Cca and drr oxfam - regional consultation


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Cca and drr oxfam - regional consultation

  1. 1. Integrating Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction:Oxfam GB’s Approach Strengthening Climate Resilience (SCR) Regional Workshop AACC, Nairobi, Kenya 25th June 2010 Brian Otiende Climate Change Officer 1 Oxfam GB, Kenya Programme Email:
  2. 2. Introduction 1. Definitions 2. Oxfam GB’s Strategic Approach to CCA and DRR 3. Oxfam GB Kenya Programme Initiatives 4. Challenges, Opportunities 5. Conclusions & recommendations 2
  3. 3. Disaster Risk Management: Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)  DRM- Use of administrative decisions, organizations, operational skills and capacities to formulate and implement policies, strategies and coping capacities of communities to reduce the impacts of hazards/disasters  CCA- Adjustments in natural and human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli/effects which moderates harm or exploits benefits  Adjustments people and communities make (what & how) in response to, or in anticipation of a changing climate  DRR- Conceptual framework of elements considered with the possibilities to minimise vulnerabilities to disaster risks & impacts (prevention, preparedness) in the context of sustainable development context 3
  4. 4. Disasters,Hazards and Risks?  Disaster – Product of human vulnerability and physical hazards  Event overwhelming local capacity, necessitating appeal for external assistance from national or international level  Hazard-Potentially damaging physical event, or human activity that may cause harm (loss of life,injury, damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation)  Risk-Probability of harmful consequences or expected losses resulting from interaction between natural or human induced hazard and vulnerable conditions (impacts) 4
  5. 5. Climatic Related Disasters and Development  Climate variability and change is increasing the frequency and intensity of hydro- meteorological disasters (floods, droughts)  Climatic disasters have huge social and economic costs therefore a major threat to development  Disasters have the potential to stunt and reverse development gains and goals (national and MDGs) 5
  6. 6. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS POTENTIAL CLIMATE RISKS MDG 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and Loss of livelihoods and assets, reduced hunger economic growth, and undermined food security. MDG 2 Achieve universal primary Reduced ability of children to participate education in full-time education by loss of infrastructure, livelihoods (forcing children to work), and displaced families. MDG 3 Promote gender equality and Additional burdens on women as a most empower women vulnerable group and time to participate in decision-making and income-generating activities. MDGs Reduce child mortality; improve Greater prevalence of vector- and water- 4, 5, 6 maternal health; combat borne diseases, heat-related mortality. HIV/AIDS, malaria and other Declining food security, maternal health and diseases, availability of potable water stress. water. MDG 7 Ensure environmental Negatively impacted natural resources sustainability and productive ecosystems. 6
  7. 7. Oxfam GB and Climate Change  Development and humanitarian agency working with others to overcome poverty and suffering  CC is undermining Oxfam’s work and thus a corporate organisational priority  Equity and justice- caused by the rich but impacts fall hardest on the poor women and men in developing countries who bear the least responsibility  Urgency-even if emissions are cut rapidly today, impacts are already being felt by those living in poverty and may worsen hence need to adapt to unavoidable impacts 7
  8. 8. Strategic Approach  Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) -Considered within Oxfam’s broader work on development, humanitarian assistance and advocacy & campaigns (mainstreaming) -Responses vary tremendously and range from short-term to long-term actions (coping strategies and adaptive capacity and resilience)  Climate change mitigation -Advocating for rich countries to cut their emissions to avert dangerous climate change 8
  9. 9. Focus areas  Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)- humanitarian assistance to droughts and floods victims  Sustainable Livelihoods (SL)- building community resilience through livelihood diversification amongst pastoralists, agriculturists, urban lifestyles  Natural Resource Management (NRM)- water, soil, arid and semi arid lands, coastal ecosystems  Advocacy and campaigning on climate change - Gender is a key consideration due to differentiated impacts 9
  10. 10. What does Climate Change Adaptation Mean for Oxfam? Effective Adaptation What Adaptation is NOT Managing and reducing Good programming alone risks associated with CC Re-labelling existing work Planning for long term One size fits all impacts while reducing short Same as coping strategies term impacts Climate-compatible development Address local social, economic and climatic context Working at different levels Integrated into development, humanitarian, advocacy & governance 10
  11. 11. Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Disaster Risk Reduction  Common thread- Reduce people’s risk to climatic disasters before, during and after disasters Disaster Risk Reduction Non climate-related Climate-related disasters Non-disaster related disasters E.g., floods, droughts, climatic impacts E.g., earthquakes hurricanes, storm surges E.g., temperature, unpredictable rainfall, sea level rise, saline intrusion Incorporating robust Incorporating interventions that predicted changes in support communities deal with weather-related hazards gradual changes: focusing on into DRR (history is an livelihoods, natural resource increasingly unreliable guide management and national policy to the future) and practise (I.e., enabling environment) Climate Change Adaptation 11
  12. 12. Similarities and Differences between DRR and CCA  Similarities – Seek to build people’s resilience to hazards in the context of sustainable development – Minimize the human, social, economic costs  Differences – Different policies, frameworks, funding channels – DRR deals also with non-climate hazards, whereas adaptation addresses longer-term impacts/changes – DRR has a historical perspective based on prior experiences, whereas CCA tends to be perceived as having a future perspective and based on science – DRR focuses on traditional knowledge, whereas CCA can require resilience to risks that have not yet been experienced 12
  13. 13. Existing Opportunities and Linkages-DRR and CCA  Adaptation under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)  Bali Action Plan calls for: – DRR to advance adaptation; and – International cooperation to support implementation of adaptation actions including climate-resilient development and vulnerability reduction  Hyogo Framework of Action’s 5 priority areas -a strategic global approach to reducing vulnerability to disasters  DRR can be considered as the first line of defence whilst building long-term adaptation strategies  Disaster and climate risk reduction use similar tools: e.g. risk assessments, early warning, multi-sectoral approaches  Risk reduction is therefore a critical component of adaptation 13
  14. 14. ASALs: • Successive poor rains/heavy rains-flash floods • Return rate of droughts Agriculture: •Increased temperatures • Rainfall unpredictability/failure • Increased temperature Flood-prone areas: •Heavy rainfall •Increased temperature Coastal areas: • Heavy /unpredictable rainfall • Increasing temperatures •Coastal floods Urban areas: • Heavy rainfall events-localised urban floods •Urban heat 14 island effect
  15. 15. Oxfam GB Kenya Programme- ASAL and Urban  Strategic Direction 1: Working with pastoral and other marginalised communities in ASALs to address effects of chronic poverty, structural marginalisation and increasing vulnerability  Strategic Direction 2: Working with/for urban poor in informal settlements to address emerging urban crisis (poverty & vulnerability, poor governance, uncoordinated humanitarian response, marginalisation)  Building upon DRR experience in ASALs as an entry point to achieve long term Climate Change Adaptation for vulnerable ASAL and Urban communities 15
  16. 16. Kenya Programme National Policy- Climate Change, Peace Building and Conflict Mitigation, Policy and Advocacy Pillars  Strategic Direction 3: Skills and capacity development of staff and partners Governance (advocacy) Sustainable livelihoods (development) Disaster Risk Reduction (humanitarian)  A Right Based and One Programme Approach Integrates climate change in development, humanitarian, advocacy & campaigning 16
  17. 17. Projects  Assessing CC Vulnerability and Adaptation in Kenya’s ASALs and Urban areas (case studies)  Advocacy for Climate Proofing Kenya’s Development Agenda (National Policy and Strategy Review- (ASAL, Land, Livestock, Food & Nutrition, Disaster Management and Peace Building & Conflict Management)  Coordinating Kenyan Civil Society on Climate Change (Kenya Climate Change Working Group)  Climate Change Campaigning (Climate hearings in 2009 and tribunals in 2010)  Access to Flood Risk Information through Early Warning Systems in Nairobi 17
  18. 18. Existing Opportunities for Oxfam & Partners  Humanitarian Assistance – Responding to urgent and immediate humanitarian crises caused by climatic disasters to reduce suffering and loss of life , with best DRR practice  Long term development planning – New forms of climate-friendly development (climate proofing development) – Livelihood diversification  Advocacy and campaigning – Advocating and campaigning for emission reductions (40% below 1990 levels by 2020, 80- 95% by 2050) and transfer of international funds towards DRR and CCA – Adaptation finance-new and predictable (over and above ODA in the scale of $100billion/year) 18
  19. 19. Challenges  Chronic under development/investment and high poverty levels  Over dependence on reactive rather than proactive approaches  Weak institutional and governance structures  Lack/ weak policies  Uncoordinated efforts from different stakeholders  Weakness in mainstreaming/integrating CCA, DRR into programmes  Weakness in climatic disaster risk research capacity  Lack of financial resources  Lack of awareness amongst communities  Difficulties in distinguishing between adaptation, disaster risk reduction and development 19
  20. 20. Recommendations  Investment and addressing marginalization & social exclusion to address underlying causes of disasters  Promoting pro-active approaches through preparedness e.g. early warning systems, flood & drought management)  Advocating for strong institutional and governance structures  Linking policy and practice through implementation and project up scaling  Coordinating efforts across different stakeholders  Mainstreaming CCA and DRR into development  Investing in climate focused research and disaster risk analysis-Participatory capacity and vulnerability analysis (PCVA), community based disaster risk/adaptation  Advocating for international financing and budgetary allocation from national government  Community sensitization and education on risk reduction  Identifying commonalities between CCA, DRR and contribution to national development agenda 20
  21. 21. Conclusions  Efforts to adapt to the changing climate are intricately linked to the broader challenges of sustainable livelihoods, disaster risk reduction, natural resource management  Domestication of international frameworks (UNFCCC and HFA) must implemented at national and local level  All stakeholders must participate in addressing the challenge posed by climate change and natural disasters  DRR provides excellent opportunities for building community resilience and building adaptive capacity to CC 21
  22. 22. Thank You! 22