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Cohesion In EnglishCohesion In English
By: Waseem Azhar GilanyBy: Waseem Azhar Gilany
CohesionCohesion inin EnglishEnglish
 The various kinds of cohesion had been out lined byThe various kinds of cohesion ha...
TextText
Constituents ofConstituents of
TextText
Texture Ties Cohesion
TextureTexture
 ::
 Texture is that feature of text which made it a unifiedTexture is that feature of text which made it...
Five Cohesive Devices To CreateFive Cohesive Devices To Create
Texture:Texture:
 ReferenceReference
 SubstitutionSubstit...
Ties:Ties:
 The term refers to a single instance of cohesion.The term refers to a single instance of cohesion.
 Example:...
Different Kinds Of Cohesive TiesDifferent Kinds Of Cohesive Ties
 ReferenceReference
 SubstitutionSubstitution
 Ellipse...
CohesionCohesion
 ‘‘The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics by P.H.The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics by P...
Example:Example:
Time fliesTime flies
You can’t; they fly too quickly.You can’t; they fly too quickly.
You can’tYou can’t ...
Types OF CohesionTypes OF Cohesion
 Language is multiple coding system comprisingLanguage is multiple coding system compr...
 1. Grammatical Cohesion1. Grammatical Cohesion
(i) Reference(i) Reference
(ii) Substitution(ii) Substitution
(iii) Ellip...
Cohesion and the LinguisticsCohesion and the Linguistics
StructureStructure
 Texture and StructureTexture and Structure
S...
Cohesion With in the TextCohesion With in the Text
 Since cohesive relation is not concerned withSince cohesive relation ...
The Place of Cohesion in theThe Place of Cohesion in the
Linguistics SystemLinguistics System
Ideational Interpersonal Tex...
Conclusion:Conclusion:
 Cohesion is a part of text forming component inCohesion is a part of text forming component in
th...
(i) Reference(i) Reference
 There are certain items in any language which cannotThere are certain items in any language w...
Reference can be sub-categorizeReference can be sub-categorize
as followas follow
ReferenceReference
ExophoraExophora Endo...
ExophoraExophora
 It indicates situation references. AnaphoraIt indicates situation references. Anaphora
signals that ref...
EndophoraEndophora
 It is a general name for reference withinIt is a general name for reference within
the text. This ref...
ExampleExample::
 Child: why does that one come out?Child: why does that one come out?
 Parent: that whatParent: that wh...
Three Types Of ReferenceThree Types Of Reference
 Personal ReferencePersonal Reference
 Demonstrative ReferenceDemonstra...
Nominal GroupNominal Group
 The logical structure of the nominal group (noun phrase) is that it consistsThe logical struc...
Personal ReferencePersonal Reference
 It is a reference by means of function into a speechIt is a reference by means of f...
Here in the above example the use of personal pronouns isHere in the above example the use of personal pronouns is
a sourc...
Existential Possessive
Head Modifier
Noun (pronoun)
Determiner
I me
you
we us
he him
she her
they them
it
one
mine
yours
o...
Demonstrative ReferenceDemonstrative Reference
 .. It is essentially a form of verbalIt is essentially a form of verbal
p...
Table: Demonstrative
Reference
Selective Non-selective
Modifier Adjunct Modifier
determiner adverb determiner
this these
t...
 ExamplesExamples
Leave thatLeave that therethere and comeand come herehere..
WhereWhere do you come from?do you come fro...
Comparative ReferenceComparative Reference
 Here two types of comparison are given:Here two types of comparison are given...
(ii)Particular(ii)Particular ComparisonComparison
 Here comparison is made on the scale ofHere comparison is made on the ...
Table: Comparative reference
Modifier
Deictic /epithet
(see below)
Submodifier /adjuncts
Adjectives Adverb
same identical ...
2. Substitution2. Substitution
 Substitution is replacement of one linguistic item by another.Substitution is replacement...
Types of SubstitutionTypes of Substitution
 There are three types of substitution.There are three types of substitution.
...
NominalNominal SubstitutionSubstitution
 There are three nominal substitutes.There are three nominal substitutes.
 one, ...
The nominal substitute sameThe nominal substitute same
 Same typically accompanied bySame typically accompanied by thethe...
2. Verbal Substitution2. Verbal Substitution
 The verbal substitute isThe verbal substitute is do.do. This operates as he...
Note:Note: The word Do other than asThe word Do other than as
substitutesubstitute
 LexicalLexical verb doverb do
(he is ...
Clausal substitutionClausal substitution
 Here presupposed is not an elementHere presupposed is not an element
within the...
Substitution of Reported ClauseSubstitution of Reported Clause
 The reported clausal that is substituted byThe reported c...
Substitution of ConditionalSubstitution of Conditional
ClauseClause
 Conditional clause are also substituted byConditiona...
Substitution of Modalized ClauseSubstitution of Modalized Clause
 So and not also occur as substitute forSo and not also ...
The EndThe End
Allah HafizAllah Hafiz
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Cohesion types

Tipes of Cohesion in the English Language.

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Cohesion types

  1. 1. Cohesion In EnglishCohesion In English By: Waseem Azhar GilanyBy: Waseem Azhar Gilany
  2. 2. CohesionCohesion inin EnglishEnglish  The various kinds of cohesion had been out lined byThe various kinds of cohesion had been out lined by MAK Halliday in his writings on stylistics and theMAK Halliday in his writings on stylistics and the concept was developed by Ruqaiya Hasan in herconcept was developed by Ruqaiya Hasan in her University of Edinburgh doctoral thesis.University of Edinburgh doctoral thesis.  Cohesive relations are relations between two orCohesive relations are relations between two or more elements in a text that are independent of themore elements in a text that are independent of the structure: for example between a personal pronounstructure: for example between a personal pronoun and an antecedent proper name, such as Johnand an antecedent proper name, such as John ….he. A semantic relation of this kind may be set up….he. A semantic relation of this kind may be set up either within a sentence with the consequence thateither within a sentence with the consequence that when it crosses a sentence boundary it has thewhen it crosses a sentence boundary it has the effect of making the two sentences cohere with oneeffect of making the two sentences cohere with one another.another.  The major function of cohesion is text formation.The major function of cohesion is text formation. As defined: text is a unified whole of linguisticAs defined: text is a unified whole of linguistic items, this unity of text as a semantic whole isitems, this unity of text as a semantic whole is source for the concept of cohesion.source for the concept of cohesion.
  3. 3. TextText Constituents ofConstituents of TextText Texture Ties Cohesion
  4. 4. TextureTexture  ::  Texture is that feature of text which made it a unifiedTexture is that feature of text which made it a unified whole.whole.  According to ‘The Concise Oxford Dictionary ofAccording to ‘The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics by P.H. Mathews’ cohesion and coherenceLinguistics by P.H. Mathews’ cohesion and coherence are sources which create texture. Crystal addsare sources which create texture. Crystal adds ‘informativeness’ to cohesion and coherence.‘informativeness’ to cohesion and coherence.   Example:Example:  Wash and coreWash and core six cooking applessix cooking apples. Put. Put themthem into ainto a fireproof dishfireproof dish
  5. 5. Five Cohesive Devices To CreateFive Cohesive Devices To Create Texture:Texture:  ReferenceReference  SubstitutionSubstitution  EllipsesEllipses  ConjunctionConjunction  Lexical CohesionLexical Cohesion
  6. 6. Ties:Ties:  The term refers to a single instance of cohesion.The term refers to a single instance of cohesion.  Example:Example:  Wash and coreWash and core six cooking applessix cooking apples . Put. Put themthem into a fireproof dish.into a fireproof dish.  ThemThem andand six cooking applessix cooking apples show reference as tie.show reference as tie.  If we take the Example:If we take the Example:  Wash and coreWash and core six cooking applessix cooking apples . Put. Put the applesthe apples into a fireproof dish.into a fireproof dish.  Here are two tiesHere are two ties (i) Reference(i) Reference (ii) Repetition(ii) Repetition
  7. 7. Different Kinds Of Cohesive TiesDifferent Kinds Of Cohesive Ties  ReferenceReference  SubstitutionSubstitution  EllipsesEllipses  ConjunctionConjunction  Lexical cohesionLexical cohesion
  8. 8. CohesionCohesion  ‘‘The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics by P.H.The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics by P.H. Mathews (1997)’ defines cohesion in term of syntactic unitMathews (1997)’ defines cohesion in term of syntactic unit (sentence).(sentence).  ‘‘ A Dictionary Of Linguistics And Phonetics by DavidA Dictionary Of Linguistics And Phonetics by David Crystal (1997)’ defines cohesion in terms of a grammaticalCrystal (1997)’ defines cohesion in terms of a grammatical unit (words)unit (words)  MAKH and RH (1976) argued that the concept of cohesionMAKH and RH (1976) argued that the concept of cohesion is semantic one. For them it refers to relation of meaningis semantic one. For them it refers to relation of meaning that:that: exists with in textexists with in text gives the text texturegives the text texture defines the text as textdefines the text as text  This relation of meaning between the elements gives theThis relation of meaning between the elements gives the reader presupposition. This is another way of approachingreader presupposition. This is another way of approaching the notion of cohesion that presupposing and thethe notion of cohesion that presupposing and the presupposed give us a presupposition at semantic level aspresupposed give us a presupposition at semantic level as a relation of meaning: The one element presupposes thea relation of meaning: The one element presupposes the other i.e. the one element cannot be decoded without theother i.e. the one element cannot be decoded without the
  9. 9. Example:Example: Time fliesTime flies You can’t; they fly too quickly.You can’t; they fly too quickly. You can’tYou can’t (Ellipses)(Ellipses) They (Reference)They (Reference) Fly (Lexical Cohesion)Fly (Lexical Cohesion)
  10. 10. Types OF CohesionTypes OF Cohesion  Language is multiple coding system comprisingLanguage is multiple coding system comprising three levels of codingthree levels of coding MeaningMeaning The semantic systemThe semantic system WordingWording The lexicogrammatical systemThe lexicogrammatical system (grammar an vocabulary)(grammar an vocabulary) Sounding/writingSounding/writing The phonological andThe phonological and orthographical systemorthographical system  Cohesive relation fit into the overall pattern ofCohesive relation fit into the overall pattern of language. Cohesion is expressed partly throughlanguage. Cohesion is expressed partly through vocabulary and partly through grammar.vocabulary and partly through grammar.
  11. 11.  1. Grammatical Cohesion1. Grammatical Cohesion (i) Reference(i) Reference (ii) Substitution(ii) Substitution (iii) Ellipses(iii) Ellipses  2. Lexical Cohesion2. Lexical Cohesion  The distinction between grammatical cohesion andThe distinction between grammatical cohesion and Lexical cohesion is a matter of degree and MAHK RHLexical cohesion is a matter of degree and MAHK RH suggested not to go in the depth of these overlappingsuggested not to go in the depth of these overlapping areas and that conjunction is on the border line of theareas and that conjunction is on the border line of the two types mainly it is grammatical but with the lexicaltwo types mainly it is grammatical but with the lexical component so we cannot clearly distinguish betweencomponent so we cannot clearly distinguish between the two types.the two types.
  12. 12. Cohesion and the LinguisticsCohesion and the Linguistics StructureStructure  Texture and StructureTexture and Structure Structure is one mean of expressing of texture. Text consistStructure is one mean of expressing of texture. Text consist of one sentence are fairly rare but they can be singleof one sentence are fairly rare but they can be single sentences as well for Example:sentences as well for Example: No smokingNo smoking Wonder never ceaseWonder never cease  But most of the text extends beyond the confines of singleBut most of the text extends beyond the confines of single sentences so structure important in a text as structural unitssentences so structure important in a text as structural units such as phrase, clause and sentence which express thesuch as phrase, clause and sentence which express the unity of text. But our use of term Cohesion refers especiallyunity of text. But our use of term Cohesion refers especially to the non structural text forming relation. They areto the non structural text forming relation. They are semantic relations and the text is a semantic unit.semantic relations and the text is a semantic unit.
  13. 13. Cohesion With in the TextCohesion With in the Text  Since cohesive relation is not concerned withSince cohesive relation is not concerned with structure, they may be found just as well with in thestructure, they may be found just as well with in the sentence as between sentences cohesive relationsentence as between sentences cohesive relation are beyond the sentences boundaries. Cohesion isare beyond the sentences boundaries. Cohesion is semantic relation between one element in the textsemantic relation between one element in the text and some other element that is crucial for itsand some other element that is crucial for its interpretation. This other element must also be foundinterpretation. This other element must also be found with in the text. Cohesion refers to the range ofwith in the text. Cohesion refers to the range of possibilities that exist for linking something with whatpossibilities that exist for linking something with what has gone before.has gone before.
  14. 14. The Place of Cohesion in theThe Place of Cohesion in the Linguistics SystemLinguistics System Ideational Interpersonal Textual Experiential Logical Structural Non-structural By Rank: Clause: Transitivity Verbal Group: Tense Nominal Group: Epithesis Adverbial Group: circmstance All Ranks: Practice and hypotactic relations (condition, addition, report) By Ranks Clause: Mood, modality Verbal Group: person Nominal Group: attitude Adverbial Group: comment By Rank Clause: theme Verbal Group: voice Nominal Group: deixis Adverbial Group: conjunction Cross-Rank Information Unit: Information distribution, Information focus Cohesion Reference Substitution Ellipses Conjunction Lexical cohesion
  15. 15. Conclusion:Conclusion:  Cohesion is a part of text forming component inCohesion is a part of text forming component in the linguistics system. It links together thethe linguistics system. It links together the elements that are structurally unrelated throughelements that are structurally unrelated through the dependence of one on the other for itsthe dependence of one on the other for its interpretation. Without cohesion the semanticinterpretation. Without cohesion the semantic system cannot be effectively activated at all.system cannot be effectively activated at all.
  16. 16. (i) Reference(i) Reference  There are certain items in any language which cannotThere are certain items in any language which cannot be interpreted semantically in their own right ratherbe interpreted semantically in their own right rather they make reference to something else within the textthey make reference to something else within the text for their interpretation.for their interpretation.  Here is an example of reference:Here is an example of reference: Doctor Foster went to Gloucester in a shower ofDoctor Foster went to Gloucester in a shower of rainrain He stepped in puddle right up to his middleHe stepped in puddle right up to his middle And never went there againAnd never went there again  Here in the above example:Here in the above example: HeHe refers back torefers back to Doctor FosterDoctor Foster ThereThere refers back torefers back to GloucesterGloucester
  17. 17. Reference can be sub-categorizeReference can be sub-categorize as followas follow ReferenceReference ExophoraExophora EndophoraEndophora AnaphoraAnaphora CataphoraCataphora
  18. 18. ExophoraExophora  It indicates situation references. AnaphoraIt indicates situation references. Anaphora signals that reference must be made to thesignals that reference must be made to the context of situation. It is outside the text so it iscontext of situation. It is outside the text so it is called anaphoric reference.called anaphoric reference.  Example;Example; For he’s a jolly good fellow and so say all of us.For he’s a jolly good fellow and so say all of us. Here text is not indicating who he is?Here text is not indicating who he is?
  19. 19. EndophoraEndophora  It is a general name for reference withinIt is a general name for reference within the text. This reference can be of twothe text. This reference can be of two types.types.  Anaphora:Anaphora: Reference backReference back  Cataphora:Cataphora: Reference forwardReference forward
  20. 20. ExampleExample::  Child: why does that one come out?Child: why does that one come out?  Parent: that whatParent: that what  Child: that one.Child: that one.  Parent: that one what?Parent: that one what?  Child: that lever there that you push to let theChild: that lever there that you push to let the water out.water out. That oneThat one that lever (cataphoric reference)that lever (cataphoric reference) That leverThat lever thatthat (anaphoric reference)(anaphoric reference)
  21. 21. Three Types Of ReferenceThree Types Of Reference  Personal ReferencePersonal Reference  Demonstrative ReferenceDemonstrative Reference  Comparative ReferenceComparative Reference It is better first explain theIt is better first explain the structure of nominal group thenstructure of nominal group then proceed towards three types ofproceed towards three types of Reference. It is because we willReference. It is because we will analyze nominal group for cohesiveanalyze nominal group for cohesive analysis of these cohesive devices.analysis of these cohesive devices.
  22. 22. Nominal GroupNominal Group  The logical structure of the nominal group (noun phrase) is that it consistsThe logical structure of the nominal group (noun phrase) is that it consists of head with optional modifier the modifying elements include some whichof head with optional modifier the modifying elements include some which precede the head and some which follow it. They can be referred asprecede the head and some which follow it. They can be referred as PrePre modifiermodifier andand PostPost modifiermodifier respectively.respectively.  ExampleExample The two high stone wall along the roadside.The two high stone wall along the roadside. WallWall ------------------------ HeadHead The two high stoneThe two high stone ------------------------ Pre modifierPre modifier Along the roadsideAlong the roadside ------------------------ Post modifierPost modifier The modifier can be further subcategorized as:The modifier can be further subcategorized as:  DeicticDeictic  NumerativeNumerative  EpithetEpithet  ClassifierClassifier  QualifierQualifier  ThingThing  ExampleExample TheirTheir famousfamous oldold redred wine.wine. DeicticDeictic DeicticDeictic epithetepithet classifierclassifier thingthing DeterminerDeterminer adjectiveadjective adjectiveadjective adjectiveadjective nounnoun
  23. 23. Personal ReferencePersonal Reference  It is a reference by means of function into a speechIt is a reference by means of function into a speech situation through the category of the person in thesituation through the category of the person in the form of personal pronouns. The category of personsform of personal pronouns. The category of persons includes the three classes of personal pronouns. Theincludes the three classes of personal pronouns. The category of person includes the three classes ofcategory of person includes the three classes of personal pronouns. During the communicationpersonal pronouns. During the communication process the speech roles are assigned to theprocess the speech roles are assigned to the participants through the person system as:participants through the person system as: SpeakerSpeaker AddresseeAddressee  It/one are used as a generalized form for other itemsIt/one are used as a generalized form for other items  ExampleExample If the buyer wants to look the condition of theIf the buyer wants to look the condition of the property, he has to have another survey. Oneproperty, he has to have another survey. One carried out on his own behalf.carried out on his own behalf.
  24. 24. Here in the above example the use of personal pronouns isHere in the above example the use of personal pronouns is a source of personal referencea source of personal reference BuyerBuyer hehe hishis SurveySurvey oneone  If possessive pronouns are used, they give two moreIf possessive pronouns are used, they give two more notions other than Speaker and Addressee. They arenotions other than Speaker and Addressee. They are that ofthat of Possessor and PossessedPossessor and Possessed ExampleExample That new house is John’s. I didn’t know it was hisThat new house is John’s. I didn’t know it was his PossessorPossessor JohnJohn PossessedPossessed househouse (shown by the use of his and ‘s)(shown by the use of his and ‘s)
  25. 25. Existential Possessive Head Modifier Noun (pronoun) Determiner I me you we us he him she her they them it one mine yours ours his hers theirs [its] my yours our his her their its one’s Semantic category Grammatical function Class Person: speaker (only) addressee (s), with/without other person(s) speaker and other person other person, male other person, female other persons, objects object; passage of text generalized person Table: Personal Reference
  26. 26. Demonstrative ReferenceDemonstrative Reference  .. It is essentially a form of verbalIt is essentially a form of verbal pointing. The speaker identifies or pointspointing. The speaker identifies or points pout the referent by locating it on scale ofpout the referent by locating it on scale of proximity. The system of demonstrativeproximity. The system of demonstrative pronoun is given in the following table.pronoun is given in the following table.
  27. 27. Table: Demonstrative Reference Selective Non-selective Modifier Adjunct Modifier determiner adverb determiner this these that those here [now] there then the Semantic category Grammatical category Class Proximity: near far neutral
  28. 28.  ExamplesExamples Leave thatLeave that therethere and comeand come herehere.. WhereWhere do you come from?do you come from? I like the lions and I like the polar bears.I like the lions and I like the polar bears. TheseThese are my favorites andare my favorites and thosethose are myare my favorites too.favorites too.
  29. 29. Comparative ReferenceComparative Reference  Here two types of comparison are given:Here two types of comparison are given:  General ComparisonGeneral Comparison  Particular ComparisonParticular Comparison  General ComparisonGeneral Comparison  Here things compared show likeness or unlikenessHere things compared show likeness or unlikeness without considering any particular property. Likenesswithout considering any particular property. Likeness or unlikeness is referential property as something isor unlikeness is referential property as something is can be like something else.can be like something else.  ExampleExample  It’s the same cat as the one we saw yesterday.It’s the same cat as the one we saw yesterday.  Its different cat from the one we saw yesterdayIts different cat from the one we saw yesterday
  30. 30. (ii)Particular(ii)Particular ComparisonComparison  Here comparison is made on the scale ofHere comparison is made on the scale of quantity or quality it is a matter of degreequantity or quality it is a matter of degree compare things on this scale. In other words wecompare things on this scale. In other words we can say it expresses the comparability betweencan say it expresses the comparability between things.things.  ExampleExample We are demanding higher living standard.We are demanding higher living standard. There are twice as many people there as theThere are twice as many people there as the ll ast time.ast time.
  31. 31. Table: Comparative reference Modifier Deictic /epithet (see below) Submodifier /adjuncts Adjectives Adverb same identical equal similar additional other different else identically similarly likewise so such differently otherwise better, more etc [comparative adjectives and quantifiers] so more less equally Grammatical function Class General comparison: Identity general similarity difference (ie non-identity or similarity) Particular comparison:
  32. 32. 2. Substitution2. Substitution  Substitution is replacement of one linguistic item by another.Substitution is replacement of one linguistic item by another. Ellipses is also a kind of Substitution where one linguistic itemEllipses is also a kind of Substitution where one linguistic item is replaced by nothing/ zero. Therefore it is an omission of anis replaced by nothing/ zero. Therefore it is an omission of an item.item.  When we talk about replacement of one item by another,When we talk about replacement of one item by another, we mean replacement of one word/phrase with another word orwe mean replacement of one word/phrase with another word or phrase. We can say substitution is a relation onphrase. We can say substitution is a relation on lexicogrammatical level. It is used to avoid repetition of alexicogrammatical level. It is used to avoid repetition of a particular item. But while locating cohesion through substitutionparticular item. But while locating cohesion through substitution semantic is involved.semantic is involved.  ExampleExample  MyMy axe is too blunt. I mist get a sharper one.axe is too blunt. I mist get a sharper one.  You know John already knows. I think everybodyYou know John already knows. I think everybody does.does.
  33. 33. Types of SubstitutionTypes of Substitution  There are three types of substitution.There are three types of substitution.  Nominal SubstitutionNominal Substitution  Verbal SubstitutionVerbal Substitution  Clausal substitutionClausal substitution
  34. 34. NominalNominal SubstitutionSubstitution  There are three nominal substitutes.There are three nominal substitutes.  one, ones, same.one, ones, same.  The nominal substitute one/onesThe nominal substitute one/ones  TheThe substitute one/ones always function as head of asubstitute one/ones always function as head of a nominal group and can substitute only for an item which isnominal group and can substitute only for an item which is itself head a nominal group.itself head a nominal group.  ExampleExample  I’ve heard some strangeI’ve heard some strange storiesstories in my time. But thisin my time. But this oneone was perhaps the strangest one of all.was perhaps the strangest one of all.  NoteNote: The word other than a substitute can be used as: The word other than a substitute can be used as  The personal pronoun oneThe personal pronoun one  Cardinal numeral oneCardinal numeral one  Determiner oneDeterminer one
  35. 35. The nominal substitute sameThe nominal substitute same  Same typically accompanied bySame typically accompanied by thethe presupposepresuppose an entire nominal group.an entire nominal group.  ExampleExample  A:A: I’ll have two poached eggs on toast, please.I’ll have two poached eggs on toast, please.  B:B: I’ll haveI’ll have the samethe same  The Same can have following expressions as:The Same can have following expressions as: Say the sameSay the same DO the sameDO the same Be the sameBe the same
  36. 36. 2. Verbal Substitution2. Verbal Substitution  The verbal substitute isThe verbal substitute is do.do. This operates as head of a verbalThis operates as head of a verbal group. Lexical verb is replaced bygroup. Lexical verb is replaced by dodo and its position is on the finaland its position is on the final in the group.in the group.  Example from AliceExample from Alice  The words did notThe words did not comecome the same as they used tothe same as they used to dodo..  It can also substitute for a verb plus certain other elements in theIt can also substitute for a verb plus certain other elements in the clause.clause.   ExampleExample  I don’tI don’t know the meaning of half those language wordsknow the meaning of half those language words andand what’s more, I don’t believe youwhat’s more, I don’t believe you dodo either.either.
  37. 37. Note:Note: The word Do other than asThe word Do other than as substitutesubstitute  LexicalLexical verb doverb do (he is doing)(he is doing)  GeneralGeneral verb doverb do (they did a dance)(they did a dance)  Pro-verb doPro-verb do {do(action), happen(event)}{do(action), happen(event)}
  38. 38. Clausal substitutionClausal substitution  Here presupposed is not an elementHere presupposed is not an element within the clause but an entire clause.within the clause but an entire clause. SoSo andand NotNot areare clausalclausal substitutessubstitutes  ExampleExample  IsIs there going to be an earth quakethere going to be an earth quake? - it? - it sayssays soso  Types of Clausal SubstitutionTypes of Clausal Substitution  There are three types of clausalThere are three types of clausal substitution.substitution.  Substitution of reported clauseSubstitution of reported clause  Substitution of conditional clauseSubstitution of conditional clause  Substitution of modalized clauseSubstitution of modalized clause
  39. 39. Substitution of Reported ClauseSubstitution of Reported Clause  The reported clausal that is substituted byThe reported clausal that is substituted by soso oror notnot isis always declarative whatever the mood of the presupposedalways declarative whatever the mood of the presupposed clause is whether interrogative or imperative.clause is whether interrogative or imperative.  ExampleExample  Has everyone gone homeHas everyone gone home? I hope? I hope notnot..  I didn’t think so.I didn’t think so.  (I hope not (that) every one has gone home)(I hope not (that) every one has gone home)  Is this mango ripeIs this mango ripe? – It seems? – It seems soso..  The essential distinction to be made here is that betweenThe essential distinction to be made here is that between reports and facts. Reports can be substituted whereas facts canreports and facts. Reports can be substituted whereas facts can not, reason is that facts are encoded at semantic level whilenot, reason is that facts are encoded at semantic level while clausal substitute works at lexicogrammatical level only.clausal substitute works at lexicogrammatical level only.
  40. 40. Substitution of ConditionalSubstitution of Conditional ClauseClause  Conditional clause are also substituted byConditional clause are also substituted by soso andand notnot especially following if / assuming so /especially following if / assuming so / suppose so etc.suppose so etc.  ExampleExample  Everyone seems to thinkEveryone seems to think he’s guiltyhe’s guilty. If. If soso, no doubt he’ll offer to resign, no doubt he’ll offer to resign  We should recognize the place when we comeWe should recognize the place when we come to itto it. Yes, but supposing. Yes, but supposing notnot then what do wethen what do we do?do?
  41. 41. Substitution of Modalized ClauseSubstitution of Modalized Clause  So and not also occur as substitute forSo and not also occur as substitute for clauses expressing modality.clauses expressing modality.  ExampleExample  ‘‘May I give you a slice?’ sheMay I give you a slice?’ she said.said.  ‘‘CertainlyCertainly notnot’ the red queen’ the red queen said.said.
  42. 42. The EndThe End Allah HafizAllah Hafiz

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