Sudan - community based adaptation


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Sudan - community based adaptation

  1. 1. Community Based Adaptation in Africa 1/04/ 2010 Sumaya Ahmed Zakieldeen
  2. 2. • Project funded by Canadian SIDA in 8 African countries • Partiners, iied, ACTs, SECS
  3. 3. Background
  4. 4. Climatic factors Over the past decades, livelihoods have been affected by: • frequent drought cycles • extreme fluctuations in rainfall • Floods (torrential rains, seasonal streams)
  5. 5. None-climatic Factors • Poverty • High illiteracy rate (70%) • Mismanagement of natural resources (Over cultivation, over- grazing, deforestation etc.) • Lack of income diversity • Lack of agricultural inputs (Seeds, machinery, finance etc) • Certain policies/regulations act as impediment to AC • Conflict over resources (particularly between farmers and herders) • Fires • Others
  6. 6. Mykahaya community • The village was established in the year 1914, • Inhibited by 7-8 tribes for very long time (Gawamah, bargou, Falata, Kenana, Shanabla, Berti, and others). • Native Administration is still governing the community. • The head of the village is Sheikh
  7. 7. Con. • approximately 186 families, based on the last census the total number of the citizens is approximately 2118 • only 30% of them had the opportunity to have some education
  8. 8. Con.. • The community practise traditional rain-fed agriculture, they cultivate the following: • Different varieties of sorghum • Ground nuts • Sesame • Hibiscus sp. (Karkadey) • Vegetables (Tomatoes, melons, cucumber, okra etc.) - They keep few animals (mainly goats and donkeys (very important for carrying water).
  9. 9. Village institutions and services • Sheikh (guarding security, resolution of conflict through agaweed in the village, connection with the state government etc.) • 2 Hafiers • 1 primary school is available in the village (for both boys and girls) • Small market (two days in the week Saturday and Wednesday) • Mosque • Grain-mill • Health centre • village cultural club
  10. 10. Power Linkages State Governor Motamad Administrative officer at State level Omdah Sheikh
  11. 11. Stakeholder and Community participation • Individual Interviews • Visits and Surveys • Focus Group discussion • Participatory Rural Appraisal • Interaction with local institutions
  12. 12. Individual Interviews Both men and women were interviewed and consulted regarding the issues of vulnerability and adaptation
  13. 13. Visits and surveys
  14. 14. Participatory Rural Appraisal • Participatory Rural Appraisal Combination of methods were used to enable the village community to share, enhance and analyse their knowledge of their life and conditions as well as to plan and act.
  15. 15. Con.. • The stakeholders were able to identify climate change vulnerabilities • They were able together to identify and plan for suitable adaptation options • Community became the analysers and we became the facilitators
  16. 16. Con.. PRA Analysis of: • water resources, • vegetation cover • and agricultural for the period between 1940 and 2010
  17. 17. Vulnerability • Sectors that are extremely vulnerable: • Water sector • Agriculture • Energy
  18. 18. Water Sector Decrease of amount of rainfall and high variability of its distribution caused: • Severe Shortage and lack of drinking water particularly during dry season • High cost (time and money) • Water-born diseases
  19. 19. Con..
  20. 20. Agriculture • Fluctuation/reduction of production • Deterioration of rangelands/loss of animals • Lack of food security • Cut of trees for charcoal production (however for subsistence) • Migration to nearby towns and to agricultural schemes • People were forced to adopt unfavourable seasonal activities
  21. 21. Energy • Vegetation cover deteriorated very much due to both climatic and none-climatic factors • Women spend 3-4 hrs daily in collection of firewood from remote places • Situation is getting worse and worse worries about near future
  22. 22. Concerns about gender • Both women and children work very hard and for long hours: • Collecting water • Collecting firewood • Cutting and collecting Naal (aquatic weed) • They gain very little and miss a lot of opportunities
  23. 23. Identified Adaptation Options; Water harvesting for drinking (additional Hafier and rehabilitation of existing ones) Agriculture • Water harvesting (terraces) • Improvement of local indigenous knowledge of early seeding (locally know as Remeel) • Introduction of drought resistant /early maturing varieties (okra, millet, sorghum etc.)
  24. 24. Con.. • Production of winter crops such as vegetables (Egg plants, water melon, tomatoes, cucumber), at the end of the rainy season in the course of one of Abu -Habel tributaries Energy • Introduction of petroleum liquid gas and improved stoves
  25. 25. Income increasing options • Expansion of Karkady production (cash crop) • Introduction sheep fattening for women for increasing family income/production of , meat, milk and butter • Improvement of marketing • other
  26. 26. Capacity Building • Certain areas that require specific capacity building were identified - Water harvesting - winter cropping - improved stoves building - financial training for rotating small grants - other - Establishment of a new committee in the community
  27. 27. Consultations with relevant institutions, NGOs and Programmes • Eco-peace project • Forest National Cooperation • Administration of agriculture, natural resources and animal wealth • Practical Action/Aydy Al-Nil • Sudanese Meteorological Society • Others
  28. 28. Sharing of CBAA findings • The finding of the CBAA were shared in many national event and conferences • Publication of a paper in gatekeeper • Currently a paper is being prepared with Dr. Nooreldin Ahmed on adaptation options opportunities and challenges