Passivhaus BuildingSkills & Training<br />Steve Charter<br />SC2 Sustainability Consultancy<br />
Objectives<br />Provide an overview and clarify:<br />key skills issues for Passivhaus Buildings<br />business implication...
Skills and knowledge for Passivhaus buildings<br />Four key steps to competence <br />i.e. how to get there<br />Awareness...
Exercise 1:<br />Define low energy sustainable building? (or construction)<br />Normally 1 minute exercise ... Different i...
Occupantbehaviourmakes a difference: theaveragematters<br />90%<br />Benutzereinfluss im Passivhaus<br />450<br />Existing...
Why is it important to you?<br />Changes in Regulations and Standards<br />Building Regulations changes i.e. Part L, Water...
Why is it important to you?<br />Changes in Markets <br />Public sector clients and public funded projects:<br />Leeds Cit...
Business Implications<br />Trends in Regulations and Standards <br />Trends in the Market <br />Implications for knowledge...
Trend Example: ‘Zero Carbon’ Standard<br />Revised Definition of ‘Zero Carbon’<br />Recommended Fabric Efficiency Standard...
Predictable Trends: 2010-2015<br />‘Sorting the wheat from the chaff’ <br />and ‘the men from the boys’<br />The best will...
Predictable Trends'sorting the wheat from the chaff‘ ... or ‘the men from the boys’<br />Knowledge, skills & competence<br...
Planners<br />Transport planners<br />English Heritage<br />Planning<br />Clients<br />Building managers<br />Developers<b...
The Chain of Skills and Knowledge<br />
Passivhaus Buildings Chain of Knowledge & Skills<br />Where are you in it?<br />Who / what are your links in the chain? <b...
Passivhaus Building Skills<br />	A Reminder:	<br />	If clients, designers, specifiers and builders are to get it right, ob...
Defining Passivhaus Building Skills<br />Skills relating to proper implementation of the methodology<br />5 core component...
Other Factors Relating to Passivhaus Buildings<br />Buildability:  easily buildable to meet tough energy performance targe...
2. Max Thermal Efficiency <br />/ Min Heat-loss<br /><ul><li>  Super insulation: walls, floors, roof
Airtightness & ventilation i.e. </li></ul>MVHR/heat-recovery<br /><ul><li>  Minimum thermal bridging
  Buffer-zones / sun-spaces
  High performance windows & doors</li></ul>4.  Minimising Energy <br />& Electrical Demand <br />+ Renewable Supply <br /...
  e.g. LED lighting
  AA* appliances
  renewable supplies</li></ul>3. Passivhaus Products <br />& Materials<br /><ul><li>  structural & insulation /</li></ul>B...
re-used / recycled</li></ul>materials<br /><ul><li>  site waste minimis-</li></ul>ation plan <br />1. Solar Gain &<br />Mi...
  Low-e glass</li></ul>6.  Minimising Water<br />Demand & Runoff<br /><ul><li>  low flush toilets
  efficient showers, </li></ul>taps, appliances, etc<br /><ul><li>  rainwater harvesting
greenroof, SDS, etc</li></ul>7.  Enhancing Ecology<br />& Biodiversity<br /><ul><li>  site works
  landscaping
  within structure e.g.</li></ul>greenroof, built-in bat<br />boxes, etc<br />Source: PHI Darmstadt / AECB<br />
Mapping: Skills & Competence<br />
Low Energy Building Competence<br />Design & Fabric / Trade related skills:<br />High levels of insulation:<br />New build...
Sustainable Building Systems<br />
The parts that make up the whole<br />Source: The Passivhaus Diaries, Bill Butcher – Green Building Company, with Building...
Airtightness Skills ...<br />
Careful sealing of window-to-wall junctions is essential<br /><ul><li>use special tapes to seal the render to the airtight...
angles / corners need to be sealed with special mastic</li></ul>picture<br />Source: Centrum pasivního domu / AECB<br />
Building Services: keep breaks in the fabric to a minimum<br />Source: Centrum pasivního domu / AECB<br />Services penetra...
Example: skills for thermally efficient buildings<br />Design skills for architect who designs the building and archtectur...
Competence: New Build<br />Depends on your role – example: airtightness<br />Architect : good design for airtightness = kn...
Skills for Thermally Efficient Buildings<br />
2. Max Thermal Efficiency <br />/ Min Heat-loss<br /><ul><li>  Super insulation: walls, floors, roof
Airtightness & MVHR/heat-recovery
  Minimum thermal bridging
  Buffer-zones / sun-spaces
  High performance windows & doors</li></ul>3. Passivhaus Products<br />& Materials<br /><ul><li>  structural & insulation
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"Passivhaus Training & Courses, how to expand our understanding" - Steve Charter, SC2

  1. 1. Passivhaus BuildingSkills & Training<br />Steve Charter<br />SC2 Sustainability Consultancy<br />
  2. 2. Objectives<br />Provide an overview and clarify:<br />key skills issues for Passivhaus Buildings<br />business implications of <br /> a) having those skills;<br /> b) not having those skills.<br />Your skills needsand skills gaps in this area<br />how to go about developing Passivhaus building skills and give you some confidence about this<br /> ... In order that you have the chance of securing business in this area. <br />
  3. 3. Skills and knowledge for Passivhaus buildings<br />Four key steps to competence <br />i.e. how to get there<br />Awareness - knowing that you need to know<br />Understanding – theoretical base<br />Operational knowledge – doing it<br />Competence - doing it well, repeatedly <br />Awareness -> Understanding -> Operational knowledge -> Competence<br />
  4. 4. Exercise 1:<br />Define low energy sustainable building? (or construction)<br />Normally 1 minute exercise ... Different ideas and opinions, and nothing very clear and specific <br /><ul><li> Define Passivhaus?</li></ul>= A clear and specific low energy building methodology and standard<br />= clear and specific knowledge & skills<br />
  5. 5. Occupantbehaviourmakes a difference: theaveragematters<br />90%<br />Benutzereinfluss im Passivhaus<br />450<br />Existingbuildings<br />400<br />350<br />300<br />250<br />Low energybuildings<br />Passivhaus houses<br />annualheatconsumption [kWh/(m²a)]<br />180<br />200<br />150<br />100<br />74<br />66<br />50<br />14.9<br />13.4<br />0<br />8<br />16<br />4<br />8<br />3<br />1<br />1<br />6<br />6<br />3<br />8<br />63 rowhouses<br />in Heidelberg (Bj. 1962) <br />19<br />23<br />31<br />41<br />51<br />13<br />18<br />23<br />12<br />13<br />18<br />23<br />28<br />11<br />16<br />21<br />26<br />36<br />46<br />56<br />61<br />11<br />21<br />26<br />31<br />36<br />41<br />22 houses, <br />41 lowenergyhouses<br />27 lowenergy<br />32 passive houses<br />PH settlement<br />Niedernhausen 1991<br />houses, Hessia<br />Kronsberg 1998<br />Wiesbaden 1997<br />
  6. 6. Why is it important to you?<br />Changes in Regulations and Standards<br />Building Regulations changes i.e. Part L, Water<br />Code for Sustainable Homes<br />Code for Sustainable Buildings (impending)<br />Code / Building Regs for Existing Homes?<br />EU Energy Performance in Buildings Directive<br />It’s the way the UK, Europe and the world is going ...<br />If you can do Passivhaus correctly, you can do any of the above ... Easily.<br />
  7. 7. Why is it important to you?<br />Changes in Markets <br />Public sector clients and public funded projects:<br />Leeds City Council: tender for 5 Passivhaus schools<br />Social housing clients<br />100+ in the pipeline for certification<br />Low energy retrofit projects<br />Discerning private, education and third sector<br />WCR Dover Passivhaus office; Centre for Disability Studies; Hadlow College;<br />Eco-selfbuild projects<br />Low energy and fabric first is the way the UK, Europe and the world is going ...<br />
  8. 8. Business Implications<br />Trends in Regulations and Standards <br />Trends in the Market <br />Implications for knowledge, skills & competence<br />Needs for proof of competence / experience in:<br />achieving high building performance standards <br />As well as achieving low / zero waste, sustainable procurement, etc<br />
  9. 9. Trend Example: ‘Zero Carbon’ Standard<br />Revised Definition of ‘Zero Carbon’<br />Recommended Fabric Efficiency Standards<br />Recommended Metric = kWh/m2/yr<br />39 kWh/m2/yr: flats & mid-terrace;<br />46 kWh/m2/yr: semis / end-of-terrace & detached;<br />Covering Space heating & cooling energy demand<br />NOTE: Passivhaus is 15kWh/m2/yr ...<br />
  10. 10. Predictable Trends: 2010-2015<br />‘Sorting the wheat from the chaff’ <br />and ‘the men from the boys’<br />The best will emerge, become clear and be known ... <br /> Standards<br /> Certification and Competency schemes<br /> Building design and construction methodologies<br /> Products<br /> Technologies<br />Product+Technology combinations<br /> TRAINING<br />It will be good business to know how to achieve them / know how to use them in advance.<br />
  11. 11. Predictable Trends'sorting the wheat from the chaff‘ ... or ‘the men from the boys’<br />Knowledge, skills & competence<br /> for low energy sustainable buildings will be recognised as central issues<br />‘Proper’ Sust Building training & qualifications will emerge<br /> Training the Trainers programmes will be key to successful UK skills development<br />
  12. 12. Planners<br />Transport planners<br />English Heritage<br />Planning<br />Clients<br />Building managers<br />Developers<br />Users<br />Housing associations<br />Procurement<br />Building use<br />Sustainable Building <br />Knowledge & Skills:<br />Many audiences, similar messages<br />Repair &<br />Maintenance<br />Architects<br />Architectural technologists<br />Design<br />Energy supply<br />Building services<br />Energy suppliers<br />Construction products<br />Construction<br />Building control<br />Manufacturers<br />SMEs<br />Construction companies<br />Installers<br />Everyone Needs Education<br />Source: <br />
  13. 13. The Chain of Skills and Knowledge<br />
  14. 14. Passivhaus Buildings Chain of Knowledge & Skills<br />Where are you in it?<br />Who / what are your links in the chain? <br />How can you put in place the knowledge, skills and competence in all links of the chain?<br />
  15. 15. Passivhaus Building Skills<br /> A Reminder: <br /> If clients, designers, specifiers and builders are to get it right, obviously ...<br />... the right skills and knowledge have to be in place beforethe building is built or refurbished. <br />Mainly this involves: <br />improving or refining existing skills <br />by adding new knowledge. <br />
  16. 16. Defining Passivhaus Building Skills<br />Skills relating to proper implementation of the methodology<br />5 core components<br />Skills relating to achieving the standard <br />(including the new Passivhaus retrofit standard)<br />
  17. 17. Other Factors Relating to Passivhaus Buildings<br />Buildability: easily buildable to meet tough energy performance targets;<br />i.e. not a fiddley and complicated building envelope;<br />Simplicity: linked to buildability and usability;<br />i.e. lessons from Milton Keynes energy village – users didn’t understand or use technologies properly; no local people to maintain or repair them, etc.<br />Usability: usable for users, including simplicity of use;<br />Centre for Disability Studies – outstanding design for users<br />Future proofed: design for climate change, adaptable, re-usable building and / or components, dismantleable, etc.<br />Climate change mitigation: minimising carbon emissions<br />climate change adaptation i.e. to prevent over-heating<br />
  18. 18. 2. Max Thermal Efficiency <br />/ Min Heat-loss<br /><ul><li> Super insulation: walls, floors, roof
  19. 19. Airtightness & ventilation i.e. </li></ul>MVHR/heat-recovery<br /><ul><li> Minimum thermal bridging
  20. 20. Buffer-zones / sun-spaces
  21. 21. High performance windows & doors</li></ul>4. Minimising Energy <br />& Electrical Demand <br />+ Renewable Supply <br /><ul><li> natural lighting
  22. 22. e.g. LED lighting
  23. 23. AA* appliances
  24. 24. renewable supplies</li></ul>3. Passivhaus Products <br />& Materials<br /><ul><li> structural & insulation /</li></ul>Building systems<br /><ul><li> internal & external</li></ul>finishes<br /><ul><li> local-regional supplies</li></ul>5. Waste<br />Minimisation<br /><ul><li> materials selection
  25. 25. re-used / recycled</li></ul>materials<br /><ul><li> site waste minimis-</li></ul>ation plan <br />1. Solar Gain &<br />Min Over-Heating<br /><ul><li> Location & </li></ul>orientation<br /><ul><li> Summer shading
  26. 26. Low-e glass</li></ul>6. Minimising Water<br />Demand & Runoff<br /><ul><li> low flush toilets
  27. 27. efficient showers, </li></ul>taps, appliances, etc<br /><ul><li> rainwater harvesting
  28. 28. greenroof, SDS, etc</li></ul>7. Enhancing Ecology<br />& Biodiversity<br /><ul><li> site works
  29. 29. landscaping
  30. 30. within structure e.g.</li></ul>greenroof, built-in bat<br />boxes, etc<br />Source: PHI Darmstadt / AECB<br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Mapping: Skills & Competence<br />
  33. 33. Low Energy Building Competence<br />Design & Fabric / Trade related skills:<br />High levels of insulation:<br />New build: e.g. generally walls at 500mm<br />Refurb: Internal and External<br />Airtightness: envelope, testing, improving;<br />Thermal bridging (heat transfer): avoid ThB using products & techniques e.g. TeploTies; high performance windows; detail at junctions (i.e. see Carbonlite guidance);<br />MVHR and building services<br />Other Design related skills<br />Using PHPP<br />Passive solar gain and natural light<br />Thermal mass – not always essential, but often used<br />
  34. 34. Sustainable Building Systems<br />
  35. 35. The parts that make up the whole<br />Source: The Passivhaus Diaries, Bill Butcher – Green Building Company, with Building Magazine<br />
  36. 36. Airtightness Skills ...<br />
  37. 37. Careful sealing of window-to-wall junctions is essential<br /><ul><li>use special tapes to seal the render to the airtightness membrane
  38. 38. angles / corners need to be sealed with special mastic</li></ul>picture<br />Source: Centrum pasivního domu / AECB<br />
  39. 39. Building Services: keep breaks in the fabric to a minimum<br />Source: Centrum pasivního domu / AECB<br />Services penetrations in the fabric should be sealed by cable or hose bushings, pipe sleeves or butyl rubber tapes<br />
  40. 40. Example: skills for thermally efficient buildings<br />Design skills for architect who designs the building and archtectural technologists; energy consultants; energy / utility systems for BS engineers; including IT / modelling skills;<br />Trade skills for the trades who put together the building:<br />Carpentry; Brick-laying; Plastering and dry-lining; etc<br />Building services skills: plumbing, electrical, heating and ventilation - and maintaining airtightness.<br />Project and site management skills for those who manage the process.<br />Other valuable skills: a) use and interpretation of thermal imaging cameras; b) air-blower tests, diagnosis & remediation of any faults.<br />
  41. 41. Competence: New Build<br />Depends on your role – example: airtightness<br />Architect : good design for airtightness = knowledge of ‘buildability’ i.e. simpler envelope:<br />is simpler in construction, with higher probability of long term airtightness; <br />reduces the ratio of external surface area to volume (reduces heatloss potential).<br />Builder: attention to detail<br />broadly same result needed as a flat roof – it mustn’t leak, or have weak points.<br />Remember<br /> The ‘Fabric First’ Approach means primarily adding to, improving or refining existing skills<br />
  42. 42. Skills for Thermally Efficient Buildings<br />
  43. 43. 2. Max Thermal Efficiency <br />/ Min Heat-loss<br /><ul><li> Super insulation: walls, floors, roof
  44. 44. Airtightness & MVHR/heat-recovery
  45. 45. Minimum thermal bridging
  46. 46. Buffer-zones / sun-spaces
  47. 47. High performance windows & doors</li></ul>3. Passivhaus Products<br />& Materials<br /><ul><li> structural & insulation
  48. 48. internal & external</li></ul>finishes<br /><ul><li> local-regional supplies</li></ul>4. Minimising Energy <br />& Electrical Demand <br />+ Renewable Supply <br /><ul><li> natural lighting
  49. 49. e.g. LED lighting
  50. 50. AA* appliances
  51. 51. renewable supplies</li></ul>Need: Skills for doing <br />these things well ...<br />5. Waste<br />Minimisation<br /><ul><li> materials selection
  52. 52. re-used / recycled</li></ul>materials<br /><ul><li> site waste minimis-</li></ul>ation plan <br />1. Solar Gain &<br />Min Over-Heating<br /><ul><li> Location & </li></ul>orientation<br /><ul><li> Summer shading
  53. 53. Low-e glass</li></ul>7. Enhancing Ecology<br />& Biodiversity<br /><ul><li> site works
  54. 54. landscaping
  55. 55. within structure e.g.</li></ul>greenroof, built-in bat<br />boxes, etc<br />6. Minimising Water<br />Demand & Runoff<br /><ul><li> low flush toilets
  56. 56. efficient showers, </li></ul>taps, appliances, etc<br /><ul><li> rainwater harvesting
  57. 57. greenroof, SDS, etc</li></ul>Source: PHI Darmstadt / AECB<br />
  58. 58. Trick of the trade ...<br />Make someone in your team the<br /> ‘Airtightness Champion’ ...<br />‘Passivhaus Products Champion’<br />Etc ...<br />
  59. 59. Lessons from Stamford Brook<br />To close the Building-and-Skills Performance Gap<br /> Take action to overcome the challenges and barriers to closing the building-and-skills performance gap:<br />Cultural – establish traditions in a) energy performance measurement, b) design & construction processes which measure performance & feed it back to create system improvements.<br />Knowledge and understanding – understand & prioritise the principles of effective thermal envelope, & systems design & construction. Achieve improvements at all levels, from developers & designers to site operatives.<br />Regulatory Implementation – standards have improved & will continue to do so - ensure that energy standards are well enforced & measured in your own projects.<br />
  60. 60. Training Problems / Challenges<br />Currently a distinct lack of:<br />formally accredited courses on sustainable building issues;<br />low-energy building content within mainstream building-related qualifications e.g. BTECs, NVQs, etc.<br />trainers with real experience / competence in low energy sustainable building.<br />
  61. 61. SB Training & Skills Plans<br />Steve’s Recommendation:<br />Develop a Skills Plan / Learning pathway for Passivhaus building skills and competence<br />Including getting to know:<br />training that is available now in key skills areas;<br />training that is known to be under development;<br />key organisations involved in providing, brokering & developing sustainable building training e.g. Carbonlite, SusCon, Green Gauge, etc;<br />
  62. 62. Training: Passivhaus Building Competence<br />Pete Warm & Carbonlite courses (AECB):<br />Passivhaus courses: principles & using PHPP;<br />Modelling Thermal Bridging;<br />From 2011: Green Gauge, and ‘EcoBuilder Training’ (Oxon Constr’n Training Group);<br />Oxford Brookes, Leeds Met Uni, UCL, etc.<br />BRE / BRE Wales<br />Certifier training: Passivhaus Trust; BRE; Scottish PH Institute, etc.<br />Informal:<br />Green Building magazine; The Green Building Bible; Passivhaus Diaries; etc.<br />Low Carbon Housing Learning Zone;<br />
  63. 63. On-Line Resources<br />AECB including Carbonlite Programme – accredited details, training, etc<br />www.carbonlite.org.uk<br />Certified Passivhaus projects database<br />Retrofit for the Future refurb database<br />The Passivhaus Diaries<br />www.greenbuildingstore.co.uk<br />Low Carbon Housing Learning Zone – www.leedsmet.ac.uk/teaching/vsite/low_carbon_housing/index.htm<br />
  64. 64. Pathway 1: Personal and Business Development<br />Diagram 3: <br />Green Building<br />Learning System<br />Landmark<br />Skills Centres<br />Stream 1<br />Who am I? What can I be? <br />Stream 2<br />Making it happen <br />Stream 3<br />What do I / we need now?<br />Design & Innovation<br />Leadership<br />& Vision<br />Talents / aptitudes<br />Where / who am I now?<br />Project development and delivery<br />Entry Points<br />Technical Knowledge<br />People systems<br />Systems of Skills sets<br />Products and technology Systems sets<br />Specific Desired Skills<br />Progression Routes<br />Supply-Chain Clusters<br />Change Management<br />Construction Skills / Training Programmes<br />Business / people management<br />Project Management<br />Creating Self-managed teams<br />Personal Vision and Practical Steps to Vision<br />Collaboration / partnerships<br />Pathway 2: Practical, Professional and Technical Skills<br />Stream 2: Higher Levels<br />Enterprise & Innovation Hubs<br />Training for Employment Programmes<br />Stream 1: Sustainable Construction, Modern Methods, 21st Century Construction Excellence<br />Business Management<br />Professional, Technical <br />Energy Demand / Efficiency<br />Products, systems, technologies<br />Considerate Constructors, H&S <br />MMC and Construction Innovation<br />Project Management<br />Accreditation Systems<br />On-the-Job Learning / Work Based Training<br />Major Exemplar Projects<br />Energy Supply / Local & Renewable<br />Waste Minimisation & management <br />Healthy, non-toxic building <br />Standards, legislation, compliance <br />Stream 3: Site and Practical Skills<br />On-site Training<br />Specialist Skills Centres<br />Pathway 3: Ad Hoc Learning, Showcasing and Virtual Resources<br />Demo Centres & Physical Showcasing<br />General <br />Public and Client Groups<br />Stream 1: Networks, Membership Organisations, Publications<br />Stream 2: Seminars, Events, Exhibitions and Conferences<br />Stream 3: Virtual Learning & ICT Resources Programme<br />
  65. 65. Demo Pieces: Building Fabric<br />Building Fabric Demo Pieces:<br />airtightness detail at wall, ceiling and floor junctions;<br />triple glazed windows and doors, showing installation detailing to avoid thermal bridging and achieve airtight junctions;<br />fixings and details to avoid cold-bridging;<br />eco-refurbishment demonstrations:<br />external insulation systems / EWI;<br />internal insulation systems;<br />Sustainable building products, modular sustainable construction systems, etc e.g. ModCell; Warmcell; Hemcrete; etc.<br /> Key Resource: Carbonlite Gold/Passivhaus details available as download from www.carbonlite.org.uk<br />
  66. 66. Action Plan Phases<br />Phase 1 of the action plan: 2010/11 to 2012<br />Plan your Action: develop SB Skills & Training Plan<br />Assess your skills gaps and needs<br />Put the essential foundations of skills and knowledge in place in 2010-2011 e.g. CarbonlitePassivhaus Training <br />Action your Plan ...<br />Phase 2: 2012 onwards<br />Review company skills & knowledge<br />Review training plan and learning system<br />Continue to develop, extend and refine the company skills plan from 2012 to 2015<br />
  67. 67. What are your SB Skills needs?<br />Company needs around sustainable buildings?<br />What are your SB knowledge, skills and competence needs?<br />Support? Training? Information? Case studies? Etc, etc?<br />
  68. 68. Mapping: SB Skills & Competence<br />
  69. 69. Exercise<br />Where are you now?<br />Where are you heading?<br />Where do you need / want to be?<br />What’s your Vision for 2013 / 2015?<br />How do you get there?<br />What are your practical first steps?<br />
  70. 70. Train Your Sust Building Champions<br />Identify and Train Champions in your team:<br />Airtightness Champion<br />Thermal Efficiency Champion<br />Passivhaus Products Champion<br />Water Efficiency Champion<br />Energy Efficient Techs Champion<br />Renewable Energy Champion<br />Zero Waste / Waste Minimisation Champion <br />Biodiversity Champion<br />
  71. 71. Learning from Exemplar Buildings<br />Use a range of exemplar buildings for: <br />Examples of specific PH details, and how to achieve them successfully: articles, case study materials, project work, etc.<br />Visits for knowledge / skills enrichment.<br />Centre for Disability Studies, Rochford College;<br />WCR Passivhaus Office, Dover;<br />Hadlow College, nr Tonbridge.<br />Austria trip ... <br />etc.<br />
  72. 72. Green Gauge Conference<br />www.greengaugetrust.org<br />Delivering zero carbon through low energy homes<br />Learning the lessons from Milton Keynes and beyond<br />5 November 2010 | Milton Keynes<br />£125 + VAT<br />Energy pioneers now: Fabric first - principles for low energy homes in 2010, Paul Smyth, Think50<br />Social housing pioneers: 14 Passivhaus units at Wimbish in Essex, John Lefever, Regional Head of Development, Hastoe Housing Association<br />Refurbishing the Netherfield Estate: Applying Passivhaus principles, David Saxby, 00 Architects<br />
  73. 73. Free CPD Course & Company Assessments<br />Understanding Sustainable Building Skills & Training<br />SusCon, Dartford – 2nd Nov<br />Crawley Town Hall – 4th Nov<br />Bricks & Bread, Aldershot – 9th Nov<br />SB Skills Assessment & Plan: 15 diagnostic company visits, including summary report<br />Questions?<br />
  74. 74. Steve Charter<br />Director<br />SC2 Sustainability Consultancy<br />steve@sc2.org.uk<br />www.sc2.org.uk<br />07990 778581 <br />www.greengaugetrust.org<br />

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