissues. • Tissues are classified as • Meristematic Tissues and • Permanent Tissues in plants. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 2
  3. 3. MERISTEMATIC TISSUES • The meristematic tissues are immature and divide actively. • The term meristem was coined by K.Nageli[1858]. • They help in the Production Of New Cells and thus Promote The Growth Of The Plant. • They are found in Only High Vascular Plants and help in the production of various organs. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 3
  4. 4. CHARACTERS OF MERISTEMS 1. Cells are small in size and isodiametric, cuboidal or polygonal in shape. 2. Cells are arranged compactly without intercellular spaces. 3. Cell walls are thin and cellulosic. 4. Cytoplasm is dense and abundant . It shows a big conspicuous nucleus. 5. Numerous small vacuoles are found in cytoplasm. 6. Proplastids are present and ergastic substances are absent. 7. Cells divide continuously and show active metabolism. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 4
  5. 5. TYPES OF MERTEMATIC TISSUES 1. Based on the origin. 2. Based on the position. 3. Based on the plane of division. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 5
  6. 6. TYPES OF MERISTEMS BASED ON ORIGIN 1. Primary meristem. 2. Secondary meristem. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 6
  7. 7. PRIMARY MERISTEM • Primary meristems are formed at the embryonic stage and continue to remain active in the mature parts of the plant body. • They are found in the growing tips and vascular bundles. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 7
  8. 8. SECONDARY MERISTEM • The meristems formed from permenant tissues by a process od dedifferentiation. • The secondary meristems helps in secondary growth of stems and roots. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 8
  9. 9. TYPES OF MERISTEMS BASED ON POSITION 1. Apical meristem. 2. Intercalary meristem. 3. Lateral meristem. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 9
  10. 10. APICAL MERISTEM • They are present at the growing tips of roots, stems, branches etc. • They are helpful in the linear growth of the plant body. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 10
  11. 11. INTERCALARY MERISTEM • It is present at the nodes of the stem, branches and at the base of the leaf sheath. • They help in the linear growth of the stem and leaves. • They are active only for a short period and gradually change into permanent tissues. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 11
  12. 12. LATERAL MERISTEM • They are found at the lateral sides of the plant body. • They are helpful to increase the thickness of the organs like stem and root. • They are involved in the secondary growth and produces secondary xylem and secondary phloem. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 12
  13. 13. TYPES OF MERISTEMSBASED ON THE PLANE OF DIVISION 1. Plate meristem. 2. Rib meristem. 3. Mass meristem. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 13
  14. 14. PLATE MERISTEM • In this type, the cells divide in anticlinal manner(perpendicular to the cell surface) and produce a single layer of cells. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 14
  15. 15. RIB MERISTEM • In this type, the cells divide in periclinal manner(parallel to the cell surface) and produce longitudinal rows of cells. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 15
  16. 16. MASS MERISTEM • In this type, the cells divide in all planes and produce a mass of cells. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 16
  17. 17. PERMENANT TISSUES • A group of mature cells which have lost the capacity of division either temporarily or permanently and perform a specific function is known as permenant tissues. • The cells are big in size. • A single large vacuole is present. • The plastids are well developed. • A small nucleus is found at one side of the cell. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 17
  18. 18. CHARACTERSTICS OF PERMENANT TISSUES • The cells are big in size. • A single large vacuole is present. • The plastids are well developed. • A small nucleus is found at one side of the cell. • Ergastic substances are present. • Intercellular spaces are present. • The cells do not divide[differentiation], but if necessary they can become meristematic[dedifferentiation]. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 18
  19. 19. TYPES OF PERMENANENT TISSUES 1. Simple tissues. 2. Complex tissues. 3. Special tissues. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 19
  20. 20. SIMPLE TISSUES • The group of cells which are similar in size, structure and function is called simple tissues. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 20
  21. 21. TYPES OF SIMPLE TISSUES 1. Parenchyma. 2. Collenchyma. 3. Sclerenchyma. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 21
  22. 22. PARENCHYMA • It is known as fundamental tissue or ground tissue. • It is a soft tissue and found in the cortex of stem, root, mesophyll, petals, fruits, seeds, phloem and pith. • It is a living tissue. • The cells are oval spherical or rectangular in shape with thin cell walls. • The cells are loosely arranged with large intercellular spaces between them. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 22
  23. 23. TYPES OF PARENCHYMA 1. Aerenchyma. 2. Chlorenchyma. 3. Storage parenchyma. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 23
  24. 24. AERENCHYMA • In aquatic plants large air cavities are present in parenchyma to help them float. Such a parenchyma is called aerenchyma. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 24
  25. 25. CHLORENCHYMA • In some situations parenchyma contains chlorophyll and performs photosynthesis. Such a parenchyma is called chlorenchyma. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 25
  26. 26. STORAGE PARENCHYMA • The parenchyma which stores food is called storage parenchyma. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 26
  27. 27. COLLENCHYMA • It is a living mechanical tissue which is found in young stems, petioles, peduncles and around vascular bundles. • The cells of this tissue elongated cylindrical or polygonal in shape. • It gives flexibility in plants without breaking when it blends. • There is very little intercellular spaces. • The cell wall is rich in cellulose and pectin. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 27
  28. 28. TYPES OF COLLENCHYMA 1. Angular collenchyma. 2. Lacunar collenchyma. 3. Lamellar collenchyma. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 28
  29. 29. ANGULAR CHOLLENCHYMA • The cells are not arranged in regular rows. • Intercellular spaces are absent. • It is found in the stems, selenium, datura and cucurbita. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 29
  30. 30. LACUNAR CHOLLENCHYMA • The cells are irregularly arranged. • Small intercellular spaces are present. • It is found in the stems of leucas. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 30
  31. 31. LAMELLAR CHOLLENCHYMA • The cells are arranged horizontal rows. • Intercellular spaces are absent. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 31
  32. 32. SCLERENCHYMA • It is a simple mechanical tissue compose of dead cells. • It provides strength and hardness to plant parts. • The cells are long and narrow and thickened walls due to presence of lignin. • As the cell walls are thick there is no internal space inside the cell. • This tissue is present in stems in the veins of leaves, around vascular bundles and the hard covering seeds and nets. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 32
  33. 33. TYPES OF SCLERENCHYMA 1. Fibres. 2. Sclereids. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 33
  34. 34. FIBRES • The cells are elongated with the tapering ends. • They are found in the cortex and around vascular bundles. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 34
  35. 35. SCHLEREIDS • The cells are different shape and size. • The cell walls are very thick due to the deposition of lignin. • Sclereids are found in fleshy fruits, roots, leaves and seeds. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 35
  36. 36. COMPLEX TISSUES • The group of dissimilar cells which coordinate to perform a common function is known as complex tissues. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 36
  37. 37. TYPES OF COMPLEX TISSUES 1. Xylem. 2. Phloem. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 37
  38. 38. XYLEM • The term xylem was coined by k.nageli[1858]. • It is a complex tissue that conducts water and dissolved mineral salts from root to the aerial parts of the plant body. • Tracheid and vessels are tubular structure which helps to transport water and minerals vertically. • The xylem parenchyma stores food. • The xylem fibres are supportive in function. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 38
  39. 39. TYPES OF XYLEM 1. Xylem parenchyma. 2. Xylem fibres. 3. Vessels. 4. Tracheid. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 39
  40. 40. PHLOEM • The term phloem was coined by k.nageli[1858]. • It is a complex tissue that conducts organic solutes from the leaves to the other parts of the plant body. • Sieve tubes are tubular cells with perforated walls. • Expect phloem fibres other phloem cells are living cells.[only phloem fibres are dead cells] A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 40
  41. 41. TYPES OF PHLOEM 1. Phloem parenchyma. 2. Phloem fibres. 3. Companion cells. 4. Sieve cells. 5. Sieve tubes. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 41
  42. 42. SPECIAL TISSUES • The group of cells which is composed of secretary cells located in various parts of the plant body is called special tissues. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 42
  43. 43. TYPES OF SPECIAL TISSUES • Digestive glands. • Nectar glands. • Osmophors. • Secretory cavities. • Hydathodes. • Lactiferous tissue. A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 43
  44. 44. THANK YOU A PRESENTATION BY DHANESWAR.S IX AVJC 44

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