Sri lanka - Paddy field adaptation - practical action


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Sri lanka - Paddy field adaptation - practical action

  1. 1. Role of traditional paddy in adapting Climate Change impacts Varuna Rathnabharathie
  2. 2. Contents • Paddy cultivation affects to CC • CC affects to Paddy cultivation • CC adaptation measures with case studies • What we can do?
  3. 3. Paddy cultivation affects to CC? • 10-15 years ago paddy cultivation was negatively affect to CC • Due to flooding of fields • CH4 emissions (GG) • Machinery use, inorganic fertilizer production, GG emitting chemical usage, etc. • With the world food crisis – encouraging paddy and all crops from food security aspects
  4. 4. Perception of CC by farmers • Changing the rhythm of nature eg. Rain indicators, cloud patterns, birds • Failures of farming – low yield, washing away the seed paddy, rains at the harvesting time, half filled grains
  5. 5. CC affects & impacts on Paddy cultivation • Increased atmospheric CO2 (more than 0.03%) concentrations –Grain yield up to 27% • Increased air temperature on spikelet stage– > 31oC (1-2 oC) - of yield - of cross pollination, Weedy rice - seed paddy quality
  6. 6. CC impacts and best practices for adaptation
  7. 7. Rainfall and paddy • Correct water management practices • Proper agronomic practices eg. Kekulama, Nawa kekulama, SRI Varieties suits to water stress conditions
  8. 8. Best practice 1 -“Hata da vee” paddy put in to shallow drains -Covered by soil -3 months dry spell -Plants could withstand without growing or dying Ampara, Uhana, Panagolla yaya – 2009 August -Kind of dormancy?
  9. 9. -Dry period of 2 months -Coastal salinity -Saline came on the earth surface -“Pokkali” could Hambanthota, Bundala, Oorani yaya - 2008 withstand dry and Variety & water holding capacity saline of soil conditions
  10. 10. Soil Salinity Rain fall Inland Evaporation Salinity Sea level Coastal Salinity Salinity tolerant varieties and management practices
  11. 11. Best practice 2 -Coastal salinity -Pokkali, Kalu heenati and Madathawalu performed well -Average 70 Bushels/ acre Hambanthota, Bundala - 2008
  12. 12. Best practice 3 Management practices • Mulching (covering the soil) • Organic manure • Water management (wash away) • Minimum soil preparation • Manual weeding/ competitive paddy verities/mulching
  13. 13. Potential of Low country wet zone High air temperature Low water scarcity Maximum effort to get the full potential yield
  14. 14. Best practice 4 “Maththamagoda method” – raised beds use to avoid saline and iron toxic conditions in poor drainage low country wet zone
  15. 15. Best practice 5 Organic fertilizer
  16. 16. Potential of Low country wet zone cont.. Erratic rain fall Increasing sea levels Submerged Conditions Flood resistant paddy varieties
  17. 17. Best practice 6 Ma ha ma vee grows up to 12-15 feet with the rising of flood level
  18. 18. Ma vee seeds Ma vee stem cuttings - Ma vee rice - Same yield from both 50 bushels/acre
  19. 19. Best practice 7 Ma ha ma vee stem cuttings can plant instead of paddy seeds even under flood situations or un expected floods
  20. 20. New bio types resistant to pesticides and weedicides •Resistant paddy varieties and eco friendly Natural systems Best practice 8 Pest control by natural enemies – Needs to maintain the whole system eco friendly
  21. 21. Seasonal shifting Best practice 9 • Long and short term varieties 70 days old 6 months old Ma “hata da vee” ma vee variety
  22. 22. Different types of planting materials Best practice 10 Normal age of the maha ma vee by seeds – 6 months If use stem cuttings - 3 ½ to 4 months
  23. 23. Best practice 11 Simple Water management techniques
  24. 24. Best practice 12
  25. 25. Best practice 13
  26. 26. Climate change impacts Dealing with Minimize impacts risk factors Build Respond capacity Fundamental risks
  27. 27. 1. Fundamental Risks Factors that weaken farmers/rural communities to cope with climate variation/change, e.g.  poverty  Land tenure security  Labour availability
  28. 28. 2. Building Response Capacity Factors that enable farmers and their communities to cope with climate variation/change, e.g.  Various seeds suitable for different conditions  Water resource management and plan  Food security  Not dependence on external inputs  Knowledge on appropriate technology
  29. 29. 3. Minimize Risk Factors Enables farmers and their communities to effectively manage the climate variation- change  Monitoring and warning system of negative weather conditions (e.g. Drought, flash flood, land slide)  Readiness to deal with weather impacts  Climate communication
  30. 30. What Level of Adaptation  Adaptation at family level  Adaptation of community  Location level
  31. 31. Intervention  Raising “correct” awareness through simple Singhala/Tamil language to the correct groups  Develop adaptation pilot projects to ground for the learning & research  Focus on agriculture & rural areas  Context of rising fuel costs  Setting up technical support unit  Need to develop tools and methodology for working with small-scale producers  Building regional networks
  32. 32. Thank You !