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Conservation, security and risk in the Sahara-Sahel region

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Presented during the 17h Annual Sahelo-Saharan Interest Group Meeting organized by the NGO Sahara Conservation Fund in Senegal, from 4 to 6 May 2017. The Sahara Conservation Fund (SCF) gathers every year about a hundred people who are interested in the field of Sahelo-Saharan species conservation.

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Conservation, security and risk in the Sahara-Sahel region

  1. 1. 17th Annual Sahelo-Saharan Interest Group Meeting 2 days of talks on biodiversity conservation in the Sahara and in the Sahel Conservation, security and risk in the Sahara-Sahel Region Laura PERRY, Mark Stanley PRICE , Researchers – WildCRU, University of Oxford May 4 – 6, 2017
  2. 2. Implications for conservation Structure of the talk Drivers Overarching dynamics Basic information A way forward? Populations Economics Trade Instability Governance Climate
  3. 3. 2000 0 50,000,000 100,000,000 150,000,000 1960 1980 2000 Year TotalPopulation Country Nigeria Ethiopia Algeria Sudan Cameroon Niger Chad Burkina Faso Central Afric Eritrea Mali Mauritania Senegal South Sudan Population Growth Totalpopulation(millions) 0 50 100 150 1960 1980 Year 2020 Ethiopia Nigeria Algeria South Sudan 5 10 15 20 0 5,000,000 10,000,000 15,000,000 20,000,000 1960 1980 2000 Year TotalPopulation Country Cameroon Niger Chad Burkina Fa Central Af Eritrea Mali Mauritania Senegal South Sud Population Growth Human Population Growth Cameroon Niger Burkina Faso Mali Senegal Chad CAR Mauritania South Sudan Eritrea
  4. 4. Percentage of population <15 years World Bank Data, 2015 France: 18% UK: 18% Brazil: 23% India: 29%
  5. 5. Per capita GDP World Bank Data, 2014 $USD 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 A lgeria B urkina Faso C am eroon C entralA frican R epublic C had E thiopia M ali M auritania N iger N igeria S enegal S outh S udan S udan Country US$ National GDP per capita 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 0 UK: $43,700 Brazil: $9,000 Afghanistan: $600
  6. 6. Implications for Conservation Drivers Overarching dynamics Basic information A way forward? Populations Economics Trade Instability Governance Climate
  7. 7. Trade Bossard, L., 2014. An atlas of the Sahara-Sahel
  8. 8. Trade World Shipping Society Shaw and Reitano, Sahara Knowledge Exchange World Bank
  9. 9. Trade World Shipping Society Shaw and Reitano, Sahara Knowledge Exchange World Bank
  10. 10. Trade Bossard, L., 2014. An atlas of the Sahara-Sahel Illegal Weapons 3.4 Billion USD ICG, 2015
  11. 11. Governance USGS, Mineral Resources Data System
  12. 12. Kenya Climate and environment 0 - 50 50 - 200 200 - 400 Average annual rainfall (mm) 400 - 600 600+ Bossard, L., 2014. An atlas of the Sahara-Sahel
  13. 13. Human well-being Catastrophe Emergency Crisis Bold print indicates country is in conflict Africa Centre for Strategic Studies
  14. 14. AQUIM Al Quaeda Sinai based Al Shabaab Al Quaeda Boko Haram ISIS Africa Centre for Strategic Studies Areas affected by violence
  15. 15. Political Social Environmental Regional insecurity Weak governance Cash Weapons ? Religious insurgency Separatism Human distribution Alienation Livelihood vulnerability ? Weather variability Climate change Land degradation Food, water ? A perfect storm? Banditry, kidnapping Human demography
  16. 16. • More people - More pressure on government services - Food requirements - Pastoral livelihoods Implications for conservation Habitat loss and fragmentation; competition with livestock
  17. 17. Implications for conservation • Human distribution - Border control - Markets and trade - Insecurity - Livestock movement and ownership
  18. 18. Conservation Responses • Military intervention– a short-term fix • Emigration • Infrastructure– an underlying problem
  19. 19. Conservation Responses • Early warning systems? • Localism in NRM • Knowledge • New technology • Security The promise of new technology
  20. 20. Conclusions • Fortress conservation isn’t realistic • Coexistence and land sharing • Long-term funding • Appropriate role for governments
  21. 21. Thank-you

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