India - Climate change and disaster management - Oxfam


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India - Climate change and disaster management - Oxfam

  1. 1. Roadmap Oxfam India & GDS DRR and Climate Change An Oxfam Perspective
  2. 2. Oxfam DRR and Climate Change process 2
  3. 3. Relationship between climate change adaptation and DRR – • Oxfam is increasingly seeing the effects of climate change on the communities with which we work. We are beginning to respond to this in our work with communities and in our campaigns and advocacy. At the same time, we are building rapidly on our disaster risk reduction (DRR) programming as a key way of reducing the loss of lives and livelihoods in disaster-prone areas. • However, DRR programmes may have nothing to do with climate change (if the disasters in question are earthquakes and tsunamis), or the disasters may be recurring even in the absence of climate change, and so DRR is an appropriate response for Oxfam whether or not climate change is exacerbating these. • We simply do not know enough about all the atmospheric and oceanic processes to get a truly accurate scenario of how climate will react on a local and regional scale. However in recent years we have considerable evidence that the earth has begun to warm more quickly 3 than ever before
  4. 4. Broad scope for Oxfam intervention Non climate-related Climate-related Non-disaster related Disasters disasters climatic impacts E.g., earthquakes E.g., floods, droughts, E.g., temperature, hurricanes, cyclones unpredictable storm surges rainfall, sea level rise, saline intrusion However, as climate-related disasters are a major cause of poverty and suffering in almost all of the communities with which Oxfam works, more and more DRR programmes will integrate adaptation into their work with communities and in their advocacy. 4
  5. 5. • Oxfam is still in the process of analyzing how Climate Change is affecting the implementation of Oxfam-supported projects in the India (coastal, flood plain)). • If so, to reduce the impacts of climate change, Oxfam needs to incorporate adequate measures into its project design. Design adaptability, engagement on coping issues in 20 years Climate date that will affect our programmes • Temperature increase 0.5 - 2 °C by 2030 and 1 - 7 °C by 2070 • Increase in the frequency and intensity in rainfall (South Asia, South East Asia) • Increase in global sea-level rise 3 -16 cm by 2030 and 7-50 cm by 2070 • Increasing reduction in snow and ice in Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers 5
  6. 6. Impact on programmes • Impact on agriculture – shift in seasons and agro-ecological zones, water stress (drought and floods) and decline in water- table, reduced soil fertility and increasing salinity, loss of agricultural land due to sea water inundation, reduced crop and grass yields, and loss of livestock (food insecurity) • Contamination of ground Water; • Impact on coastal zones - sea water inundation and loss of land area, storm surge and coastal erosion, impact on aquaculture, coastal agriculture and reduction in fresh water availability • Increase conflict due to land use pressure, and resource use and migration (in direct affect) 6
  7. 7. The Project intervention (Design of DRR): • Project was not pre-designed, it has evolved with finding solutions and trials with community. • The project approach has been „community based disaster risk management‟. • The focus has been on- • To enable & capacitate the community; • To evolve community based coping mechanism; GDS believes in the principle that “sufferer is the first responder” 7 7
  8. 8. Situation/Problem Analysis: The poor and the women are the most vulnerable- the extent of vulnerability as well as coping capacity directly proportional to the socio-economic and gender status of the people.  Agriculture is the main source of livelihood;  Majority of farmers are small and marginal.  Flood destroys not only the Kharif (monsoon season) crop but also delays the next Rabi (winter season) crop due to water locking and water logging.  People‟s interest and investment in agriculture declining.  Seasonal male migration is rampant 8 8
  9. 9. Situation/Problem Analysis:  During floods gender discrimination is clearly visible  Women particularly the elderly eat and drink less to avoid going to toilet  Drinking water sources get submerged;  Conditions highly favourable for outbreak of epidemics;  People have accepted floods as destiny and resigned to their fate;  Dependency on relief assistance 9 9
  10. 10. The Model Finalization process: • Initiated with problem identification, analysis and prioritization. • Micro planning process initiated in villages with community participation. • Interventions designed for flood mitigation were based on specific problems identified during micro planning process. • Continuous process of participatory reviewing and deriving learning carried out- leading to timely refinement/fine-tuning in the implementation design 10 10
  11. 11. Integration of Climate Change with D ExperienceRM – GDS • Monsoons in the year 2007 broke all norms and trends- heavy rains in early July caused massive floods almost six weeks before the „normal‟ time for floods • While most components of the DRM model stood to the test, the agriculture safeguarding component (pre-flood paddy) was knocked completely off the course! • It forced us to give serious consideration to the phenomenon of „Climate Change‟ and to look out for ways to make our DRM and livelihoods interventions effective. 11
  12. 12. DRR & CC in Grameen Development Services Integration of Climate Change with DRM • Towards integrating the „climate change‟ dimension, we have undertaken a study to comprehend the issues and nuances related to climate change • The focus has been on the effects of climate change on livelihoods (especially, agriculture) 12
  13. 13. Study on Climate Change Phenomenon • The study has looked into the following aspects • Changes in climatic pattern • Impact on life and livelihoods • Coping Strategies • Demands • The method comprises of • FGDs and key informant interviews with community to understand their perspective on the issue • Taking inputs from scientists and subject matter experts 13
  14. 14. Changes in climate trends 1. Rainfall:  Late arrival and early end  Change in intensity and timing- becoming increasingly erratic  Decline in winter rains 14
  15. 15. Changes in climate trends 2. Seasons • Change in duration of the seasons • Summer are very hot and dry • Winter are concentrated and short • Fogs lasts throughout the day • Weak Pachuva and strong Purva • Absence of “loo” 15
  16. 16. Changes in climate trends 4. Floods • Change in the period of arrival • Persistent water-logging • Increase in intensity • Irregular pattern 16
  17. 17. Impact 1. Agriculture: • Damage to crops • Disturbance in crop-cycle • Need for multiple-irrigation, even during kharif • Rise in insect/pest infestation • Rise in weeds like khod jawaya, gilli danda and ban mutter • Fall in size of grains 17
  18. 18. Impact on Economy • Increase in cost of agriculture inputs; decline in production and productivity • Decline in livestock based livelihoods • Large scale migration 18
  19. 19. Emerging coping strategies • Use of high yielding varieties • Balanced use of fertilizers and pesticides • Creation co-operatives with the help of NGOs • Nursery cropping • Change in cropping pattern and sowing time • Growing bamboo terraces • Emphasis on jayad cropping • Preference to mixed cropping 19
  20. 20. Emerging demands • Better varieties • short-duration • heat and water tolerant • high yielding • More facilities to undertake jayad cropping • Knowledge of better practices in cropping • Micro-insurance for crop damage • Improved flood control programmes • Education on climate-change 20
  21. 21. Thank you 21