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Sirius: The New Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source.

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Plenary lecture of the XVIII B-MRS Meeting given by Prof. Antonio José Roque da Silva (CNPEM, Brazil) on September 24, 2019 at Balneário Camboriú (Brazil).

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Sirius: The New Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source.

  1. 1. Sirius: The New Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Antonio José Roque da Silva – jose.roque@cnpem.br On behalf of the Sirius/CNPEM team
  2. 2. Outline • Why synchrotrons • How do they work • LNLS and CNPEM • Challenges and more brightness • Sirius and fourth generation machines • Status of Sirius • Beamlines • Conclusion
  3. 3. NANOTECHNOLOGY CIVIL CONSTRUCTION CHEMICAL INDUSTRY ENERGY HEALTH BIOTECHNOLOGY AGRICULTURE NEW MATERIALS AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AEROSPACE INDUSTRY TEXTILE INDUSTRY SECURITY DEFENSE Today, in an world ever more competitive scientifically and technologically, deep knowledge of materials properties is fundamental
  4. 4. “New truths become evident when new tools become available”. Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine Freeman Dyson 1997 Imagined Worlds ‘‘New directions in science are launched by new tools much more often than by new concepts” Evolution of instruments Evolution of knowledge
  5. 5. Radiation-matter Interaction http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase
  6. 6. • Intense • Broad spectrum • Small and collimated source (coherent!) Source area, S Source divergence, W Brilliance= Flux (S x W) Emittance What makes a good light source?
  7. 7. Relativist case Emission concentrated within a narrow forward cone 𝑣~𝑐 Electromagnetic Radiation by accelerated charges Classical case Centripetal acceleration Isotropic emission P. Willmot (Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation Science) 1 𝛾 = 1 − 𝑣2 𝑐2 𝑃 ∝ 1 𝑚4 Electrons! 𝑣 ≪ 𝑐
  8. 8. First synchrotron light source in the southern hemisphere Around 85% built in house Still the only one in Latin America LNLS – A pioneering lab in Brazil Training of human resources Built between 1987-1997
  9. 9. LNNano LNLS LNBR LNBio CNPEM is a private nonprofit organization working under contract with the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication SIRIUS UVX
  10. 10. OPEN-ACESS FACILITIES
  11. 11. GREAT CHALLENGES OF TODAY AND THE FUTURE Important and challenging materials and systems are Inhomogeneous, Hierarchic, Composites with distinct spatial and time scales Petroleum reservoirs Soil Brain
  12. 12. Most important/challenging materials and systems are Inhomogeneous, Hierarchic, Composites with distinct spatial and time scales Great Challenge! We need "tools" that allow us to investigate any material, in different spatial scales (from meso, to micro, to nano, to atomic),, in different time scales, in real operating conditions, that will generate 3D images, with different contrasts, such as: – Concentration of chemical elements – Chemical environment – Oxidation state – Chemical bonds – Crystal structure – Grain orientation – Electronic density – Magnetic moments – …
  13. 13. X-Ray Tomography Organoids Organoid: heart (diameter ~500 µm) - LNBio Human on a chip
  14. 14. X-RAY TOMOGRAPHY Heart Cell Structure (LNBIO)
  15. 15. 3-D BRAIN IMAGING 3-D RECONSTRUCTION NEURONAL CONNECTIONS BRAIN SLICE HEALTHY BRAIN DAMAGED BRAIN NEURON
  16. 16. WHERE THE WORLD IS MOVING Jiajun Wang et al. (2016) 10 mm (50 nm resolution) Jian et. al, PNAS (2010) Cell Tomography 5D Tomography Spatial resolution, temporal evolution, chemical resolution Charge-discharge process in Li ion batteries
  17. 17. Need more brilliance! 10 μm (@ LNLS today) High scanning Probe Resolution Coherent Flux ~ Brilliancel2 High Coherence e.g: lensless imaging with nanometric resolution e.g: Detection limits in chemical mapping
  18. 18. Competitiveness Requires a New Equipment
  19. 19. 2009-2012 - Prepared CDR and Scientific Case for a 3rd generation light source; - Prototypes built; investment in infra-structure; - MAC meeting (June 2012) → Go for a sub-nm.rad emittance Sirius - a bit of history 2009-2012 - Prepared CDR and Scientific Case for a 3rd generation light source; - Prototypes built; investment in infra-structure; - MAC meeting (June 2012) → Go for a sub-nm.rad emittance Sirius - a bit of history
  20. 20. Position depends on energy N S N S N S E1 E2 How to decrease the emittance →increase number of dipoles Split larger dipole into two smaller ones is better for emittance reduction But needs to refocus in the middle Magnetic Lattice
  21. 21. • 3G in operation 𝜖0 𝛾2 ∝ 𝐶−3 Natural emittance scaling (electrons in storage ring) Area of the electron phase space 𝜎𝑒 𝑥 𝜎𝑒 𝑥 ’ Challenge is to place more dipoles and stronger quadrupoles and sextupoles without increasing the accelerator size 💲 😪
  22. 22. Diamond – 561.6 m (24 DBA) 𝜀 𝑒=2.7 nm.rad 528 m (20 7BA) 𝜀 𝑒=0.328 nm.rad MAX IV Design – 7 Bend Achromat
  23. 23. 27 Natural emittance of some Light Sources 4th Generation Storage Rings Harry Westfahl 1996 2016 IPAC
  24. 24. Challenging Engineering
  25. 25. 2009-2012 - Prepared CDR and Scientific Case for a 3rd generation light source; - Prototypes built; investment in infra-structure; - MAC meeting (June 2012) → Go for a sub-nm.rad emittance  New Sirius proposal four months after MAC meeting - Since the end of 2012, complete redesign and development of all accelerator subsystems; improvement of magnetic lattice; design and development of beamlines and components Sirius - a bit of history Emittance 0.25 nm.rad (bare) 0.15 nm.rad (IDs)
  26. 26. Dipoles • Magnetic Material : NdFeB • Maximum Field: 3.2 T Sirius will have high magnetic field permanent bending magnets (Critical Energy ~ 20 keV)
  27. 27. High coherence versus low coherence at Balneário Camboriú
  28. 28. Undulators Σ = 𝜎𝑒 2 + 𝜎𝑟 2 Σ’ = 𝜎’ 𝑒 2 + 𝜎’ 𝑟 2 2 Σ 𝑥 2 Σ 𝑦 2 Σ’ 𝑥 2 Σ’ 𝑦 𝜎𝑒 = 𝜖𝛽 𝜎’ 𝑒 = 𝜖/𝛽 𝜎’ 𝑟 ≃ 𝜆/2𝐿 𝜎𝑟 ≃ 2𝜆𝐿/2𝜋 https://www6.slac.stanford.edu/news/2016-06-15-spiraling- light-slac-x-ray-laser-offers-new-glimpses-molecules.aspx
  29. 29. Brilliance Photons Wavelength 𝜆 Undulator length L 𝜎𝑒 ≈ 𝜀 ∙ 𝛽 𝜎𝑒 ′ ≈ 𝜀 𝛽 𝜎 𝑝ℎ ≈ 1 2𝜋 2 ∙ 𝜆 ∙ 𝐿 𝜎 𝑝ℎ ′ ≈ 𝜆 2 ∙ 𝐿 Σ = 𝜀 ∙ 𝛽 + 𝜆 ∙ 𝐿 2𝜋2 Σ′ = 𝜀 𝛽 + 𝜆 2𝐿 Electrons Minimize Σ ∙ Σ′ → 𝛽 𝑥,𝑦 = 𝐿 𝜋 ~1 − 2 𝑚 Low emittance is not the whole story Phase space matching
  30. 30. Low b optics: phase-space matching Numerical integration of Wigner Distribution Function Gaussian approximation of reference [H. Westfahl Jr et al, JSR, 24, 2017] e = 250 pm.rad Courtesy: Harry Westfahl Jr ~Factor of 2 Low 𝜷 High 𝜷 Equivalent to increasing the current by a factor of 2
  31. 31. SYNCHROTRONS EVOLUTION Sirius, a state of the art machine
  32. 32. 3.2 T BC 1.1 T 3PW Brilliance and Coherent Flux Comparison • Even with future upgrades, Sirius will be the brightest in the energy range of most important K-edges for: – Medicine – Agriculture – Oil industry – Petrochemical industry ESRF-USirius MAX IV ALS-U Sirius ESRF-U ALS-U MAX IV PS Cl KCa Ti Cr • Even after the future upgrades of 3G synchrotrons Sirius will have the largest coherent flux in the tender x-ray. Optimal for biological samples! (3G synchrotrons ~ 108 ph/s) Harry Westfahl
  33. 33. 2009-2012 - Prepared CDR and Scientific Case for a 3rd generation light source; - Prototypes built; investment in infra-structure; - MAC meeting (June 2012) → Go for a sub-nm.rad emittance  New Sirius proposal four months after MAC meeting - Since the end of 2012, complete redesign and development of all accelerator subsystems; improvement of magnetic lattice; design and development of beamlines and components - End of 2012 until mid 2014 – Executive Project of building - 2013 – Acquired land (State of São Paulo – 150.000 m2) Sirius - a bit of history
  34. 34. 2009-2012 - Prepared CDR and Scientific Case for a 3rd generation light source; - Prototypes built; investment in infra-structure; - MAC meeting (June 2012) → Go for a sub-nm.rad emittance  New Sirius proposal four months after MAC meeting - Since the end of 2012, complete redesign and development of all accelerator subsystems; improvement of magnetic lattice; design and development of beamlines and components - End of 2012 until mid 2014 – Executive Project of building - 2013 – Acquired land (State of São Paulo – 150.000 m2) - December of 2014 – Signed contract with main building contractor (Racional Eng.) - January 2015 – Building construction started Sirius - a bit of history
  35. 35. SPECIAL FLOOR Building • Total area - 68.000 m2 • Special floor to minimize effects of vibration on the accelerator and beamlines
  36. 36. Building– 68.000 m2
  37. 37. October 2014 October 2017 October 2015 October 2016 Building Status at the last SRI
  38. 38. Building
  39. 39. Transport Line Booster-Main Ring Transport Line LINAC-Booster
  40. 40. Accelerator Tunnel
  41. 41. Storage Ring fully assembled and in vacuum
  42. 42. Transport Line LINAC-Booster Transport Line Booster-Main Ring
  43. 43. PHASE BEAMLINE ENERGY (keV) TECHNIQUES TECHNICAL COMMISSIONING I – A MANACÁ 5 – 20 Serial micro and nano MX August/2019 I – A EMA 3 – 35 Extreme Conditions November/2019 I – A MOGNO 20/40/70 Cone beam Tomography October/2019 I – A CATERETÊ 3 – 12 CDI, XPCS September/2019 I – A CARNAÚBA 2 – 15 spectro-ptychography December/2019 I – A IPÊ 0.08 – 2 AP-RIXS; ARPES December/2019 I – B SABIÁ 0.25 – 2.5 AP-XPS; XMCD 2021 I – B JATOBÁ 30 – 200 XRD-CT 2021 I – B INGÁ 4 – 24 IXS 2021 I – B QUATI 4 – 45 Quick-EXAFS 2021 I – B SAPUCAIA 4 – 24 High-Throughput SAXS 2021 I – B PAINEIRA 4 – 24 XPD 2021 II COLIBRI 0.1 – 1.5 PEEM, CDI 2020 II IMBÚIA 0.001 – 1 eV nano-FTIR 2020 II XARU 4 – 45 EXAFS 2020 II HARPIA 5 – 30 TR-XPD 2020 II HERA 30 – 120 XTMS 2020 II SAGUI 4 – 24 SAXS 2020 * Mainly refurbished beamlines from the UVX machine Sirius beamlines and science programs *Based on Bending Magnets
  44. 44. PHASE BEAMLINE ENERGY (keV) TECHNIQUES TECHNICAL COMMISSIONING I – A MANACÁ 5 – 20 Serial micro and nano MX August/2019 I – A EMA 3 – 35 Extreme Conditions November/2019 I – A MOGNO 20/40/70 Cone beam Tomography October/2019 I – A CATERETÊ 3 – 12 CDI, XPCS September/2019 I – A CARNAÚBA 2 – 15 spectro-ptychography December/2019 I – A IPÊ 0.08 – 2 AP-RIXS; ARPES December/2019 I – B SABIÁ 0.25 – 2.5 AP-XPS; XMCD 2021 I – B JATOBÁ 30 – 200 XRD-CT 2021 I – B INGÁ 4 – 24 IXS 2021 I – B QUATI 4 – 45 Quick-EXAFS 2021 I – B SAPUCAIA 4 – 24 High-Throughput SAXS 2021 I – B PAINEIRA 4 – 24 XPD 2021 II COLIBRI 0.1 – 1.5 PEEM, CDI 2020 II IMBÚIA 0.001 – 1 eV nano-FTIR 2020 II XARU 4 – 45 EXAFS 2020 II HARPIA 5 – 30 TR-XPD 2020 II HERA 30 – 120 XTMS 2020 II SAGUI 4 – 24 SAXS 2020 *Based on Bending Magnets Beam Spot ~200mm x 400mm ~5mm x 10mm Flux ˜1010 ph/s ˜1013 ph/s Time to struc. ˜hours ˜min From UVX to Sirius 3D structure of challenging membrane proteins and protein complexes MANACA (microfocus) ESRF-ID231 Diamond- I24 (microfocus) Wavelengths (Å) 0.61 – 3.0 0.61 – 2.47 0.7 – 2.0 Flux (ph/s) 1013 1012 3x 1012 Spot size (μm²) 10 x 5 to 80 x 80 10 x 10 to 45 x 30 5 x 5 to 50 x 40 Detector PIMEGA 540D Pilatus 6M Pilatus 6M World class structural biology platform with LNBio • Ligand-protein structure • Membrane proteins • Enzyme development MANACÁ beamline Ana Zeri
  45. 45. PHASE BEAMLINE ENERGY (keV) TECHNIQUES TECHNICAL COMMISSIONING I – A MANACÁ 5 – 20 Serial micro and nano MX August/2019 I – A EMA 3 – 35 Extreme Conditions November/2019 I – A MOGNO 20/40/70 Cone beam Tomography October/2019 I – A CATERETÊ 3 – 12 CDI, XPCS September/2019 I – A CARNAÚBA 2 – 15 spectro-ptychography December/2019 I – A IPÊ 0.08 – 2 AP-RIXS; ARPES December/2019 I – B SABIÁ 0.25 – 2.5 AP-XPS; XMCD 2021 I – B JATOBÁ 30 – 200 XRD-CT 2021 I – B INGÁ 4 – 24 IXS 2021 I – B QUATI 4 – 45 Quick-EXAFS 2021 I – B SAPUCAIA 4 – 24 High-Throughput SAXS 2021 I – B PAINEIRA 4 – 24 XPD 2021 II COLIBRI 0.1 – 1.5 PEEM, CDI 2020 II IMBÚIA 0.001 – 1 eV nano-FTIR 2020 II XARU 4 – 45 EXAFS 2020 II HARPIA 5 – 30 TR-XPD 2020 II HERA 30 – 120 XTMS 2020 II SAGUI 4 – 24 SAXS 2020 *Based on Bending Magnets Pmax 80 GPa 800 GPa Tmax 2000 K 8000 K Tmin 5 K 0.3 K Hmax 1 T ~10 T Beam Spot 80 mm 1 mm Flux ~109 ph/s ~1013 ph/s From UVX to Sirius Extreme conditions to the extreme! World unique beamline to cover all these P,T,H conditions • Quantum materials / new synthesis routes • Geochemistry / geophysics in extreme environments Narcizo Souza Neto EMA beamline
  46. 46. PHASE BEAMLINE ENERGY (keV) TECHNIQUES TECHNICAL COMMISSIONING I – A MANACÁ 5 – 20 Serial micro and nano MX August/2019 I – A EMA 3 – 35 Extreme Conditions November/2019 I – A MOGNO 20/40/70 Cone beam Tomography October/2019 I – A CATERETÊ 3 – 12 CDI, XPCS September/2019 I – A CARNAÚBA 2 – 15 spectro-ptychography December/2019 I – A IPÊ 0.08 – 2 AP-RIXS; ARPES December/2019 I – B SABIÁ 0.25 – 2.5 AP-XPS; XMCD 2021 I – B JATOBÁ 30 – 200 XRD-CT 2021 I – B INGÁ 4 – 24 IXS 2021 I – B QUATI 4 – 45 Quick-EXAFS 2021 I – B SAPUCAIA 4 – 24 High-Throughput SAXS 2021 I – B PAINEIRA 4 – 24 XPD 2021 II COLIBRI 0.1 – 1.5 PEEM, CDI 2020 II IMBÚIA 0.001 – 1 eV nano-FTIR 2020 II XARU 4 – 45 EXAFS 2020 II HARPIA 5 – 30 TR-XPD 2020 II HERA 30 – 120 XTMS 2020 II SAGUI 4 – 24 SAXS 2020 *Based on Bending Magnets FOV 8 mm 85 mm Res. 1 mm 100 nm Emax 14 keV 68 KeV Flux (mono) ~109 ph/s ~1012 ph/s From UVX to Sirius Zoom tomography and in situ 4D tomography First High Energy Cone Beam Tomography beamline in the world! • Rock tomography under pre-salt conditions • In-vivo animal studies • Porous structure of biomass and soil Sirius - MOGNO ESRF-ID16A Petra II – P10 Energy (keV) 22 / 39 / 68 17 6-14 Flux (ph/s/100mA) 1012/1011/2 1010 1012 1011 Source Size (nm2) 100x100 30x40 200x200 MOGNO beamline Nathaly Archilia
  47. 47. PHASE BEAMLINE ENERGY (keV) TECHNIQUES TECHNICAL COMMISSIONING I – A MANACÁ 5 – 20 Serial micro and nano MX August/2019 I – A EMA 3 – 35 Extreme Conditions November/2019 I – A MOGNO 20/40/70 Cone beam Tomography October/2019 I – A CATERETÊ 3 – 12 CDI, XPCS September/2019 I – A CARNAÚBA 2 – 15 spectro-ptychography December/2019 I – A IPÊ 0.08 – 2 AP-RIXS; ARPES December/2019 I – B SABIÁ 0.25 – 2.5 AP-XPS; XMCD 2021 I – B JATOBÁ 30 – 200 XRD-CT 2021 I – B INGÁ 4 – 24 IXS 2021 I – B QUATI 4 – 45 Quick-EXAFS 2021 I – B SAPUCAIA 4 – 24 High-Throughput SAXS 2021 I – B PAINEIRA 4 – 24 XPD 2021 II COLIBRI 0.1 – 1.5 PEEM, CDI 2020 II IMBÚIA 0.001 – 1 eV nano-FTIR 2020 II XARU 4 – 45 EXAFS 2020 II HARPIA 5 – 30 TR-XPD 2020 II HERA 30 – 120 XTMS 2020 II SAGUI 4 – 24 SAXS 2020 *Based on Bending Magnets Scatt. Flight Path 3 m 30 m En. range 8 keV 3-15 KeV Flux ~1011 ph/s ~1013 ph/s (incoherent) (coherent) From UVX to Sirius X-Ray nano-tomography with plane wave CDI and XPCS (“DLS with SAXS”) First beamline to allow pw-CDI with 40mm FOV in seconds • Eukaryotic Cell tomography • In situ Nano tomography Nanostructured materials Sirius - CATERETE ESRF-ID10 SLS- cSAXS Energy (keV) 3-15 7-12 5-8 Coherent Flux (ph/s/100mA) 1012 109 109 Focused FOV (mm2) 40x40 7x7 - Florian Meneau CATERETÊ beamline
  48. 48. PHASE BEAMLINE ENERGY (keV) TECHNIQUES TECHNICAL COMMISSIONING I – A MANACÁ 5 – 20 Serial micro and nano MX August/2019 I – A EMA 3 – 35 Extreme Conditions November/2019 I – A MOGNO 20/40/70 Cone beam Tomography October/2019 I – A CATERETÊ 3 – 12 CDI, XPCS September/2019 I – A CARNAÚBA 2 – 15 spectro-ptychography December/2019 I – A IPÊ 0.08 – 2 AP-RIXS; ARPES December/2019 I – B SABIÁ 0.25 – 2.5 AP-XPS; XMCD 2021 I – B JATOBÁ 30 – 200 XRD-CT 2021 I – B INGÁ 4 – 24 IXS 2021 I – B QUATI 4 – 45 Quick-EXAFS 2021 I – B SAPUCAIA 4 – 24 High-Throughput SAXS 2021 I – B PAINEIRA 4 – 24 XPD 2021 II COLIBRI 0.1 – 1.5 PEEM, CDI 2020 II IMBÚIA 0.001 – 1 eV nano-FTIR 2020 II XARU 4 – 45 EXAFS 2020 II HARPIA 5 – 30 TR-XPD 2020 II HERA 30 – 120 XTMS 2020 II SAGUI 4 – 24 SAXS 2020 *Based on Bending Magnets Beam Spot ~20mm x 20mm ~30nm x 30nm Flux ˜1010 ph/s ˜1012 ph/s Time to map ˜hours ˜secs From UVX to Sirius Chemical mapping with nanometer resolution First beamline to perform spectral imaging in the tender x-rays (Ca, K, Cl, S, P) with nm resolution • Chemical mapping of soil components • Nano catalyst spectral imaging Helio Tolentino CARNAÚBA beamline
  49. 49. PHASE BEAMLINE ENERGY (keV) TECHNIQUES TECHNICAL COMMISSIONING I – A MANACÁ 5 – 20 Serial micro and nano MX August/2019 I – A EMA 3 – 35 Extreme Conditions November/2019 I – A MOGNO 20/40/70 Cone beam Tomography October/2019 I – A CATERETÊ 3 – 12 CDI, XPCS September/2019 I – A CARNAÚBA 2 – 15 spectro-ptychography December/2019 I – A IPÊ 0.08 – 2 AP-RIXS; ARPES December/2019 I – B SABIÁ 0.25 – 2.5 AP-XPS; XMCD 2021 I – B JATOBÁ 30 – 200 XRD-CT 2021 I – B INGÁ 4 – 24 IXS 2021 I – B QUATI 4 – 45 Quick-EXAFS 2021 I – B SAPUCAIA 4 – 24 High-Throughput SAXS 2021 I – B PAINEIRA 4 – 24 XPD 2021 II COLIBRI 0.1 – 1.5 PEEM, CDI 2020 II IMBÚIA 0.001 – 1 eV nano-FTIR 2020 II XARU 4 – 45 EXAFS 2020 II HARPIA 5 – 30 TR-XPD 2020 II HERA 30 – 120 XTMS 2020 II SAGUI 4 – 24 SAXS 2020 *Based on Bending Magnets Beam Spot. ~1 mm ~1 mm Ener. Res. ˜eV ˜10 meV From UVX to Sirius Soft X-ray spectroscopy with unprecedent resolution ARPES and RIXS with world leading resolution • Electrochemistry of surfaces and interfaces • Quantum chemistry of enzymes and ligands Mode Beamline Flux (ph/s/0.1A) Spot size (mm) Flux density (ph/s/mm2/0.1A) High Resolution IPE 1.5 1011 1 x 3 5.5 1010 ADRESS (SLS) 5.0 1010 4 x 52 2.4 108 Tulio Rocha IPÊ beamline
  50. 50. Beamlines SOURCE (X-RAY UNDULATOR) MIRROR 1 SLIT S MONOCHROMATO R MIRROR 2 SAMPLE STAGEDETECTO R Cryo-cooled DCM ~10 nrad stability ~2-70 keV Cryo-cooled x-ray mirrors ˜10 nrad deformation ~100 nrad stability Sample Stages - In situ cooling/heating - Nano position / metrology Beamline instrumentation highlights Fast Area Detector - Up to 9.6 Mpixel - 24 bit - 1000 FPS
  51. 51. Support Labs (all beamlines)
  52. 52. Synchrotron Research Project pipeline Sample Synthesis/ preparation Sample preparation Data Acquisition Data Analysis Modelling Scientific Documentation Scientific Proposal Pre-characterization At the synchrotron facilityToday: Sample Synthesis/ preparation Sample preparation Data Acquisition Data Analysis Modelling Scientific Documentation Scientific Proposal Pre-characterization At the synchrotron facilityOn Sirius:
  53. 53. ~ 85% expenditures in Brazil Brazilian Suppliers Continuous interaction with many Brazilian companies in order to find developers as well as suppliers for production
  54. 54. Microscopy and microanalysis on Sirius
  55. 55. Neuron structure: Fonseca et al. , Sci. Rep. (2018) X-Ray mCT (@ ~1 mm ) Nano FTIR (@~100 nm) Composition: Oxana K. et al. (unpublished) Nano X-Ray Fluorescence (@~10 nm) Nanotomography:Deng et al. (Sci adv. 2019) Small Angle X-Ray Scattering And UV Circular Dichroism (@~1 nm) Vesicles: Castroph S. (Göttingen Series 2012) α1 α2 α3 α4 N C 310 β1 β2 β3 β4 Protein Crystallography (@~0.1 nm) Proteins: De Oliveira, J. et al. (Nature Chem Bio 2019) Normal Alterada C 88 Multiscale and multi-contrast imaging
  56. 56. Combining fluorescence and diffraction imaging 18 nm chemical resolution State of the art! • On current 3rd generation synchrotrons this image takes ~ 1 hour (Full 3D a couple of days!) • On Sirius, with 1.000 – 10.000 more coherent flux ~ 1 s • A 10.000 faster!Junjing Deng et al (2017) done @ APS
  57. 57. Conclusion • Synchrotron Science in Brazil (Latin America) has been built from ground up and reached a mature level to jump into a more competitive scenario • Sirius is planned to be one of the best machines in the world • The science done by the users will determine its success “New truths become evident when new tools become available”. Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine
  58. 58. Thank you
  59. 59. Low b optics: Beam Stay-Clear Delta Undulator Prototype Delta polarizing undulator in Sirius https://www6.slac.stanford.edu/news/2016-06-15-spiraling- light-slac-x-ray-laser-offers-new-glimpses-molecules.aspx Animation from the SLAC website: Credit: Flavio Rodrigues & James Citadini Full Polarization Control in X-rays With:

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