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Hou Maolin — Influence of climate change on bionomics of the brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens

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The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) jointly hosted the International Conference on Climate Change and Food Security (ICCCFS) November 6-8, 2011 in Beijing, China. This conference provided a forum for leading international scientists and young researchers to present their latest research findings, exchange their research ideas, and share their experiences in the field of climate change and food security. The event included technical sessions, poster sessions, and social events. The conference results and recommendations were presented at the global climate talks in Durban, South Africa during an official side event on December 1.

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Hou Maolin — Influence of climate change on bionomics of the brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens

  1. 1. Influence of climate change on bionomics of the brown planthopper, planthopper Nilaparvata lugens g Maolin Hou, Yi L M li H Ying Long, B k Shi Baokun Institute of Plant Protection Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences y g
  2. 2. Climate change and occurrence of the brown planthopperDr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS2011/11/16
  3. 3. Global warming gTemperature anomalies (relative to the twentieth centuryDr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS2011/11/16 mean) in the north hemisphere. Gustafson, 2010
  4. 4. Global warming g Temperature anomalies in Sept (relative to the mean from Sept.1948 to 2005) in temperate zone (116º~122ºE, 28º~33ºN) of Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16 China
  5. 5. Atmospheric CO2 level pDr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS2011/11/16 Gustafson, 2010
  6. 6. Brown planthopper (BPH) p pp ( ) Migratory insect pest Overwinter only in the south of China Prefer high temperature (25 28ºC) temperat re (25-28ºC) Damage only cultivated and wild rice Brachyptery MacropteryDr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS2011/11/16
  7. 7. BPH damage g Piercing phloem-sap phloem sap Virus disease Transmit virus diseases Piercing sap Hopperburn ppDr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS2011/11/16
  8. 8. BPH occurrence regions Sporadic occurrence Frequent occurrence Heavy occurrenceDr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS2011/11/16 Hu et al,1997
  9. 9. BPH occurrence severity y 4 3 2 1 0 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005-1-2 Occurrence anomalies of the brown planthopper (0Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS2011/11/16 represents moderate occurrence) in China
  10. 10. Occurrence acreage g 60000 (×667 hectare-time) 发生面积 50000发生面积(万亩次) 40000 30000 20000 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  11. 11. Most heavy occurrence in 2005 Swarming around road lamp Light trappedDr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS2011/11/16
  12. 12. Reasons underlying BPH heavy occurrenceSince th 1970 BPH outbreaks occurred predominantly iSi the 1970s, tb k d d i tl inthe autumn, most of which are attributable, to a large extent,to favorable climatic conditions notably favorable conditions,temperature (Cheng et al. 2003, Cheng and Zhu 2006). Climate change CO2 level Temperature BPH Rice Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  13. 13. Interpreting climate change effects What will be the population trend of and damage by BPH at the future climate scenario? Closed chamber test Literature Open-top chamber test Bionomic parametersClimate change scenario Population growth model Population dynamics Yield damage model Yi ld d d l Yield damage Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  14. 14. Effects of temperature on mate mate- location behavior in BPHDr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS2011/11/16
  15. 15. Temperature & mate-location behavior BPHClimate change Quick development, high survival, (Busch et al 2008) al. long lifespan, high fecundity (Li 1984;Chen 1986;Gu et al. 1993; Suitable Dai et al. 1997)Warm autumn temperature High mating rate (Liu et al. 2004) Mate-location signals Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  16. 16. Temperature & mate-location behavior• Mate-location signals in BPH: acoustic signals produced by abdominal vibration.• The signals are transmitted via rice stems. Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  17. 17. Temperature & mate-location behavior• Experiment design Temperature treatment: 20, 28 and 32ºC; CO2 concentration: ambient; 5 d old virgin brachypterous adults Photoperiod L:D = 14:8 light intensity 3000lx 14:8, 无法显示图像。计算机可能没有足够的内存以打开该图像,也可能是该图像已损坏。请重新启动计算机,然后重新打开该文件。如果仍然显示红色 “x”,则可能需要删除该图像,然后重新将其插入。 Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  18. 18. Temperature & mate-location behavior• Production of mate-location signals in brachypterous females g yp ♀ quency per female 100 ns A 10 B% vibrating females s 80 8 60 6 Vibration freq 40 4 ns * * 20 2 0 0 20℃ 28℃ 32℃ 20℃ 28℃ 32℃ Percent of vibrating females were reduced at temperatures of 20 and 32ºC as compared with 28ºC (A). Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  19. 19. Temperature & mate-location behavior• Production of mate-location signals in brachypterous females g yp ♀ male (s) C 40 D Duration of single vibrati (s) 350 a a ion 300 35 ation per fem 30 250 a a 25 200 20 a 150 15 ibration dura 100 b 10 50 5 0 0 Vi 20℃ 28℃ 32℃ 20℃ 28℃ 32℃ Abdominal vibration lasted longer at both 20ºC and 28ºC than at 32ºC (C). Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  20. 20. Temperature & mate-location behavior• Production of mate-location signals in brachypterous males g yp ♂ 100 A 7 B Vibration frequency pe male 6 er 80 brating males s 5 60 4 3 40 *% vib f 2 ns 20 1 0 0 20℃ 28℃ 20℃ 28℃ The males exposed to 32ºC all showed no abdominal p vibration. At 20ºC, percent of vibrating males (A) was significantly reduced than that at 28ºC. Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  21. 21. Temperature & mate-location behavior• Production of mate-location signals in brachypterous males g yp ♂ D ation (s) 20 C Vibration duration per male (s) 120 a a 100 Duration of single vibra 15 80 60 10 f 40 5 20 b b 0 0 V 20℃ 28℃ 20℃ 28℃ Vibration duration per male ( ) and duration of single p (C) g vibration (D) were significantly shortened at 20ºC than at 28ºC. Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  22. 22. Temperature & mate-location behavior• Perception of mate-location signals p g ns A ns B siveness to female 100 100 ales % males located fema f 80 80 ration (%) 60 60 * ns ns * 40 40 Male respons vibr 20 20 0 0 M 20℃ 28℃ 32℃ 20℃ 28℃ 32℃ At 20ºC male responsiveness was reduced than at 28ºC (A) 20ºC, (A). Fewer males located females at 32ºC than at 28ºC (B). Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  23. 23. Temperature & mate-location behavior• Perception of mate-location signals p g C Time needed for mate locati (s) 700 ion 600 a a 500 400 300 200 b 100 n 0 20℃ 28℃ 32℃ The time needed for mate location was prolonged at both 20ºC and 32ºC than at 28ºC. Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  24. 24. Temperature & mate-location behavior• Conclusion Unsuitable temperature Inhibit production of Impair perception of mate-location signals g mate-location signals g Low rate of mate location and mating mate-location Warm autumn High rate of mating and population growth Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  25. 25. Effects of elevated CO2 on BPH fitnessDr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS2011/11/16
  26. 26. CO2 and BPH fitness CO2 RiceClosed chamber Closed chamber BPH Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16 Open-top chamber
  27. 27. CO2 and BPH fitness• Experiment design CO2 treatment: 360 ppm (ambient, aCO2) and 750 ppm (elevated, eCO2); (elevated Temperature: 28ºC/23ºC for day/night cycle Relative humidity: 70-80% Photoperiod L:D = 14:8, light intensity 5500-6500 lx Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  28. 28. CO2 and BPH fitness mary 20 a a ers• Rice development meter of prim stem (cm) and no. of tille 35 15 360 ppm 750 ppm Leaf area (cm ), width and length a 30 a 25 10 d Heigh and diam 20 5 a a a (cm) 15 a a a 2 10 b a m 0 ht 5 0 Height of Diameter of No. tillers Leaf area Leaf width Leaf length primary stem primary stem 14Weigh of stem an root (mg) 12 b 10 a nd 8 6 4 b a 2 a Elevated CO2 reduced fresh a ht 0 and dry weight of rice stem. Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS Stem fresh Stem dry Root dry 2011/11/16 weight weight weight
  29. 29. CO2 and BPH fitness• BPH orientation, oviposition and feeding preference orientation 2.5 80No. insec landing on plants 360 ppm 750 ppm a a a 2.0 a ed a 60 No. eggs deposite 1.5 a 40 1.0 cts 20 e 0.5 0.0 0 24h 48h 360 ppm 750 ppmWeigh of honeyde per three 30 a 25 a mg) 20 ew females (m 15 10 BPH showed no preference 5 between rice plants cultured ht Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 0 2011/11/16 360 ppm 750 ppm at aCO2 and eCO2.
  30. 30. CO2 and BPH fitness• BPH offspring development 20 360 ppm 750 ppm 30 a a 360 ppm 750 ppm ation (d) a 25 Adult weight (µg) a 15 a b a a a a b 20 ngevity or dura a a 15 b a a 10 10Lon 5 5 B female all B female B male M male 0 Adult Nymph BF MM BM On eCO2 plants, BPH macropterous male nymphs developed slower but macropterous male adults were heavier. Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  31. 31. CO2 and BPH fitness• BPH offspring wing dimorphism and sex ratio chyptery 2.5 0.8 a 360 ppm 750 ppm 360 ppm 750 ppm a a a 2 rm 0.6 06 ptery to brac male to malee Ratio of wing for 1.5 a 0.4 a a 1Ratio of macrop and fem b o 0.2 b 0.5 a 0 0 M/B Female/Male BF MM BM More brachypterous BPH adults were produced on eCO2 plants. No difference in sex ratio was observed. Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  32. 32. CO2 and BPH fitness • BPH offspring fecundity 250 600 360 ppm 750 ppm b sited 500 200 male No. eggs deposNo. eggs per fem 400 150 a 300 100 200 e 50 100 0 0 360 ppm 750 ppm 1 -10d 10-15d 16-20d 20-25d 25-30d 30-35d 10d 10 15d 16 20d 20 25d 25 30d 30 35d BPH offspring females from eCO2 plants produced fewer eggs. Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  33. 33. CO2 and BPH fitness• Free amino acid (AA) in rice stems AA aCO2 eCO2 AA aCO2 eCO2Concentrations 2a five140 0±3 9a Ile Asp 136.2±19.2a 136 2±19 of 140.0±3.9a increased in eCO plants the free AAs 27.3±0.8a 27 3±0 8a plants, 8a 2 25.4±0.8a 25 4±0total concentration of all free --- Lue not 35.9±0.4b Thr --- AAs did change. 32.8±1.0a Ser 394.9±39.3a 393.4±11.4a Tyr 21.5±0.3a 19.8±0.6a Glu 125.7±10.6a 123.0±3.4a Phe 34.9±2.7a 34.1±1.0a Gly 11.3±0.2b 10.0±0.2a His 92.5±4.7a 87.4±2.4a Ala 75.6±8.5a 78.2±3.0a Lys 57.0±0.9b 50.6±0.9a Cys 51.2±2.2a 47.4±0.6a Arg 57.8±2.0a 54.1±1.6a Val 88.7±3.2a 82.1±1.3a Pro 14.4±0.2b 13.2±0.4a Met Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS Dr. 10.4±0.2b 9.1±0.1a Total 1235.3±94.6a 1200.4±31.2a 2011/11/16
  34. 34. CO2 and BPH fitness• Free amino acid (AA) in BPH honeydew the total of all free AAs Concentrations of nine free AAs and increased in honeydew of BPH on eCO2 plants. AA aCO2 eCO2 AA aCO2 eCO2 Asp 125.8±2.2a 275.4±2.5b Ile 3.1±0.2a 10.3±0.2b Thr 23.7±1.0a 27.8±0.8a Lue 2.7±0.1a 14.1±0.1b Ser 46.2±1.1a 43.6±1.2a Tyr 7.1±1.0a 12.0±0.9b Glu 158.5±4.2a 360.4±5.6b Phe 5.1±0.7a 12.2±0.6b Gly 22.3±0.6b 13.0±0.5a His 16.5±0.2a 53.5±1.3b Ala 26.3±0.6a 30.6±0.8b Lys 14.6±0.6a 13.6±0.3a Cys 9.8±0.1a 17.0±0.6b Arg 11.4±0.2a 12.1±0.7a Val 21.2±2.7a 83.8±2.3b Pro 8.7±1.0a 9.8±0.3a Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice 3.7±0.2b Total CAAS Met --- Insect Pests, IPP, 503.1±8.3a 989.1±15.0b 2011/11/16
  35. 35. CO2 and BPH fitness• Conclusion and discussion Elevated CO2 increased the ratio of BPH brachypterous adults, but decreased oviposition and thus reduced population growth. oviposition, growth Decreased concentration of Lys and Gly in rice stems might result in the changes in wing form and oviposition at eCO2. lt i th h i i f d i iti t CO (Zhang et al. 1985) How is the interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on BPH population? Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16
  36. 36. Thanks!The research is supported by National Basic Research Program of China((2010CB951503) ) Dr D MAOLIN HOU Institute of Plant Protection Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Dr. Maolin Hou, Group of Rice Insect Pests, IPP, CAAS 2011/11/16 报告人:侯茂林 2011/11/16 mlhou@ippcaas.cn

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