The Indian subcontinent is surrounded on the North and South by large mountains (limits contact with other cultures) Winds called monsoons bring rain every summer (India depended on monsoons to grow its crops) – too much (floods and rivers rise), too little (no crops) Three major geographical areas: Northern Plain: fertile and well watered by Indus and the Ganges The Deccan Plateau: dry and sparsely populated Coastal Plains: flat land along the east and west coasts (farming, fishing, trading) Varied geog makes it hard to unite land
2500 BC, first Indian civilization was being created in Indus River Valley Not much is known about it because ancient, but it covered a large area and cities were well planned out Two main cities were Harappa and Mohnejo-Daro Roads were in a grid pattern, and each city had a structure on top a hill (fortress/temple) Large granaries (holding grains) in outlying villages; houses (made of brick) had plumbing with chutes leading to sewer systems Most people were farmers (first to grow cotton and weave it into cloth) Merchants traveled far to trade (Sumer in Mesopotamia, Mediterranean)
Around 1750 BC the Indus Valley civilization began to decline (unknown reasons) 1500 BC nomadic warriors called Aryans conquered the Indus Valley Aryans were Indo-European warriors Early Aryans built no cities and left few artifacts; most of their knowledge comes from Vedas (collection of sacred writings) that paints them as fierce warriors – Vedic Age (foundations of Hinduism formed) Competing kingdoms were nearby, including the Chandragupta Maurya (first gained power in Ganges but then north India)
Maurya Dynasty: Created Well Organized Govt – bureaucracy, system of managing govt trough depts run by officials (who collect taxes and oversee building of roads etc); but rule was harsh (brutal police force) Asoka and Reform – Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka was nicer in rule (didn’t want to conquer more land); turned to Buddhism but accepting of other religions (he united his people and brought peace/prosperity) After his death, it declined Contributions: had schools and libraries (spread of Buddhism)
Gupta Dynasty came to power in AD 320 until 550 (gave power to local leaders and united India – peace/prosperity) Hinduism had a strong impact on life (scientists and mathematicians prospered) Maurya’s and Guptas were able to unite under their rule (both arose in north and went south – bc of geog) Mountains protected them, indus and ganges provided water and fertile soil Had a central govt that allowed farming and trade (& helped adv in arts) They also gave power to local leaders elected by merchants and artisans In earlier times, women could serve on council, but later on, Hindu law pu restrictions on them (no participation) Society ruled under hindu law
Caste System: Karma: all the good and bad things done in life determined your caste (can’t change their cast in one lifetime, but can be born again in a higher caste if they did good – Dharma) Village at center and farms/fields surrounding (homes built of earth and stone). Ran their own affairs with little govt intervention as long as they paid their taxes (only local) Caste rules created a stable society People in the higher castes had strict rules (little interaction with lower classes); Untouchables were outcasts living harsh lives (given impure jobs such as cleaning streets or digging graves and had to live outside society) Wealthy lived in joint families (where parents, children, grandparents, uncles, and their children shared a common home) Indian families patriarchal (with father/oldest male head/authority) Children taught work and what would be expected of them as adults. Parents arrange marriage (can only marry within your own caste) Women: Once had freedom, but later lost it (rich: stay at home and cover head to foot; poor: work in fields etc)
Peaceful environment helped people prosper in arts/sciences Developed concept of 0 & decimal system (based on the number 10) Dev writing numbers that are used today: Arabic Numerals (Arabs brought them from India to the Middle East and Europe) Used herbs and remedies to cure illnesses (surgeons set bones and repair facial injuries with plastic surgery) and vaccinated people against smallpox (1000 yrs before Europe) Stone temples built for Hindu worship filled with gods/goddesses, animals (elephants) & regular people Buddhists made stupas (dome shaped shrines that contained remains of holy people). Shrines plain but they had elaborate gateways Works of literature created and passed on to nearby countries (persia, egypt and greece) Famous poet was Kalidasa and he wrote the play Shakuntala Gupta decline because of weak rulers and foreign invasions (White Huns from central Asia)
Babur, established India’s Mughal Dynasty which ruled from 1526 to 1857 Babur’s grandson, Akbar the Great was the greatest Mughal reader He was Muslim, but won the support of Hindus because tolerant of others Akbar was able to strengthen govt and made his empire larger than any other in Europe (modernized army, encouraged trade, and intro land reforms) Mughal dynasty was very rich, but after Akbar’s death, they had weak rulers and civil wars (not as accepting as Akbar) and it gave British and French an easy in
The British and French companies made alliances with local rulers and they each created their own sepoys (Indian troops) As time passed, the foreigners forced the Mughals to let them to collect taxes Before long, they became the ruling force of the region (ruling since 1700’s)
Sepoy Mutiny of 1857: rebellion fought by Muslim and Hindu sepoys against British rule in India
Nationalistic feelings began to stir because much of the Indian population was being schooled in a Westernized fashion (educated in the West) – learned about democracy and natural rights, wanted self rule Indian National Congress (1885) created by mostly Hindu professors and business leaders (called for equality and democracy) Muslim League (1906): at first Muslims and Hindus were cooperative, but it changed (Muslims distrustful of the INC bc only Hindu); created to protect their own rights (talk of creating separate Muslim state)
India fought beside GB in WWI and was promised greater self-government (lie) Amritsar Massacre (1919): riots and attacks on British citizens in city of Amritsar; in response, public meetings were banned; large group of Indians gathered together on April 13 BR troops fired on them without warning (convinced Indians that the end of BR rule would need to come)
In the 1920’s and 1930’s, a foreign educated lawyer named Gandhi headed the Indian Nationalist movement. Non-violent resistance and civil disobedience (refusal to obey unjust laws) – no bloodshed, with tactics such as boycotting (refusing to buy BR goods), and embraced Western ideas of Democracy and Nationalism Rejected the caste system and wanted equal rights for all (even women). India received independence though in 1947 (yr before his death)
Nehru met Gandhi in 1916 at the annual Indian National Congress convention. He participated in the nonviolent civil disobedience campaign and spent time in jail along with Gandhi. At independence, Nehru became the nation’s first prime minister and was continually reelected until his death in 1964. Nehru pushed modernization of the country, and industrialization of its economy.
India is the largest democratic nation (federal system of govt with central govt and smaller local govts) 40 yrs after independence, led by Nehru’s family (including daughter, indira gandhi, who was Prime Minister in 1966 – married a man named Gandhi, but not related to Mahatmas) She was assassinated in 1984. Her son Rajiv Gandhi became PM but was also killed in 1991 Nonalignment: Did not want to pick sides during the Cold War (India accepting help from both capitalist and socialist govt)
Gandhi wanted to stop harsh treatment of untouchables and an end to caste. Indian Constitution of 1950 banned discrimination against Untouchables (govt set aside jobs for them) Discrimination still exists because it is 2000 yrs of history. (more prominent in rural areas) Status of Women: Const also granted rights to women; rt to vote and rt to divorce/inherit property (indira is PM) Diff in rural areas Although very popular at the polls, she faced a great challenge in dealing with nationalist movements among minority groups, especially the Sikhs in Punjab state. Sikhism: blend of elements from Islam and Hinduism (they wanted self rule) The Sikhs sought independence of Punjab, and when they used terrorism, Indira struck back. The Golden Temple -- an extremely holy Sikh shrine at Amritsar was being used by the terrorists as a weapons storehouse and a sanctuary. Indira ordered a military raid on the temple in which hundreds of Sikhs were brutally killed. In the process, the temple was badly damaged. In retaliation, just a few months later on October 31, 1984, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her own Sikh bodyguards.
The war broke out on 26 March 1971 as army units directed by West Pakistan launched a military operation in East Pakistan against Bengali civilians, students, intelligentsia, and armed personnel who were demanding separation of the East from West Pakistan. was the event title for two benefit concerts organized by George Harrison and Ravi Shankar , held at noon and at 7:00 p.m. on August 1, 1971, playing to a total of 40,000 people at Madison Square Garden in New York City . Organized for the relief of refugees from East Pakistan (now independent Bangladesh ) after the 1970 Bhola cyclone and during the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities and Bangladesh Liberation War , the event was the first benefit concert of this magnitude in world history. It featured an all-star supergroup of performers that included Bob Dylan , Eric Clapton , George Harrison , Billy Preston , Leon Russell , Badfinger , and Ringo Starr . US$ 243,418.51 for Bangladesh relief,
India, Hindus are the majority while Muslims are the minority Muslim League was demanding a Muslim state (already fighting b/w 2 religions) 1947: BR officials drew borders that created Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan (West Pakistan and East Pakistan) The east later becomes Bangladesh (geog location) The partition did not bring peace (millions of Hindus were leaving Pakistan and millions of Muslims were leaving India) – while crossing borders, many killed Gandhi tried to bring peace, but a Hindu fanatic killed him Tensions between the two religions still occurs today HOT SPOT: Kashmir (who does it belong to?)
India has had a &quot;mixed economy&quot; in which both private business and government invest in and direct the economy. Today, India has been moving away from state ownership and subsidies to business. India's government has established five-year plans to set economic goals. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s made great headway, but faltered due to most farmers' lack of money to buy hybrid seeds, fertilizers, and equipment. Imports still needed.
Overpopulation and Deforestation are other problems Kashmir is a region divided between India and Pakistan 2001: Muslim terrorists attacked India’s parliament Crisis escalated further (raising fears of nuclear war)
DO NOWDOCUMENT 7 Partition. . . Gandhi’s beliefs were based, in part, on ancient Hinduideals. This may have added to the hatred and suspicionthat had always existed between Hindus and Muslims.The Muslims were afraid that they would have no powerin the new India. Although the Hindu leaders, includingGandhi, tried to reassure the Muslims, no agreementcould be reached. The country was finally divided intotwo parts—the independent Muslim state of Pakistan anda predominately Hindu state—the Democratic Republic ofIndia. . . . According to Jean Bothwell, what was one cause of the migration of Muslims and Hindus?
India’s “mixed economy” The “mix” refers to private and public ownership. Foreign aid and foreign investment are crucial. Urban areas have high-tech companies. Three quarters of the population are farmers living in small villages. Indias "Green Revolution" allowed farmers to triple their crop by using
Problems TodayOVERPOPULATION and DEFORESTATION!
Problems Today Indias Prime Minister ManMohan SinghPakistans President Pervez Musharraf Musharraf and Indias new Prime Minister Manmohan Singh speak by telephone frequently affirming a strong desire for peace and resolution of their disputes, including Kashmir, on which the two countries have fought two of their three wars.