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Making Education more_open andy lane


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Making Education more_open andy lane

  1. 1. Making Education More Open with OER Professor Andy Lane, Senior Fellow, SCORE
  2. 2. The Opportunity <ul><li>Open Educational Resources are “… digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning and research. “ Giving Knowledge for Free: The Emergence of Open Educational Resources, OECD 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The most promising initiative in e-learning is the concept – and the developing reality, of open educational resources.” Sir John Daniel (OU, UNESCO, Commonwealth of Learning) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The UK must have a core of open access learning resources organised in a coherent way to support on-line and blended learning by all higher education institutions and to make it more widely available in non-HE environments.” On-line Innovation in Higher Education , Sir Ron Cooke , 2008 </li></ul>
  3. 3. The meaning of open in OER? (Geser, 2007)
  4. 4. Designs Many aspects and issues
  5. 5. Why make Educational Resources open? <ul><li>A growing momentum behind OER worldwide and emergence of creative commons licences </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with the OU’s commitment to social justice and widening participation </li></ul><ul><li>Helps build markets and reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges the divide between formal and informal learning </li></ul><ul><li>A test bed for new e-learning developments and an opportunity to research and evaluate them </li></ul><ul><li>A way of drawing in materials from other organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the basis for world-wide collaborations </li></ul>
  6. 6. Trends in the components of educational systems <ul><li>Analogue >>>>>>> Digital </li></ul><ul><li>Tethered >>>>>>> Mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated >>>>>>> Connected </li></ul><ul><li>Generic >>>>>>> Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers >>>>>>> Creators </li></ul><ul><li>Closed >>>>>>> Open </li></ul><ul><li>After David Wiley </li></ul>
  7. 7. Open communities as much as open content <ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 8. OER are what you make of them <ul><li>OER can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed explicitly for educational use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other content used for educational purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OER can be found in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>funded institutional repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>funded and non-funded community based initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proprietary channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>websites of projects, groups and individuals </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. For individuals the greater availability and accessibility of resources has been found to help them to: <ul><li>Learn new things or enrich other studies; </li></ul><ul><li>Share and discuss topics asynchronously or synchronously with other learners; </li></ul><ul><li>Assess whether they wish to participate in (further) formal education; </li></ul><ul><li>Decide which institution they want to study at; </li></ul><ul><li>Improve their work performance; </li></ul><ul><li>Create or revise OER themselves. </li></ul>
  10. 10. For teachers , individually and collectively, OER make it possible for them to: <ul><li>Create courses more efficiently and/or effectively, particularly using rich media resources that require advanced technical and media skills; </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate the ways in which others have taught their subject; </li></ul><ul><li>Create resources or courses in collaboration with others rather than doing it all themselves; </li></ul><ul><li>Join in communities of practice which help improve their teaching practices as they reflect on the community use of new open tools and technologies; </li></ul><ul><li>Customise and adapt resources by translating or localising them. </li></ul>
  11. 11. For educational institutions OER offers up opportunities to: <ul><li>Showcase their teaching and research programmes to wider audiences; </li></ul><ul><li>Widen the pool of applicants for their courses and programmes; </li></ul><ul><li>Lower the lifetime costs of developing educational resources; </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate with public and commercial organisations in new ways, including educational publishers; </li></ul><ul><li>Extend their outreach activities </li></ul>
  12. 12. For governments and national agencies OER offer scope to: <ul><li>Showcase their country’s educational systems; </li></ul><ul><li>Attract international students (to higher education at least); </li></ul><ul><li>Help drive changes in educational practices; </li></ul><ul><li>Develop educational resources in ‘minority’ languages that commercial publishers are reluctant to do so; </li></ul><ul><li>Develop educational resources that reflect local cultures and priorities; </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperate internationally on common resources to meet common needs. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stages in open educational resources development <ul><li>Legal: release of copyright through creative commons </li></ul><ul><li>Practical: provide access to content </li></ul><ul><li>Technical: develop an environment for open access </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogic: understand the designs that work </li></ul><ul><li>Economic: devise a model for sustainable operation </li></ul><ul><li>Transformative: change ways of working and learning </li></ul>
  14. 14. Missing layers in the open educational innovation infrastructure open educational content documents, learning objects, datasets, multimedia, etc… content sharing tools, platforms, devices, etc … sensemaking: community discourse R&E, market intelligence: user behaviour
  15. 15. Bridging informal and formal learning <ul><li>Learner comes first </li></ul><ul><li>Content is the hook </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix and match </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self pacing </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Impact on recruitment, preparation and progression
  17. 17. Designing for open learning <ul><li>Volunteer students </li></ul><ul><li>Use exercises and submit work </li></ul><ul><li>Custom portfolios for skills development </li></ul><ul><li>Whole courses with pay-as-you-go, on-demand accreditation </li></ul><ul><li>Social learners </li></ul><ul><li>Extending learning into social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Store and reveal the actions of learners </li></ul><ul><li>Self certification using data on user interaction </li></ul>
  18. 18. Collaborate and cooperate <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum extension </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow the digital divide </li></ul><ul><li>Work based learning </li></ul><ul><li>A common knowledge base </li></ul><ul><li>Remote communities </li></ul>
  19. 19. A test bed <ul><li>Different cultural settings </li></ul><ul><li>Informal collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Uptake of new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting other universities </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The Four Rs of OER and teaching and learning practices </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse – Use the work verbatim, just exactly as you found it </li></ul><ul><li>Rework – Alter or transform the work so that it better meets your needs </li></ul><ul><li>Remix – Combine the (verbatim or altered work) with other works to better meet your needs </li></ul><ul><li>Redistribute – Share the verbatim work, the reworked work, or the remixed work with others. </li></ul><ul><li>David Wiley, 2007 </li></ul>Open educational practices
  21. 21. <ul><li>Educational materials can act as a mediating object between teachers and learners </li></ul>Open educational practices Educational material Teachers Learners
  22. 22. <ul><li>Teacher-content interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of content </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of meaning/sense-making in content </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher - teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher - learner </li></ul></ul>Open educational practices
  23. 23. <ul><li>Learner-content interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Prior sense-making </li></ul><ul><li>Level of engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Testing sense-making </li></ul><ul><li>Augmented sense-making </li></ul><ul><li>Community involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner-learner cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner-learner collaboration </li></ul></ul>Open educational practices
  24. 24. <ul><li>Teacher- learner interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Course designer </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul><ul><li>Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Examiner </li></ul>Open educational practices
  25. 25. <ul><li>The implications of OER for mediating teaching and learning opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Granularity– the size and inter-dependence of modules </li></ul><ul><li>Judging the appropriate mix between: </li></ul><ul><li>- Pedagogic support (built into content) </li></ul><ul><li>- Personal support (self reflection and guidance) </li></ul><ul><li>- Peer support (mutual reflection and guidance) </li></ul><ul><li>- Professional support (expert reflection and guidance) </li></ul><ul><li>The use of new social computing technologies in facilitating support and interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Greater sharing of practice amongst teachers and learners </li></ul>