Ms . Ahme d      &M s . P o je r
M id d le E a s t ?   OR Near             E a s t? O R S o u t h w e s t A s ia ?             O R …. ?
F re s h G ro und w a te r        S ourc e s    DESERTS
T h e T ig r is &                      E up hra te s                 R iv e r S y s t e m    Mesopotamia:”Land Between the...
Th eJ orda n  R iv e rS ys te m     : Is r a e l &J o r d a n --AF ig h t O v e r
Dead S ea: Lowes t  P o i n t o n E a r tbelow sea level                  2,300’                         h                ...
T h e F e r t ile C re s c e nt
M e s o p o t a m iaZIGGURATS & CUNEIFORM
C ode ofH a mmura bi
P h o e n ic ia n T r a d e
J u d a is m
Moses                     “ S hepherd of His“ Prince of Egypt”                           People”
J u d a is mJUDAISM-One true God is presenteverywhere-God made a covenant withAbraham-God chose the Hebrews ashis people-G...
The Temple Mount, Jerusalem            TodayS olomon’s Temple Wall: The “ Wailing” Wall
C h r is t ia n it y
Jesus’          MissionBaptism          Agony in the   Crucifixion            Garden
Christianity in Jerusalem     Location of the Last Supper
I s l a m A n               A b r a h a m ic Adam                  R e lig io n Noah         Muslims are strict monothei...
F iv e P illa r s   o f Is la m
M u s lim s in t h e      W o r ld      To d a y
S o c ia l P a t t e r n s~ Social Mobility~ Treatment of Conquered Peoples~ Slavery~ Status of Women
M u s limUmayyad Dynasty m p i r e s              E                               S                           S CU        ...
M u s limAbbassid Dynasty                E m p ir e s
Is la m ’ s-Preservation of Greco-Roman Culture n                    G o ld e           Age- Education- Art and Architectu...
Is la m ’ s      G o ld e n A g e   -Poetry         - Tales        - Philosophy          Algebra / Astronomy / Medicine- T...
Is la m ’ s    G o ld e n A g eMuslim Spain                  Muslim Sicily
T h e B e g in n in g o f t h e         C rus a de s-Beginning of the                          -An Initial   Crusades     ...
T h e E n d /I m p a c t o f t h eCauses   C r u s a d eEffects                        s-People want to free     -Trade in...
T h e O t t o m a n E m p ir e
T h e O t t o m a n E m p ir e
T h e D e c lin e o f t h e O t t o m a n               E m p ir e
T h e D e c lin e o f t h e  O t t o m a n E m p ir e                     ~The Armenian                       Massacres   ...
A r a b N a t io n a lis m                                             Pan-Arabism                                        ...
W W II – E l A la m e in       ( 19 4 2 )
C o ld W a r – C h o o s in g          S id e s
Th e N a tu r a lR e s o urc e s o f the    M id d le E a s t
W o r ld O ilR e s e rve s                                  P e r s ia n G u lf                                   O il E x...
L e a d in g U . S . O il         S u p p lie r s                                K u w a it : A n                         ...
C o n f lic t s a n d C h a n g e in       t h e M id d le E a s t       A Jewish State Among Arab Nations
C o n f lic t s a n d C h a n g e in       t h e M id d le E a s t    Civil War in Lebanon & The Iranian Revolution
C o n f lic t s a n d C h a n g e in       t h e M id d le E a s t      Iran/Iraq War and Continued Hostilities
C o n f lic t s a n d C h a n g e in       t h e M id d le E a s t
Is la m ic F u n d a m e n t a lis m          a n d T e r r o r is mFundamentalism:Iran / Libya / Algeria / Turkey        ...
Is la m ic F u n d a m e n t a lis m           a n d T e r r o r is mSocial Patterns and Change:Saudi Arabia / Egypt / Afg...
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Middle East

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The Middle East - Its geography and history

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  • DAY 1: 4, 2, 4, 1, 4, 3 DAY 2: 1, 4, 4, 2, 1, 1, 4, 3, 3, 1 DAY 3: 1, 4, 3, 4, 1, 3, 3, 2 DAY 4: 1, 2, 2, 4, 1, 3, 3, 3
  • A crescent shaped region of good farmland created by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, stretches from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Lack of natural barriers allowed for frequent migrations and invasions, while the diversity of people made it hard to unite the people (great civilizations arose, and called “the cradle of civilization” East lay Mesopotamia (along banks of rivers) Sumerian Civlization: First civilization in meso was sumer (5000 yrs ago) villages had grown into cities (fought each other for land and water)
  • Religion- polytheistic (many gods and goddesses that had human qualities); Ziggurats: large buildings for the gods/goddesses (imp to keep them happy) Government- each sumerian state had a hereditary leader (chief servant of gods); enforce taxes and laws but also maintained city walls and irrigation Social Structure: distinct social classes, (top: ruling family, officials, priests; Middle: merchants and artisans; Bottom: peasant farmers) Economy- Rich from trade (far reaching bc scientists find things from Egypt in India) Contributions- built first wheeled vehicle, irrigation, canals (to protect from floods); CUNEIFORM (early form of writing), wedge shaped writing by pressing penlike object into clay; algebra/geometry
  • Many outside groups invade The Fertile Crescent (some destroyed while others overtook the government and created EMPIRES – group of states or territories governed by one ruler) Assyrians by the 600s BC conquered the entire crescent; Their enemies overtake them in 612; 500 BC people of Middle East were united in a single empire by the Persians Hammurabi: Another early empire was Babylon with the leader Hammurabi conquered much of Mesopotamia; Created set of Laws called Code… (first major collection of laws in history, laws favored higher class but est standards for justice – punishment harsh though)
  • Phoenicians were one of the earliest trading empires of the ancient Middle East; made up of small city states in the lands known today as Lebanon and Syria Made glass from sand, manufactured a purple dye from the sea snail, created scrolls from Egyptian Papyrus Ships carried valuable goods across the Mediterranean Founded colonies throughout the region ALPHABET- most important contribution (to record business transactions)
  • Hebrews were one of the nomadic groups living in the Fertile Crescent Hebrews became enslaved in Egypt, and God helped them escape this slavery; by about 1000 the Hebrews had set up the kingdom of Israel with Jerusalem as its capital; believed that God had promised them this land; Their beliefs evolved it to what we call Judaism today Belief in one God: monotheistic; during this time, many other religions had many gods; God was special protector/all knowing/present everywhere
  • Sacred texts: Sacred text – torah, God made an agreement that he would be the God of the Hebrews God gave them the Ten Commandments through Moses (how people should behave towards God and each other) Old Testament of the Bible includes the Torah (which is made up of 5 books) Go back to picture of Torah – sets laws and establishes moral basis for Jews
  • Torah – also includes the writings of spiritual leaders (prophets) This religion had a strong impact on Christianity and Islam SPREAD – unique way, known as the diaspora where Romans expelled the Jews from Palestine in AD 135 (scattering of people); wherever they settled, they lived in close0knit communities and maintained their identity (preserve culture)
  • is an important Jewish religious site located in the Old City of Jerusalem
  • Began in Palestine with the teaching of a Jew named Jesus in about AD 30 Began with a small group of followers, but grew and spread Life and Death of Jesus: Jesus’ mother Mary had been told before his birth that he would be the messiah (Jewish word for a savior sent by God). Jesus grew up worshiping God and following Jewish law and at about 30 yrs, began to travel though the countryside preaching and teaching new beliefs Key Things: ~Faith in one God ~ Jesus was the son of God and the Messiah ~ Salvation and eternal life go to those who follow Jesus ~ Bible includes Old Testament and the New Testament (new added things) ~ God gave the Ten Commandments to the Hebrews through Moses ~ Jesus’ teaching including mercy and sympathy for poor and equality of people before God BIBLE (two parts), included the scriptures of the old but adds in the gospels of the new (describing Jesus and his teachings). Mostly letters written by Christians that explain Christian doctrine
  • Jews and Romans worried that Jesus was dangerous; around AD 29 Romans arrest Jesus, try him, and then execute him by crucifixion (explain) After his death, followers said that he had risen from his grave; followers worked to spread his word Romans persecuted Christians but in AD 313 Roman Constantine ruler ended their persecution and in AD 392 became official religion SPREAD – First spread through missionaries, who sometimes added Greek concepts (even though persecuted still spread); bc poor and oppressed came together and spread it (message of love and life after death); COLONIALISM
  • AD 622 new religion arose; about 570 Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) was born in Mecca; became a caravan merchant, married and had kids; troubled by the idol worship of the Arabs of the time; Angel Gabriel commanded Mohammad to spread Islam Meccan merchants sought to kill him; 622 Mohammad and his followers moved to Yathrib (later named Medina) on a journey known as the HIJRA; Muslim converts in Medina accepted and spread Islam Easy to learn and practice. No priesthood. Teaches equality. Non-Muslims, who were “Peoples of the Book,” were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. Easily “portable”  nomads & trade routes. SHARIA: system of Islamic law, applied to all aspects of life (interpret the Quran and apply to life) CALIPH: successor of Mohammad (not a prophet, just a ruler) SUNNIS: believed the Caliph should be chosen by Muslim authorities and didn’t view them not as a religious authority SHIITES: only descendants of prophet should be a caliph (divinely inspired) Split continues t o this day (same beliefs but still div)
  • The testimony/The declaration of faith: There is no god worthy of worship except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger [or Prophet]. The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a day: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed Wash before praying. Face Mecca and use a prayer rug. Zakat means both “purification” and “growth.” About 2.5% of your income. 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year.
  • 1. Indonesia 183,000,000 6. Iran 62,000,000 2. Pakistan 134,000,000 7. Egypt 59,000,000 3. India 121,000,000 8. Nigeria 53,000,000 4. Bangladesh 114,000,000 9. Algeria 31,000,000 5. Turkey 66,000,000 10. Morocco 29,000,000 Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world. In the 150 years after the Prophets’ death, Islam spread over three continents; Some through military conquest (there were laws on how to rule over people and because they did it in a fair way – already riddled with war and harsh rulers, they converted willingly – appealing bc emphasized generosity, honesty, and social justice); through Trading; From north Africa to Spain Locations: Middle East, North Africa, Spain and Sicily, India, and South East Asia
  • Mobility: allowed more mobility that EU society; through religious, scholarly, or military achievements Treatment: allowed people to still practice their own religion, but had to pay a tax (Christians and Jews often served as doctors, officials, and translators in Muslim communities) Slavery: As in Greece and Rome, slavery was common; most worked as house servants, and some were skilled craftsmen (also, if a slave converted to Islam his children would be freed) Women: equality of men and women; before Islam, women would be treated poorly (prostitutes or little girls would be killed – unworthy) but in Islam it protected women. EX: cant kill daughters and protected rights of Widows (had inheritance rights, could be educated; and had to consent to marriage (not forced) – still diff in that daughter’s inheritance would be less than son’s As Islam spread, Muslims adopted beliefs of Non-Arab people (veil and live in separate part of home)
  • After the death of the fourth caliph in 661, Umayyad family established a dynasty that ruled the muslim world until 750 (point to map) Muslim world grew under Umayyad (spreading Islam to the Atlantic – west, and to the Indus Valley in the East); Not based in Mecca but in Damascus Conquests brought wealth, but also problems in trying to rule large cities and territories (relied on local officials to govern the land) Conquests slowed in the 700s, but tensions dev bw rich and poor; criticism that the Umayyad had left the Islamic ways; Non-Arab Muslims complained that they had fewer rights than Arab Muslims; Shiites upset because killed a descendant to Mohammad Led to a rebellion
  • Unhappy Muslims found a leader in Abu al-Abbas who in 750 captured the Umayyad capital of Damascus and he found the Abbassid Dynasty until the mid-1200s One consequence was that it ended Arab domination of Islam; Abbassid ruled from Baghdad; enjoyed great wealth and power – GOLDEN AGE; Baghdad exceeded the size and wealth of Constantinople under rule (beautiful city with Gardens and magnificent buildings)
  • Under Abbassid, composed of people from many diff cultures (Arabs, Persians, Egyptians, and Europeans) – blended customs and traditions from them Preservation- translated the works of Greek scholars (their advances were based partly on things learned from Greek/Indian knowledge) Education- Prophet Mohammad taught a respect for learning that continued during this time; had many learning centers, including in Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba (attracted more diverse scholars) Art/Architecture- Mosques & Palaces: influenced by Byzantine domes and arches (forbids artists to portray God or human figures in art) Calligraphy: decorated buildings and art and used verses of the Quran
  • Poems: wide variety of themes written, but some focused on Quran Tales: storytellers adapted stories from Greek, Indian, Jewish, and Egyptian culture (famous- The Thousand and One Nights) Philosophy: translated works of other philosophers; Averroes strongly affected medieval Christian scholars on his writing on Aristotle (Jewish Rabbi Maimonides also influenced them) Created the study of Algebra and was translated to other languages Created astronomical tables (observed Earth’s rotation and calc circ of earth) Adv tech in medicine (doctors had to pass tests)– bks become standards EU Prosperous and extensive trade network: Trade: merchants were honored in society (trade goods, beliefs, culture, tech) – formed banks, partnerships etc Made steel swords, leather goods, and carpets in Persia
  • Adv of Muslim world reached Christian Europe through Spain and Sicily Spain: Muslim cultural center (Muslim princes encouraged poetry, the arts and learning) tolerance, Jews officials and enc Christian students to study Greek Sicily: During the Middle Ages, Arabs gained control of Sicily (later taken again by EU, but still influenced) In Egypt, goods could be transferred to Italian ships, Italian merchants carried the goods across the Mediterranean sea to Europe
  • Islam was increasingly influencing Christian society 1050 Turks invaded Byzantine empire, 1095 Byzantine ask the Pope Urban II for help (agrees). Council of Clermont, Urban encouraged FR and GER bishops to recover Palestine (or the Holy Land – bc where Jesus lived and taught); Christians answered the Popes calls and were known as crusaders (men and women left their homes to go to the Holy Land) Reasons (religious and secular): Pope believed Crusades would inc his power in EU; Christians believed that their sins would be forgiven if they participated; Nobles hoped to gain land; Adventurers saw it as a chance to travel; serfs hoped to escape feudalism 200 yrs fighting continued, 1099 captured city of Jerusalem (followed the victory with a massacre of Muslim and Jewish inhabitants) 1100s Saladin united the Muslim world (both Muslim and Christians admired him), but Saladin marched towards Jerusalem to take it back (WILL STOP EU) Crusaders in Jerusalem surrender (but Saladin forbade his soldiers from killing, harming, or stealing from the defeated crusaders) Richard the Lion Hearted – became king of England in 1189, wanted to take Jerusalem and in the third Crusade, won several victories (but unable)
  • Crusades were failing; after helping Venetian merchants defeat their Byzantine trade rivals, Knights looted Constantinople (started as a religious war bw Muslims and Christians but changed to rival bc Christian factions) In Palestine, Muslims overran the crusaders and captured the last city in 1291 (Muslims massacred Christians after victory) Ships that transported crusaders were then used for trade; encouraged learning; Crusades inc the Popes power for a bit; feudalism was weakening Page 118
  • By 1400s byzantine were declining and was being threatened by a nomadic turkish speaking troop from central asia called ottomans 1453 Ottoman armies surround the byzantine capitol Constantinople and capture the city (they change the name to Istanbul and made this ancient christian city the capital of their muslim empire After 1453 made many gains (mecca nile river North into Russia and got closer to Vienna – EU scared) 1500s built the largest and most powerful empire (reached across three continents – SE EU, Africa, Middle East) Successful bc using new military tech (canons, foot soldiers with muskets) Trades were disrupted in Mediterranean (Ottoman had E Med and W EU can’t trade with E Asia) – Portuguese begin to send explorers to look for trade route
  • (Byzantine mix of Greco-Roman and Med) – Ottomans blend byz culture with Muslim culture Suleiman’s Golden Age: ruled the Ottoman from 1520-1566, was a sultan, modernized army (added new territories); Golden Age bc strengthened govt and improved justice system (based law on Sharia), had abs power but conferred with advisors Diverse society: Many religions under Ottoman, had four classes- Men of the Pen: educated people (scientists, lawyers etc) Men of the Sword: Military Men of Negotiation: businessmen, tax collectors, artisans Men of Husbandry: farmers and herders (TOP TWO: MUSLIM, OTHER: MIX) Millets: Non-Muslim religious comm (maintain own culture and edu) Janissaries: recruited military and govt officers from conquered groups, they were trained and those that were of the best, were called this (member of an elite force) Building of more beautiful mosques
  • Internal Disorder: over time, nations were able to break away from the rule (also govt corruption and poor leadership later on) EU Advances: rising of power of EU nations was the major factor, 1571 Spain and Italian allied defeat Ottoman at Lepanto; being cut out of global trade; by 1700s EU commercial and military tech surpassed Ottomans (Ottoman econ still based on agri)
  • Ottomans facing threats from various ethnic grps; Yong Turks (1890s) wanted to strengthen Ottoman empire and end threat of W imperialism – overthrew the sultan took control of the govt; Armenian Massacre – Young Turks supported Turkish nationalism, abandoned the tolerance of other religions, Muslim Turks turn against Christians and Turks massacre over 1 mill Armenians in 25 yrs Balkan Powder Keg- Balkans controlled by Ottoman, Serbia declares indep in 1878 and wanted control of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1912 Serbia and its allies attack Ottoman empire) – Powder keg bc any small spark would result in an explosion After the collapse in 1918, BR and FR controlled the old areas (remainder is Turkey)
  • During WWI, many arabs helped Allies and they were promised independence After war, BR and FR divide up the land of the Ottomans bw themselves, set up mandates (territories administered by EU powers), FR had Syria and Lebanon, BR had Palestine and Iraq 1920s 1930s Arab nationalists wanted to be free of foreign control, and gave rise to Pan-Arabism (unity of all Arab peoples based on shared heritage) TURKEY: was a general and a war hero of Turkey; overthrew the sultan and defeated western occupation forces (declared Turkey a republic) – Ataturk means “Father of the Turks”; wanted to modernize and westernize (had to change to survive); replaced islamic law with EU based system, Muslim Calendar was replaced by the Christian calendar, People required to wear western dress, Arabic script replaced with Latin Alphabet, women didn’t have to wear veil and could work outside of home, Turkey was industrialized IRAN: followed Turkey’s lead; In Iran, the BR and the Russians had carved out spheres of influence, 1925 Reza (army officer) overthrew the ruler of Iran (the shah); set up his own dynasty and made himself shah; tried to modernize and westernize and make it fully independent; had the support of wealthy urban Iranians but not the religious leaders ZIONISM: rose during the 1890s bw EU and ME, Jewish people wanted to est a Jewish state in Palestine; situation was complex bc Arab peoples were already living there; Allies made conflicting promises during WWI (promised Arabs land that included Palestine but also said they would have a Jewish nation in the same region); Jews were moving into Palestine to escape persecution in the 1930s – tensions grew
  • El Alamein, 1942: The GER were under General Erwin Rommel and he gained many territories in N Africa bw 1941-2 BR forces finally stop his adv during this battle (w/help of US Allies trap Rommel and he surrenders)
  • Arab states and Israel: in the 1950s, Gamal Abdel Nasser became the leader of Egypt, wanted to end western power in Egypt; 1956 Nationalized Suez Canal (ending BR control); received support from the SU and used their money to build Dam; under his leadership, Egypt took part in two wars against Israel (SU support Egypt, US supports Israel) Iran and Iraq: rivalries over oil resources fueled Cold War tensions in the Middle East; US and SU were both interested in Iran after vast oil fields were discovered there; an Iranian nationalist leader who had comm support tried to nationalize the oil industry in the early 1950s; US helped to keep him from power; The US then supported the repressive anti-comm shah of Iran with weapons and advisors; Islamic Revolution in 1979 took over the Shah regime SU was supporting Iraq, which became a social dictatorship in the 1960s and also had oil reserves (SU eventually supported Syria and Libya)
  • Oil the most imp resource after WWII (global interdependence)
  • Formation of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) – 1960, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela formed it and its goals were to control the oil industry by setting prod levels and prices
  • OPEC and Oil Crisis – 1973 OPEC nations stopped the export of oil to certain countries; Egypt and Israel were at war and Arab countries declared the embargo against the US and other countries that supported Israel (prices quadrupled), went back to normal but then in 1998 OPEC cut oil prod and Oil prices rose
  • Jews beginning to migrate to Palestine in the late 1800s and their numbers grew after WWII; both Jews and Palestinian Arabs claimed a right to the land of Palestine Creation of Israel – 1947, UN made a plan to divide Palestine which was under BR rule (wanted to make it into an Arab state and a Jewish state); Jews accepted the plan, but Arabs did not 1948 BR withdrew and Jews proclaimed the indep st of Israel (recognized by both US and SU) Soon after, Arab states attack Israel, Israeli forces won the first of several wars and as a result, it nearly doubled their size Israel was dev rapidly; bw 1948 and mid1980s nearly 2 million Jews migrated to Israel (US aid also to help econ) Arab Palestinians – in 1948 after fighting ended, 700,000 Arabs became refugees and many went to refugee camps built by the UN (became their permanent homes); much poverty and discrimination (people angered and dreamed of their own st) Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) – led by Yasir Arafat, used terrorist tactics and fought guerilla wars against Israelis at home and abroad 1987, young Palestinians mounted the Intifada (uprising); teens defied Israeli police such as throwing rocks and homemade bombs; crackdowns made more problems; 1993 direct talks were held for the first time bw Israel and PLO (Israeli PM agreed to give Palestinians limited self rule) Arb-Israeli war occurred in 1948 and 1956, 1967 Six day War (in just 6 days overran the Sinai Peninsula, Golan heights of Syria & east Jerusalem. 1973 Egypt and Syria launch a war on the holy day of Yom Kippur; later began to seek peace (CAMP DAVID ACCORDS – agree to end war), 2001 suicide bombings by Palestine increased (peace talks continue as does violence)
  • (located north of Israel), Lebanon gained independence after WWII; christians and muslims lived there peacefully, but as palestinians entered lebanon, they created a muslim majority (PLO became powerful). Civil war bw two occurs in 1975 (israeli and syrian forces also participate); by 1990 some order in lebanon, but syria and israel still have influence there Iranian Revolution: 1953 BR and US help Reza gain control of Iran and becomes shah (dictator that modernized); 1970s opposition to shah occurs and is led by the exile of Ayatollah Khomeini (Ayatollah means Shiite legal expert); protests inc and shah flees in 1979 (Khomeini returns and declares Iran an Islamic republic) IMPACT- New govt hostile to the west (banned items) Must follow Muslim law strictly – rts taken from women Iranian militants seize US embassy in Tehran and hold US ppl hostage for 1 yr Iran encouraged Muslims in other countries to work to overthrow secular govts and est Islamic law 1989 Khomeini dies and more moderate leaders take control (but the Islamic leaders direct things)
  • Iran-Iraq War – 1980s Hussein seized control of a border area that was still being disputed bw Iran and Iraq; war breaks out; both sides attack oil tankers in the Persian Gulf, the US Navy began to protect shipping lanes in the area; war continues on into 1988 Continued Hostilities – US viewed dictator Hussein as very dangerous; hoped the war would remove him from power, but it didn’t; at end of war UN required Iraq to destroy its nuclear, biological and chem weapons (also missiles); UN began series of inspections but in the 1990s Iraq expelled UN inspection team and wouldn’t allow further investigations. In response the US and BR staged air strikes against Iraq and continued – what about today? Reasons for going to war?
  • Persian Gulf War – 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait and seized its oil fields; US saw Iraqi nation as a threat to Saudi and to the flow of oil; first US organ a trade embargo of Iraq (peacekeeping troops went to Saudi); when iraq refused to withdraw from Kuwait, led to the 1991 Persian Gulf War (US and allies quickly won the war and Kuwait restored)
  • 313, 339 1970s more Muslims opposed westernization; wanted to apply Islamic principles to the problems of their nations (this is called Islamic Fundamentalism) Iran: led to the overthrow of an unpopular shah/new govt under Islamic law Libya: 1969 coup brought al-Qaddafi to power/islamic principles Algeria: 1992 the Islamic pol party was gaining popularity and in military took harsh measures against them (deaths of many) Turkey: 1900s mostly W models, 1990s Islamic pol parties gaining support (restore) IRAQ WAR: end of 2001, accused by US of supporting terrorists and of hiding weapons; UN continued search but in 2002 UN denied US request of military action against Iraq; March 2003 w/o UN support US and its coalition forces invade; Saddam captured in Dec 2003 (no weapons found); Iraqi govt to take control
  • Middle East: Muslim cultures put imp on kinship and patriarchal families; with modernization, increasing tensions …
  • Middle East

    1. 1. Ms . Ahme d &M s . P o je r
    2. 2. M id d le E a s t ? OR Near E a s t? O R S o u t h w e s t A s ia ? O R …. ?
    3. 3. F re s h G ro und w a te r S ourc e s DESERTS
    4. 4. T h e T ig r is & E up hra te s R iv e r S y s t e m Mesopotamia:”Land Between the Two Rivers” Marsh Arabs, So. Iraq
    5. 5. Th eJ orda n R iv e rS ys te m : Is r a e l &J o r d a n --AF ig h t O v e r
    6. 6. Dead S ea: Lowes t P o i n t o n E a r tbelow sea level 2,300’ h Highest S alt Content ( 33%)
    7. 7. T h e F e r t ile C re s c e nt
    8. 8. M e s o p o t a m iaZIGGURATS & CUNEIFORM
    9. 9. C ode ofH a mmura bi
    10. 10. P h o e n ic ia n T r a d e
    11. 11. J u d a is m
    12. 12. Moses “ S hepherd of His“ Prince of Egypt” People”
    13. 13. J u d a is mJUDAISM-One true God is presenteverywhere-God made a covenant withAbraham-God chose the Hebrews ashis people-God gave the Hebrews theTen Commandmentsthrough Moses-The Torah is a sacredrecording of laws and eventsin Jewish history-Prophets taught aboutmoral standards and justice
    14. 14. The Temple Mount, Jerusalem TodayS olomon’s Temple Wall: The “ Wailing” Wall
    15. 15. C h r is t ia n it y
    16. 16. Jesus’ MissionBaptism Agony in the Crucifixion Garden
    17. 17. Christianity in Jerusalem Location of the Last Supper
    18. 18. I s l a m A n A b r a h a m ic Adam R e lig io n Noah  Muslims are strict monotheists.  They believe in the Judeo-Abraham Christian God, which they call Allah. Moses  Muslims believe that the Torah Jesus and the Bible, like the Qur’an, is the word of God.Muhammad (PBUH) Peoples of the Book
    19. 19. F iv e P illa r s o f Is la m
    20. 20. M u s lim s in t h e W o r ld To d a y
    21. 21. S o c ia l P a t t e r n s~ Social Mobility~ Treatment of Conquered Peoples~ Slavery~ Status of Women
    22. 22. M u s limUmayyad Dynasty m p i r e s E S S CU MA DA *
    23. 23. M u s limAbbassid Dynasty E m p ir e s
    24. 24. Is la m ’ s-Preservation of Greco-Roman Culture n G o ld e Age- Education- Art and Architecture The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem
    25. 25. Is la m ’ s G o ld e n A g e -Poetry - Tales - Philosophy Algebra / Astronomy / Medicine- Trade - Manufacturing - Agriculture
    26. 26. Is la m ’ s G o ld e n A g eMuslim Spain Muslim Sicily
    27. 27. T h e B e g in n in g o f t h e C rus a de s-Beginning of the -An Initial Crusades Christian Victory - Reasons for - Saladin and the Crusades Muslim Victory
    28. 28. T h e E n d /I m p a c t o f t h eCauses C r u s a d eEffects s-People want to free -Trade increases the Holy Land from - People of different Seljuk control religions grow to hate- Many people want each otherto get rich and gain - Popes become more new land powerful- Some people want - Renting land helps to to see new places free serfs - Europeans become interested in traveling - People learn about other cultures
    29. 29. T h e O t t o m a n E m p ir e
    30. 30. T h e O t t o m a n E m p ir e
    31. 31. T h e D e c lin e o f t h e O t t o m a n E m p ir e
    32. 32. T h e D e c lin e o f t h e O t t o m a n E m p ir e ~The Armenian Massacres ~The Balkan Powder Keg
    33. 33. A r a b N a t io n a lis m Pan-Arabism ZionismTurkish – Kemal Ataturk Iran – Reza Khan
    34. 34. W W II – E l A la m e in ( 19 4 2 )
    35. 35. C o ld W a r – C h o o s in g S id e s
    36. 36. Th e N a tu r a lR e s o urc e s o f the M id d le E a s t
    37. 37. W o r ld O ilR e s e rve s P e r s ia n G u lf O il E x p o r t s (2 0 0 3 ) S a u d i O il F ie ld s & R e f in e r ie s
    38. 38. L e a d in g U . S . O il S u p p lie r s K u w a it : A n I s l a n d F l o a t in g o n a S e a o f OilThe U. S. imports 30% of its oil needs from the Middle East.
    39. 39. C o n f lic t s a n d C h a n g e in t h e M id d le E a s t A Jewish State Among Arab Nations
    40. 40. C o n f lic t s a n d C h a n g e in t h e M id d le E a s t Civil War in Lebanon & The Iranian Revolution
    41. 41. C o n f lic t s a n d C h a n g e in t h e M id d le E a s t Iran/Iraq War and Continued Hostilities
    42. 42. C o n f lic t s a n d C h a n g e in t h e M id d le E a s t
    43. 43. Is la m ic F u n d a m e n t a lis m a n d T e r r o r is mFundamentalism:Iran / Libya / Algeria / Turkey ~ The Iraq War ~ Afghanistan ~ Peace Keeping Operations (UN)
    44. 44. Is la m ic F u n d a m e n t a lis m a n d T e r r o r is mSocial Patterns and Change:Saudi Arabia / Egypt / Afghanistan / Algeria

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