Sri Lanka - Water supply adaptation - Christian Aid
•435 km -maximum length
•240 km –maximum width
–About 20 millions
•Economics & industrial
–% contribution to the GDP
•Agriculture →12.3 %
•Industry →28.2 %
•Services →59.5 %
•800 mm to over 5,000 mm
•on average 27 0C at lowlands
•reduction of temperature at 5 –6 0C/ km
»average →15 0C
•3 climatic zones
–Dry zone, Intermediate zone & Wet zone
1.1. Climatic zones of Sri Lanka
Dry zone →28 0C
Intermediate zone →24 -26 0C
Wet zone →24 0C
Dry zone →< 1,750 mm
Intermediate zone →1,750-2,500 mm
Wet zone →> 2,500 mm
1.2.Climate changes in Sri Lanka
•Slow & continuous rise of ambient temperature
•Increased frequency of extreme weather events
–High variability of rainfall
–Tornado-type winds, lightening, Cyclones
Sri Lanka- Trincomalee District
2. District profile
Country: Sri Lanka
Division: Muthur Muthur
2.1.Background Information of the village
•Before 1950 the few number of community cleared the jungles and
built small houses and lived.
•Due to heavy flood in Pallikudirruppu village ,the people moved
from Pallikudirupu to Sinnakulam.
•There was a “small pond” along with this village .So they named for
this village as “Sinnakulam.
•The main livelihood activity of the community was Chena cultivation.
Mr.K. Sivarasa was one of the oldest man in
Sinnakulam Village .
He said that their main livelihood activity is
1. Paddy cultivation
They get the water from the “ GANGAI” river.
In addition they have rain 2 times per month.
Continuously they involved in the Agricultural activities.
He mentioned that they never used the Pesticide for the
crops. Because Due monthly raining all the insects washed
by the rain.
2.2 .Geographical Information
This village was surrounded by pond, agricultural land and small rocks
Annual Whether Pattern
August - December - Rain
January - March Snow
March - July Hot Sun and Wind
September –December - Flood
March – May Drought
May- December Cyclones
Increased Risks forecast with Climate change
1. Due to population increases, the community people started to clear more and more jungles for
their habitant and agricultural cultivation.
2. Due to lack of raining and heat , increased insects affection on the crops . So they started
use the chemical for the crops .
3.Due to heavy flood in 2004 (before the tsunami) dinking water wells have been changed as
salinity water . so no.of common wells were abounded .
3. The causes, consequence and solution for
Disaster Risk and Climate changes at
Increased population/ Deforestation
Relocation of refugees Soil erosion &
Decreased the water
Reduced the Agricultural
Increased the Green house
3.1.The consequence in a nutshell
Result in coastal
Cultivable lands becoming
Steep reduction in
barren, resulting in drought. agricultural yield
due to Soil Warming .
Civil Wars between residents
and migrating environmental
Increased in atmospheric
Will lead decrease
Land and water
4 .Addressed to current forecast threats
Due to conflict the entire village people displaced and resettled
in year 2008 to their original village
We conducted the Participatory Vulnerability Capacity Assessmen
(PVCA) and identified the following
1. Type of vulnerability
2. Type of disaster
3. Basic needs( Shelters & water problem )
4.1.Identified main problems are
Abandon Common well
1.Increasing flood level during the rainy season
2. Water problem for drinking and domestic purpose
The sinnakulam people are more vulnerability.
The land is not suitable to construct more drinking
water wells and they have no regular income to find
alternative way to get the water.
4.2. Identified Vulnerability at Sinnakulam village
People are living in
Flood during the
Badly damaged Infrastructure
The women and children
are waiting for water
bowser to get the water
Children are at highest health
risk from inadequate water
supplies during drought , and
also predicted changes in
5. Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate change
•There are 105 families with the population of 389HH in the GN
• After the displacement they resettled in their village. How ever nearly
40 families relocated lower land area earlier paddy fields) due to high
After the resettlement the community faced the difficulties for
1. Most of the wells were in high security zones.
2. The existing wells have no water during dry seasons.
Climate change also will increase the time taken to collect water
in rural areas, a task mainly done by women and girls, due to
travelling greater distances to find water.
water collection is an issue as women and girls may spend
5.1. Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate
DRR is the development and application of
policies and practices that minimize the risk to
Vulnerabilities and disasters.
Climate Change adaptation is an adjustment in
natural or human system , which occurs in
response to actual or expected climate changes
5.2. Integrating Disaster Risk Mitigation and
Climate change adaptation.
• OfERR constructed co- houses for 40 vulnerable families
•The Sinnakulam CBDRM group suggested us Internal road and
drainage channel along with road during the meeting.
•The CBDRM members and community constructed the internal roa
and Drainage in 2008-2009 project period. This drainage is ending
at Sinnakulam .
The people protected from the December flood.
The drainage water is ending at Sinnakulam tank. so it is indirectly
adopting for climate change.
Increasing of water level and moisture of land
5.3.Climate change adaptation and Sri Lanka Policy
Sri Lanka current Economic Development Policy frame
work incorporated with Millennium Development Goal
Energy security has become an important factor in
achieving the objectives articulated in the economic policy
framework. Supply of reliable, affordable and clean energy
during the medium term for industries, individuals and
other sectors are extremely important in this regard.
Promoting Indigenous Resources
The use of economically viable, environment friendly, non-
conventional renewable energy resources will be promoted
by providing a level playing field for developers of non-
conventional energy resources to compete and supply energy
at the best price through transparent procurement processes
in Sri Lanka.
The renewable resource are important in reducing air pollution ,
mitigation of adverse Climate effect and from provision of
The renewable resources are also important in reducing
air pollution, mitigating adverse climate effects and the
provision of clean energy.
The improvement in efficiency in energy resource is also
useful to ease the problem.
Several measures such as reducing system losses, use of
low energy consuming equipment, saving energy through
changing behaviours, etc. have been introduced and used
Theoretical potential of renewable energy sources in Sri Lanka.
To protect the environment through user environment-friendly technologies
for energy adaptation and climate change
•105 village beneficiaries getting water regularly and they saved the time .
The CBDRM members formed a user committee to maintain the wind mill
Conducted the windmill technology and operational awareness workshop for
-Reduced the fuel to generate the water pumps
-Increased household water supply.
-Reduced water born disease at village level.
-Reduced the environmental pollution by fuel smoke.
-Improved small scale home garden.
-Increased house hold food security
6.4. Harness the wind to create the clean energy
Wind energy for water supply
Well, Power room & wind mill
6.5.The Benefits of a Combined Approach to
Climate Change Adaptation, DRR and Social Protection
The women established the
Women easily access the water
pipe line from main line and
from from the main pipe line
collect the water her baby
The women is maintaining a small
Women taking bath from her house home garden And watering from
6.6. Positive Community Impacts after the
• CBDRM team and disaster mitigation processes were
developed and are now starting to be self-sufficient at the
• CBDRM teams have been recognized by Divisional offices
as viable partners in disaster response at village level
•Communities demonstrated their ability to respond
appropriately during disasters later on.
Ex: Sinnakulam Shelter beneficiaries constructed the drainage
7. Lessons and Challenges
•Need to increase awareness of and knowledge on adaptation,
as insufficient information is often a constraint to taking action.
•Rehabilitate and protect natural resources from damage from
•Integrate adaptation with development planning to
advance both adaptation and development goals
• Climate change may contribute to making targeting more complex
due to an increase in seasonal migration or permanent migration,
making locating beneficiaries more difficult.
•Climate change impacts will also affect both the poor and non-
poor, and may contribute to pushing the non-poor into poverty.