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Lessons learned from the Réserve Nationale de Gilé in Mozambique

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Presented during the 17h Annual Sahelo-Saharan Interest Group Meeting organized by the NGO Sahara Conservation Fund in Senegal, from 4 to 6 May 2017. The Sahara Conservation Fund (SCF) gathers every year about a hundred people who are interested in the field of Sahelo-Saharan species conservation.

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Lessons learned from the Réserve Nationale de Gilé in Mozambique

  1. 1. 17th Annual Sahelo-Saharan Interest Group Meeting 2 days of talks on biodiversity conservation in the Sahara and in the Sahel Lessons learned from the reintroduction of large mammals in Reserva Nacional do Gilé, Mozambique Philippe CHARDONNET et al., Directeur – Fondation Internationale pour la Gestion de la Faune May 4 – 6, 2017
  2. 2. SSIG 17 – May 2017 – Saint-Louis, Senegal Lessons learned from the reintroduction of large mammals in Reserva Nacional do Gilé, Mozambique Philippe Chardonnet, Alessandro Fusari, José Dias, Hugo Valls & Carlos Lopes Pereira
  3. 3. Reserva Nacional do Gilé 4,500 km²/450,000 ha Gile National Reserve Governance = Co-management between Government & NGO Mozambique Government & IGF Foundation Since 2007 10 years already!
  4. 4. Reserva Nacional do Gilé 4,500 km²/450,000 ha
  5. 5. Gilé National Reserve: 4,500 km²
  6. 6. Pristine dry Miombo woodland
  7. 7. Core area: no inhabitants Buffer zone: 12,500 people
  8. 8. Wildlife recovering Several species extinct
  9. 9. E. q. crawshayi Feasibility study: IUCN guidelines
  10. 10. C. t. johnstoni
  11. 11. S. c. caffer
  12. 12. Feasibility study: IUCN guidelines
  13. 13. Feasibility study: IUCN guidelines
  14. 14. 1st operation in 2012: Population source: Marromeu National Reserve (Zambezi delta to Indian ocean) & Gorongoza Natinal Park
  15. 15. Reintroduction operation n°1: - June 2012 - Taxon: African buffalo ssp. Cape (Syncerus caffer caffer) - Source: Marromeu National Reserve & Gorongoza National Park - Number: 20 Age pyramid of the first buffalo founder herd
  16. 16. 2nd operation in 2013: Population source: Niassa National Reserve
  17. 17. Reintroduction operation n°2: - September 2013 - Taxa: - African buffalo ssp. Cape (Syncerus caffer caffer) - Wildebeest ssp. - Zebra ssp. - Source: Niassa National Reserve - Number: 47 Age pyramid of the second buffalo founder herd
  18. 18. Age pyramid of the wildebeest founder herd Age pyramid of the zebra founder herd
  19. 19. Monitoring with satellite collars ID Species Date release Date end Duration B 373 Buffalo 24/06/2012 08/06/2014 2 years: 94% GPS success rate B 374 Buffalo 24/06/2012 15/06/2014 2 years: 57% GPS success rate B 375 Buffalo 24/06/2012 30/09/2013 1.3 years: 95% GPS success rate B 893 Buffalo 05/10/2013 11/09/2014 11 months: 98% GPS success rate B 894 Buffalo 28/09/2013 29/12/2014 1.3 years: 98% GPS success rate B 895 Buffalo 05/10/2013 10/11/2013 5 weeks: dispersed 100km and killed B 896 Buffalo 05/10/2013 26/11/2014 1.1 years: 80% GPS success rate W 4 Wildebeest 30/09/2013 12/02/2014 4.5 months: 93% GPS success rate W 5 Wildebeest 30/09/2013 27/07/2014 10 months: 93% GPS success rate Z 2 Zebra 30/09/2013 30/03/2014 6 months: 91% GPS success rate GPS collars to monitor reintroduced animals: -programmed to collect 1 location/4 hours -success rates indicate the percentage of recorded locations.
  20. 20. Monitoring with ear tags
  21. 21. 3 phases: • Post-release phase • Exploration/establishment • Residency/home range
  22. 22. Post-release dispersal of collared Buffalo during the first 5 days: - in 2012 (full lines) - in 2013 (dashed lines)
  23. 23. Distance from the release site of collared buffalo during the first 5 days: -in 2012 (full lines) -In 2013 (dashed lines)
  24. 24. Distance to the release site of collared wildebeest and zebra during the first 5 days
  25. 25. Distance from the release boma of collared buffalo reveals the fusion-fission dynamics following the 2012 reintroduction and 2013 reinforcement
  26. 26. Establishment of reintroduced Buffalo in GNR between 2012 and 2016. Coloured lines show the tracks of 5 Buffalo equipped with GPS satellite collars that remained in the reserve. The locations of direct sightings are shown by boxes. The numbers in each box indicate group size. The total home range of each collared buffalo was estimated by calculating the 95% utilisation distribution (2012-2014). The general area used by buffalo in 2015 and 2016 is given by the dashed-purple ellipses.
  27. 27. Establishment of reintroduced Wildebeest in GNR between 2013 and 2016. Coloured lines show the tracks of 2 Wildebeest equipped with GPS satellite collars. The locations of direct sightings are shown by boxes. The numbers in each box indicate group size. The two original herds remained separate in 2014 but appear to have merged and moved to the South-East of the reserve in 2015 (purple ellipsis).
  28. 28. Establishment of reintroduced Zebra in GNR between 2013 and 2016. The black line shows the track of 1 Zebra equipped with a GPS satellite collar. The locations of direct sightings are shown by boxes. The numbers in each box indicate group size. Following extensive movements throughout the North of the reserve, Zebra settled in the North, individuals not equipped with tracking devices appear to have followed the same pattern.
  29. 29. Buffalo exploration patterns in 2012 (left) and 2013 (right) are given by the area of the monthly home range (top row), the newly explored area (middle row) and the total area of known habitat (bottom row)
  30. 30. Wildebeest and zebra establishment: monthly home range area (left) and exploration (center) vary seasonally but decrease as individuals establish themselves. As a result, the total known area rapidly increased during the first dry season (right)
  31. 31. Home range of the Nassere Buffalo herd in 2014: -Dry season: the home range covers 243km2 (light orange, 95% UD) with a core area of 60km2 (dark orange, 50% UD) -Rainy season: the home range is reduced to a third of it’s extent, covering 78 km2 (light green, 95% UD), but Buffalo spend half of their time within 16km2 (dark green, 50% UD).
  32. 32. Home range of wildebeest W5 during the first 10 months: - the dry season home range covers 54 km2 (light orange, 95% UD) with a core area of 12 km2 (dark orange, 50% UD) - the rainy season home range is half as large covering 22 km2 (light green, 95% UD), but Wildebeest spend half of their time within only 5km2 (dark green, 50% UD)
  33. 33. Home range of the Z2 zebra group for the first 6 months: - Dry season: the home range covers 512 km2 (light orange, 95% UD) with a core area of 75 km2 (dark orange, 50% UD). - Rainy season: the home range is reduced to a third of it’s extent, covering 164 km2 (light green, 95% UD), but Zebra spend half of their time within 29 km2 (dark green, 50% UD)
  34. 34. Predicted age structure of the Gilé buffalo population: Dark bars overlaying the three first years correspond to recruitment inferred from field observations of Buffalo calves in 2014, 2015 and 2016.
  35. 35. Proposed new reintroduction site
  36. 36. Agro-ecology / conservation agriculture
  37. 37. Non-Timber Forest Products (food, construction, handicraft, traditional medicine, etc.) : Development of a formal sector
  38. 38. Mitigation of humans vs. wildlife conflicts²
  39. 39. Thank you!

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