SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT<br />ON<br />Stock Exchange Online Share Trading At Nirmal Bang<br />Prepared and presented to<br />UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF<br />COMPANY’S GUIDE NAME:FACULTY NAME:<br />Mr. GUNJAN SONKER<br />RELATIONSHIP MANAGER<br />BY<br />SAURABH KUMAR<br />Roll no: 1071470022<br />Kanpur Institute of Management Studies<br />Unnao<br />ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:<br />I am neither a research expert nor a trend spotter; I am a management student with foundation of management principles and theories, who is curious about various sectors and its latest happenings.<br />Definitely, I can’t ignore the technology, with internet as the backbone and those search engines which helped me in building up this research project.<br />To being with, I am obliged to Mr. KISHORE BANG and Mr. DILIP BANG (Managing Director’s Nirmal Bang Securities (PVT) Ltd).who allotted me this interesting topic and with out whose guidance and constructive criticism this repot might have not been completed .I would like to thank Broker, Agents franchise owners and individuals. I appreciate for their cooperation and contributions for helping me in making project factual and information.<br />I would like to express my heart full gratitude to Mr. GUNJAN SONKER (Relationship Manager), NIRMAL BANG SECURITIES (PVT) LTD. Who helped me in sharpening my thinking by cheerfully providing challenging comments and questions. Without the individuals have provided, this project would have lost much of its refreshing realism. I’m also thankful to the management & all employees of NIRMAL BANG SECURITIES LTD.<br />I also express my gratitude to Mr. (Director), Mr.(H.O.D) and ALL FACULTY MEMBERS OF MBA DEPARTMENT OF KANPUR INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES, UNNAO who have been instrumental in making this report useful one.<br />Lastly, I would like to thanks to the ALMIGHTY and my parents for their moral and financial support and my colleagues with whom I shared my dad-to-day experiences and received lots off suggestions that improved my work quality.<br />SAURABH KUMAR<br />MBA<br />PREFACES:<br />In the economy for tightening Business nuts and bolt of any company industries or enterprises it is necessary to measure it market position in a certain time interval with ever changing theories and the concept of market.<br /> For this assessment we need the robust methodology of survey. Although surveys does not reveal the absolute solution of any objectives, but it provides the inclination towards a good output.<br />Nirmal Bang a good share trading company in Indian market. In this project we compare the future of this company. Find the awareness level, market potential of this company etc.<br />The preparation of this report provides you great pleasure in releasing our work and market experiences in few pages which shows overall and experienced knowledge and the practical approach about the style of a professional and thing which we found various affecting to our marketing and product image.<br />The project termed as “stock Exchange & Online share Trading at Nirmal Bang” has made an effort to find out the issues concerning with the NIRMAL BANG SECURITIES PVT LTD.<br />TABLE OF CONTENT:<br />Title page1-1<br />Certification from organization<br />Certification from project guide<br />Acknowledgement 2-2<br />Prefaces3-3<br />Executive summary<br /> Topic6-6<br /> Brief introduction7-8<br /> Research methodology9-9<br /> Finding & suggestion10-10<br />Industry profile & company profile11-13<br /> Names of stock exchanges14-15<br />On line share trading in India16-18<br />Stock market19-20<br />Market participants21-21<br />History22-23<br />Importance of stock market24-36<br />Company profile37-43<br />Products and services44-51<br />Taxation for Indian resident52-54<br />Demat services55-58<br />Mandatory document for account opening59-65<br />Investor’s rights and obligation66-71<br />Terms and condition72-83<br />Internet trading agreement84-98<br />Services management of Nirmal Bang99-101<br />Research methodology102-105<br />Analysis106-111<br />Finding and recommendation112-111<br />Limitation115-115<br />Bibliography116-116<br /> <br />EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:<br />TOPIC: “STOCK EXCHANGE & ONLINE SHARE TRADING AT NIRNAM BANG”<br />The present repot is prepared for the partial of M.B.A and as a part of curriculum. The survey is an attempt to determine and “STOCK EXCHANGE & ONLINE SHARE TRADING AT NIRMAL BANG SECURITIES PVT. Ltd.” To pursue research area are Lucknow was chosen where the survey conducted through personnel interview.<br />The data collection is an analyzed and some practical tools were applied to get inferences from the survey. The results are printed in the graphs and diagrams.<br />The conclusion is that Nirmal Bang securities Pvt Ltd. In India in good condition.<br />The research report has two sections in its first section company and industry profile is given, where as second Research Methodology is given which includes samples design, analysis on sample and presentation is in the form of diagram and charts.<br />Finally some suggestions with respect to the survey for the future improvement is given to improve the survey because their competitors have also taken up the surveys.<br />At the end of the report limitations, SWOT analysis, conclusion of the research and Appendix which includes questionnaire and the list of the city where the Sriram insight share brokers Ltd are running. Last there is Bibliography, FAQ, and Glossary that has the technical terms of the report.<br />Objectives of study:<br /><ul><li>To understand & analyze the marketing strategies and analyze online
To improve the format of daily sales report (DSR)
To get the Demat account opened of potential customers in favor of nirmal Bang. Analysis of need and satisfaction of distribution of financial services.
To give a brief idea about the benefits available from Mutual Funds investment and idea of types of schemes available.
To discuss about the market trends of Mutual Funds investment.
To study some of the mutual funds schemes and analyze them observe the funds management process of mutual funds.
Explore the recent developments in the Mutual Funds in India. To give an idea about the regulations of Mutual Funds.</li></ul>RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:<br />To achieve the objectives of studying the stock market data has been collected Research Methodology carried fir this study can be two types.<br />RESEARCH DESIGNE: This research is description of the state of affairs, as it exists at present. So in this research I used the description research.<br />DATA SOURCES: In this research, I used primary data from the different brokers, agents, retailers and investors, and secondary data from Shriram insight Share Brokers Ltd. <br />RESEARCH APPROACH: Depth study oft he investor’s perception with respects to equity investments.<br />RESEARCH INSTRUMENT: structured personal interview.<br />TYPES OF QUESTIONS: open and close-ended question.<br />SAMPLING: public interested in investing their savings.<br />SAMPLE SIZE: 100<br /> SAMPLE PROCEDURE: Judgment samplings.<br />CONTRACT METHOD: Personal Structured Interview.<br />FINDING AND RECOMMENDATION:<br />During my project analysis I was very keen to find some key areas which need to be taken care seriously in the future because these are causing dissatisfaction among distributors.<br />Most of distribution felt dissatisfaction with there brokers but some of te disappointing areas are-<br /><ul><li>More exposure: Most of distributors want some more exposure for them clients from their share broking companies. Nirmal Bang is now providing super exposure p to 15 of the margin (cash segment) the step like this really creates satisfaction for the distributors.
Brokerage problem: Some companies have very high brokerage chares which create differences of market share of different companies and also dissatisfaction among distributors.
Fewer offers: Most of companies lag behind in giving time to time offers in order to attract new customers. </li></ul>BOMBAY STOCK EXCHANGES:<br />This stock exchanges, Mumbai, popularity known as “BSE” was established in 1875 as “The native share and stock brokers associations”, as a voluntary non-profit making association.<br />It has an evolved over the years into its status as the premiere stock exchanges in the country. It may be noted that the stock exchanges the oldest one in Asia, even older than the Tokyo Stock Exchanges, which was founded in 1878.<br />The exchanges, while providing an efficient and transparent market for trading in securities, upholds the interests of the investors and ensures redressed of their grievances, whether against the companies or its own members brokers.<br />It also strives to educate and enlighten the investors by making available necessary informative inputs and conducting investor’s education programmers.<br />A governing board comprises of elected directors, 2SEBI nominees, 7 public representatives and an executive director is the apex body, which decides the policies and regulates the affairs of the exchanges.<br />The executive director as the chief executive officer is responsible for the day today administration of the exchanges. The average daily turnover of the exchange during the year 2000-01 (April-March) was Rs 3984.19 crores and average numbers of daily trades 5.69 Lakhs<br />However the averages daily turnover of the exchanges during the year 2001-2002 has declined to Rs. 1224.10 crores and number of average daily trades 5.69 Lakhs.<br />The average daily turnover of the exchanges during the year 2001-2003 has declined and number of average daily trades during the period is also decreased.<br />The Ban on all deferral products like BLESS AND ALBM in the Indian capital markets by SEBI with effect from July 2, 2001, abolition of account period settlements, introduction of compulsory rolling settlements in all scripts trades on the exchanges.<br />With effect from dec31, 2001 etc. have adversely impacted the liquidity and consequently there is a considerable decline in the daily turnover at the exchanges. The average daily turnover of the exchanges present scenario is 110363 (Laces) and number of average daily trades 1057(laces).<br />NATIONAL STOCK EXCHANGES:<br />The NSE was incorporated is now 1992 with an equity capital of Rs 25 crores. The international securities consultancy (ISC) of Hong Kong has helped in setting up NSE.<br />ISE has prepared the details business plans and installation of hardware and software system. The promotion for NSE were financial institutions, insurances companies, banks and SEBI capital markets Ltd, infrastructure leasing and financial services Ltd and stock holding corporation Ltd.<br />It has been set up to strengthen the move towards professionalization of the capital market as well as provide nation wide securities trading facilities to investors. NSE is not an exchange in the traditional sense where broker own and manage the exchanges.<br /> A two tier administrative set up involving a company board and a governing aboard of the exchanges is envisaged. NSE is a national market for shares PSU bonds, debentures and government securities since infrastructure and trading facilities are provided.<br />NAME OF THE STOCK EXCHANGE:<br /><ul><li>Bombay stock exchange.
Now with HDFC, ICICI direct, share khan, Shriram insight and other brokers,
Share trading in India has gone online. Starting at about 2 pct, online trading forms about pct in terms of volume (I think the figure is higher than 10 pct in the retail segment)
Some of these have gone on to become the biggest” brokers” in India. It has opened the market to a whole segment of people. Earlier, investing in share was done by a limited few most of who applied in an IPO and stuck with till they wanted money.
Now, not only online trading made life easier for these peoples, it has opened up investing and trading to segment that never before participated in it. By my rough estimates during my experiences in India tech trading in India.
Until the arrival brokerage in about 2000 or so, was like driving on Indian road. It was a familiar story of might is right, big truck (brokers) ruled the market & there were potholes and pitfalls in the shape of bad deliveries, dishonored contacts, fakes & what not.</li></ul>Unlike the highways which have remained out of the reach of the Aam admi, the share market has changed. Somewhere in the nineties there was a whole move to make share electronics & fungible (like money notes, a share is a share. And move them to the dematerialized (demat) form.<br />Slowly, from the physical world shares move to digital world at the NSDL. Then trading became electronic. First it was a few of the blue chips, then it was most of the blue chips and slowly it has taken over most of the market.<br />New issues are today, exclusively electronics. If digitization took care of the back end, it has also made life at the easy at the front end. In the physical delivery work, one had to talk to a broker who told you the quotes.<br />There was no way of knowing if the quote was right. There was no way of knowing if your trade was made, especially if you made a good call (Bad call, almost inevitably got made). The broker could say that this was the best price I got and nobody would be wiser.<br />You would not know if the share came from his account or form the market. You would not know if the shares were true for the small investors. Odd lots (which we inevitably awarded during splits, mergers were as good as stock which would never got sold or the broker would purchase them at a price way below the market price.<br />Industry about 70% of employees are have online active accounts, many of which were opened in the ESOP era seems like a long while back), more than 80% of these investors are actives traders, the number of day traders are less.<br />But a small chuck of these also dabbles in the future and options market. Besides this obvious segment which is connected to the online would all days long from the cubicles, there are other segments which have shown interest in trading due to its case.<br />Housewives retired professional and even small businessman. What was hitherto a male dominate sphere also has quite a fem women into trading. The regional stock exchange which were the way to route trades in the olden days, are now almost defunct with BSE and NSE (NSE more than BSE) holdings way.<br />Earlier investors were mostly from the bigger cities. With online trading, it has opened avenues for investors from the parts of the country with an internet connection.<br />A few months ago, Business world (Registration/subscription regd.) India reported that: 46 pct of the trades were done by the top 100 brokers in 1996-97. Today’s it is about 66 pct. Going online via these professional driven by technology is a great way to cut the uncertainties caused by the middleman out of the business of share trading and make lives easier for the investors.<br />There will be more competition in this space as brokers try to take over accounts of other brokers. More specialized and personalized services will be in the offing as the market expands and as smaller brokers try to survive and evolve into niche players.<br /> <br />A stock market is a public market for the trading of company stock and derivatives at an agreed price these are securities listed on a stock as well as those only traded privately.<br />The since of world stock market was estimated at about $36.6 trillions US at the beginning of October 2008. The total world derivatives market has been estimated at about $791 trillion faceoff nominal value.<br />11 times the size of the entire world economy. The value of the derivatives market, because it is stated in terms of national values, cannot be directly compared to a stock or a fixed income security, which traditionally refers to an actual value.<br />Moreover, the vast majority PF derivatives ‘cancels’ each other out (i.e., a derivatives ‘bet’ on an event occurring is offset by a comparable derivatives ‘bet’ on event not occurring).<br />Many such relatively illiquid securities are valued as market to model, rather than an actual market price. The stock are listed and traded on stock exchanges which are entities of an corporation of mutual organization specialized in the business of bringing buyers and sellers of the organization to a listing of stock and securities together.<br />The stock market in the united states in the united states includes the trading of all securities listed on the NYSE Euro next, the NASDAQ, the Amex, as well as on the many regional exchanges, e.g. OTCBB and Pink sheets. European examples of stock exchanges included the London Stock Exchange, the Deutsche Borse.<br />MARKET PARTICIPANTS:<br />A few decades ago, worldwide, buyers and sellers were individual’s investors, such as wealthy businessman, both long family histories (and emotional ties) to particular corporations.<br />Overtime, market have become more “institutionalized” buyers and sellers are larger institutions (e.g. Pension funds, insurance companies , mutual funds, index funds, exchange traded funds, hedge funds investors groups, banks and various other financial institutions).<br />The rise of the institutional investors has brought with t some improvement in market operations. This, the government was responsible for “fixed”(and exorbitant) fees being markedly reduced for the ‘small’ investors, but only after the large institutions had managed to break the brokers’ solid fronts on fees. (They then went to ‘negotiated’ fees, but only for large institutions.<br />However, corporate governance (at least in the west) has been very much adversely affected by rise of (largely ‘absentee’) institutional ‘owners’<br />.<br />HISTORY:<br />Historian Fernando Braudel suggested that in Cairo in the 11th century, Muslim and Jewish merchant and already set up every form of trade association and had knowledge of many methods of financial dealings, disproving the belief that these were originally invented later by Italians.<br />In 12th century France the courratiers de changes were concerned with managing and regulation the debts of agricultural communities and behalf of the bank. Because these men also trade with debts, they could be called the first brokers.<br />A common misbelieve is that in late 13th century Bruges commodity traders gathered inside the house of a man called Van der Beurze, and in 1309 they became the “Bruges Beurse” institutionalizing what had been.<br />Until then, an informal meeting, but actually, the family Van der Beurze had a building in Antwerp where those gathering occurred; the Van der Beurze had Antwerp, as most of the merchants of that period.<br />As their primary place for trading. The idea quickly spread around Flanders and neighboring countries and “Beurzen” soon opened in Ghent and Amsterdam.<br />In the middle of the 13th century, Venetian market began to trade in government securities. In 1351 the Venetian government outlawed spreading rumors intended to lower the price of government securities during the 14th century.<br />This was only possible because these were independent city states not ruled by a duke but a council of influential citizens. The Dutch later started joint stock companies, which let shareholders invest in business venures and get a share of their profits or losses.<br />In 1602, the Dutch East India Company issued the first share on the Amsterdam stock exchange. It was the first company to issue stock and bonds.<br />The Amsterdam stock Exchange (ro Amsterdam Beurs) is also said to have been the first stock exchange to introduction continuous trade in the early 17th century.<br />The Dutch “pioneered short selling, option trading, debt-equity swaps, and merchant banking. Units trust and other speculative instrument, much as we know them” (Murray Sayle,”Japan Goes Dutch”, London Review of books XXIII.7, April 5, 2001).<br />There are now stock markets in virtually every developed and most developing economy, with the world’s biggest market being in the United stated, UK, Japan, China, Canada, Germany and France.<br />Importance Of Stock Market:<br />Function and purpose<br />The stock market is one of the most important sources for companies to raise money. This allows businesses to be publically traded or raised additionally capital for expansion by selling share of ownership of the company in a public market.<br />The liquidity that an exchange provides affords investors the ability to quickly and easily sell securities. This is an attractive feature of investing in stocks, compared to other less liquid investment such as real estates.<br />History has shown that the price of shares and other assets is an important part of the dynamic of economies activity, and can influence or be an indicator of social mood.<br />An economy where the stock market is on the rise is considered to be an up and coming economy.<br />In fact, the stock market is often considered the primary indicators of a country’s economics strength and development. Rising share prices, for instance, tend to be associated with increased business investment and vice versa.<br />Share prices also affect the wealth of household and their consumption.<br />Therefore, central banks tend to keep an eye on the control and behavior of the stock market and, in general, on the smooth operation of financial system functions. Financial stability is the raison d’être of central banks.<br />Exchanges also act as the clearinghouses for each transaction, meeting that they collect and deliver the shares, and guarantee payment to the seller of a securities. This eliminates the risk to an individual buyers or seller that the counterparty could default on the transaction.<br />The smooth functioning of all these activities facilities economies growth in that lower costs enterprise risks promote the production of goods and services as well as employment.<br /> In this way the financial system contribution to increased prosperity. An important aspect of modern markets, however, including the stock markets, is absolute discretion.<br />For example, in the USA stock we see more unrestrained acceptance of any firm than in similar markets. Such as, Chinese firms with no significant value to American society to just name one segment.<br />This profit USA banker on Wall Street, as they reap large commissions from the placement, and the Chinese company which yields funds to invest in china.<br />Yet accrues no intrinsic value to the long-term stability of the American economy, rather just short-term profits to American business man and the Chinese; although, when foreign company has a presence in the new market, there can be benefits to the market’s citizens.<br />Conversely, there are very few large foreign corporation listed on the Toronto Stock exchange TSX, Canada’s largest stock exchange. This discretion has insulated Canada to some degree to worldwide financial condition.<br />In order for the stock markets to truly facilitate economy’s growth via lower costs and better employment, great attention must be given to the foreign participants being allowed in. Relation of the stock market to the modern financial system. <br />The financial system in most western countries has undergone a remarkable transformation. One features of this development is disintermediation. A portion of the funds involved in saving and financing bank lending and deposit operation.<br />The general public’s heightened interest in investing in the stock market, either directly or through mutual funds, has been an important component of this process. Statistics show that in recent decades share have made up an increasingly large proportion of household’s financial assets in many countries. <br />In the 1970’s, in Sweden, deposit account and other very liquid assets with little risk made up almost 60 percent of households’ financial wealth, compared to less than 20 percent in the 2000s.<br />The major part of this adjustment in financial portfolio has directly to shares but a good deal now take the form of various kinds of institutional investment for groups of individuals, e.g., pension funds, mutual funds, hedge funds, insurance investment of premiums, etc.<br />The trend towards form of saving with a higher risk has been accentuated by new rules for most funds and insurance, permitting a higher proportion of shares to bonds.<br />Similar tendencies are to be found in other industrialized countries. In all developed economies system, such as the European Union, the United State, Japan and other developed nations, the trend has been the same: saving has moved away from traditional (government insured) bank deposits to more risky securities of one sort or another.<br />The Stock Market, Individual Investors, and Financial Risk:<br />Riskier long-term saving required that an individual possess the ability to manage the associated increased risks. Stock prices fluctuated widely, in marked contrast to the stability of (government insured) bank deposits or bonds.<br />This something that could affect not only the individual investors or households, but also the economy on a large scale. The following deals with some of the risks of the financial sectors in general and the stock market in particular.<br />This is certainly more important now that so many newcomers have entered the stock market, or have acquired other ‘risky’ investment (such as ‘investment’ property, i.e., real estate and collectables.)<br />With each passing year, the noise level in the stock market rises. Television commentators, financial writers, analysis, and market strategies are all over taking each other to get investors ‘attention’.<br />At the same time, individual investors, immersed in chat rooms and message boards, are exchanging questionable and often misleading tips.<br />Yet, despite all this available information, investors find it increasingly difficult to profit. Stock prices skyrocket with little reasons, then plummet just as quickly.<br />And people who have turned to investing for their children’s education and their own retirement become frightened. Sometimes there appears to be no rhyme or reason to the market, only folly.<br />This is a quote from the prefaces to a published biography about the long-terms value oriented stock investors warren Buffett.<br />The behavior of the stock market:<br />From experiences we know that investors may ‘temporarily’ move financial prices away from their long terms aggregate price ‘trend’ (positive or up trends are referred to as bull markets: negative or down trends are referred to as bear markets.)<br />Over-reaction may occur so that excessive optimism (euphoria) may drive prices unduly high or excessive pessimism may drive unduly low. New theoretical an empirical arguments have since been put forward against the notion that financial markets are ‘generally’ efficient (i.e., in the sense that prices in the aggregate tends to follow a Gaussian distribution.)<br />(But this largely theoretic academic viewpoint- knows as ‘hard’ EMH- also predicts that little or no trading should take place, contrary to fact, since prices are already at or near equilibrium, having priced in all public knowledge.) The ‘hard’ efficient-market hypothesis is sorely tested by such events as the stock market crash in 1987, when the Dow Jones index plummeted 22.6 percent—the largest-ever one-day fall in the United States.<br />This events demonstrated that share prices can fall dramatically even though, to this day, it is impossible to fix a generally agreed upon definite cause: a thorough search failed to detect any ‘reasonable’ development that might have accounted for the crash. (But note that such events are predicted to occur strictly by chance, although very rarely.)<br />It seems also to be the case more generally that many price movements (beyond that which are predicted to occur ‘randomly’) are not occasioned by new information: a study of the fifty largest one-day share prices movements in the United States in the post-war period seems to confirm this.<br />However, a ‘soft’ EMH has emerged which does not required that prices remain at or near equilibrium, but only that market participants not be able to systematically profits from any momentary market ‘inefficiencies’.<br />Various explanation for such large and apparently non-random prices movement have been promulgated. For instance, some research has shown that change in estimated risks, and the use of certain strategies, such as stop-loss limit and value at Risk limits, theoretically could cause financial markets to overcorrect.<br />But the best explanation seems to be that the distribution of stock market prices is non-Gaussian (in which case EMH, in any of its current forms, would not be strictly applicable.)<br />Other research has shown that psychological factors may result in exaggerated (statically anomalous) stock prices movement (contrary to EMH which assumes such behaviors’ cancel out’).<br />Psychological research has demonstrated that peoples are predisposed to ‘seeing’ patterns, and often will perceive a pattern in what is, in fact, just noise, (something like seeing familiar shapes in clouds or ink blots.) <br />In the present context this means that a succession of good new items about a company may lead investors to overreact positively (unjustifiably driving the prices up). A period of good returns also boosts the investor’s self-confidence, reducing his (psychological) risk threshold.<br />Another phenomenon—also from psychology—that works against an objective assessment is group thinking. As social animal, it is now easy to stick to an opinion that differs markedly from that of a majority of the group.<br />An example with which one may be familiar is the reluctance to enter a restaurant that is empty; people generally prefer to have their opinion validated by those of other in the group.<br />In one paper the authors draw an analogy with gambling. In normal times the market behaves like a game of roulette; the probabilities are known and largely independent of the investment decision of the different players.<br />In times of market stress, however, the game becomes more like poker (herding behavior takes over). The players now must give heavy weight to the psychology of other investors and how they are likely to react psychology.<br />The stock market, as any other business, is quite unforgiving of amateurs. Inexperienced investors rarely get the assistance and support they need.<br />In the period running up to 1987 crash, less than 1 percent of the analysis recommendation had been to sell (and even during the 2000-2002 bear market, the average did not above 5%).<br />In the run up to 2000, the media amplified the general euphoria, with reports of rapidly rising share prices and the notion that large sums of money could be quickly earned in the so called In the run up to 2000, the media amplified the general euphoria, with reports of rapidly rising share prices and the notion that large sums of money could be quickly earned in the so called new economy stock market.<br />(And later amplified the glom which descended during the 2000-2002 bear market, so that by summer of 2002, prediction of a DOW average below 5000 were quite common).<br />Irrational behavior:<br />Sometimes the market seems to react irrationally to economic or financial news, even if that news is likely to have no real effect on the technical value of securities itself.<br />But this may be more apparent than real, since often such has been anticipated, and a counter reaction may occurs if the news is better (or worse) than expected.<br />Therefore, the stock market may be swayed in either by press releases, rumors euphoria and mass panic; but generally only briefly, as more experienced investors (especially the hedge funds quickly rally to take advantage of even the slightest, momentary hysteria.<br />Over the short-term, stock and other securities can be battered or buoyed by any number of fast market-changing events, making the stock market behavior difficult to predict. Emotion can drive prices up and down, people are generally not as rational as they think, and the reasons for buying and selling are generally obscure. <br />Behaviorists argue that investors often behave ‘irrationally’ when making investment decision thereby incorrectly pricing securities. This causes market inefficiencies, which, in turn, are opportunities, to make money.<br />However, the whole notion of EMH is that these non-rational reactions to information cancel out, leaving the prices of stock determined. The Dow Jones industrial Average biggest gain in one day was 936.42 points or 11 percent, this occurred on October 12, 2008.<br />Crashes:<br />Robert shiller’s plot of the S&P composite Real prices, Earning, Dividends, and interest Rates, from irrational exuberance, 2nd. In the prefaces to this edition, Shiller warns, “The stock market has not come down to historical levels: the prices-earnings ratio as I defined it in his book is still, at this writing , in this mid-20s, far higher than the historical average…..people still place too much confidence in the market and have too strong a belief that paying attention to the gyration in their investment will someday make them rich, and so they do not make conservative preparation for possible bad outcomes.”<br />Price-Earnings ratios as predictors of twenty-year returns based upto the plot by Robert shiller. The horizontal axis shows the real price-earnings ratio of the S&P composite stock price index as computed in Irrational Exuberance (inflation adjusted price divided by the prior ten-year mean of inflation-adjusted earning).<br />The vertical axis shows the geometric average real annual return on investing in the S&P composite stock prices index, reinvesting dividends, and selling twenty years-did do well when prices were low relative to earnings at the beginning of the ten years.<br />Long-term investors would be well advised, individually, to lower their exposer to the stock market when it is high, as it has been recently, and get into the market when it is low.”<br /> <br />Stock market crash:<br /> A stock market crash is often defined as a sharp dip in share prices of equities listed on the stock exchanges. In parallel with various economics factors, a reason for stock market crashes is also due to panic and investing public’s loss of confidence. Often, stock market crashes end speculative economics bubbles.<br />There have been famous stock market crashes that have ended in the loss of billions of dollars and wealth destruction on a massive scale. An increasing number of people are involved in the stock market, especially since the social security and retirement plans are being increasingly privatized and linked to stocks and bonds and other elements of the market.<br />There have been a number of famous stock market crashes like the Wall Street crashes of 1929, the stock market crash of 1973-4, the Black Monday of 1987, the Dot-com bubble of 2000, and the stock market crashes 2008.<br />One of the most famous stock market crashes started October 24,1929 on Black Thursday. The Dow Jones industrial lost 50% during this stock market crash. It was the beginning of the Great depression.<br />Another famous crash took place on October 19, 1987 --- Black Monday. On Black Monday itself, the Dow Jones fell by 22.6% after completing a 5 year continuous roses in share prices. This event not only shook the USA, but quickly spread across the world.<br />Thus, by the end of October, stock exchanges in Australia lost 41.8%, in Canada lost 22.5%,, in Hong Kong lost 45.8%, and in Great Britain lost 26.4%. The names, “Black Monday” and “Black Tuesday” are also used for October 28-29, 1929.<br /> This followed terrible Thursday –the starting day of the stock market crash in 1929. The crash in 1987 raised some puzzles—main news and events did not predict the catastrophe and visible reasons for the collapse were not identified.<br />This event raised question about many important assumptions of modern economics, namely, the theory of rational human conduct, the theory of market equilibrium and the hypothesis of market efficiency.<br />For some time after the crash, trading in stock exchanges worldwide was halted, since the exchanges computers did not perform well owing to enormous quantity of trades being received at one time.<br />This halt in trading allowed the Federal Reserve System and central banks of other countries to take measures to control the spreading of worldwide financial crisis.<br />In the United State the SEC introduction several new measures of control into the stock market in an attempt to prevent a re-occurrence of the events of Black Monday.<br />Computer systems were upgrades in the stock exchanges to handle larger trading volumes in a more accurate and controlled manner. The SEC modified the margin requirement in an attempt to lower the volatility of common stocks, stock option and the futures markets.<br />The New York Stock Exchanges and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange introduction the concept of a circuit breaker. The circuit breaker halts trading if the Dow declines a prescribed number of points for a prescribed amount of time.<br /><ul><li>New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) circuit breakers.
The movement of the prices in a market or sections of a market are captured in price indices called stock market indices, of which there are many, e.g., S&P, the FTSE and the Euro next indices.
Such indices are usually market capitalization weighted, with the weight reflecting the contribution of the stock of the index are reviewed frequently to include/exclude stocks in order to reflects to reflects the changing business environment.
Stock that a traders does not actually own may be traded suing short selling; margin buying may be used to purchase stock with borrowed funds; or, derivatives may be used to control large blocks of stock for a much smaller of amount of money than would be required by outright purchases or sale.
In short selling, the traders borrow stock (usually from his brokerage which holds it’s client’s shares or its own share on account to lend to short sellers) then sells it on the market, hoping for the price to all.
The trader eventually buys back the stock, making money if the price fell in the meantime or losing money if it rose; exiting a short position by buying back the stock is called “covering a short position”.
This strategy may also be used by unscrupulous traders to artificially lower the price of a stock. Hence most markets either prevent short selling or place restriction on when and how a short sale can occur.
The practice of naked shorting is illegal in most (but not all) stock markets.
In margin buying, trader borrows money (at interest)to buy a stock and hopes for it to rise. Most industrialized countries have regulation that requires that if the borrowing is based on collateral from other stock the trader owns outright, it can be a maximum of a certain percentage of those other stocks’ value.
In the United State, the margin requirements have been 50% for many years (that is, if you want to make a $100 investment, you need to put up$500, and there is often a maintenance margin below the $500).
A margin call is made if the total value of the investor’s account cannot support the loss of the trade.
(Upon a decline in the value of the margined securities additional funds may be requires to maintain the account’s equity, and with or wit out the margined securities or any others within the account may be sold by the brokers to protect its loan position. This investors is responsible for any shortfall following such forced sale).
Regulation of margin requirement (by the Federal Reserve) was implemented after the crash of 1929. Before that, speculators typically only needed to put up a little as 10% (or even less) of the total investment represented by the stocks purchased.
Other rules may include the prohibition of free-riding: putting in an order to buy stocks without paying initially (there is normally a three-day grace period for delivery of the stock.)
But then selling them (before the three-days are up) and using part of the proceeds to make the original payment (assuming that the value of the stocks has not declined in the interim).
Global issuance of equity and equity-related instrument totaled $505 billion in 2004, a 29.8% increase over the $389 billion raised in 2003. Initial public offer (IPOs) by US issuers increased 221% with 233offering that raised $45 billion, and IPOs in Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) increased by 333% from $9 billion to $39 billion.
One of the many thing people always want to know about the stock market is, “How do I know money investing?” There are many different approaches; two basic methods are classified as either fundamental analysis or technical analysis.
Fundamental analysis refers to analyzing companies by their financial statements founds in SEC Filing, business trends, general economic conditions, etc.
Technical analysis studies prices action in market through the use of charts and quantitative techniques to attempt to forecast prices trends regardless of the company’s financial prospects.
One examples of a technical strategy is the Trend following method, used by John W Henry and risk control and diversification.
Additional, many choose to invent via the index method. One holds a weight or unweight portfolio consisting of the entire stock market or some segment of the stock market (such as the S&P 500 or Wilshire 5000).
The principle aim of this strategy is to maximize diversification, minimize taxes from too frequent trading and ride the general trend of the stock market (which, in the U.S, has averaged nearly 10% year, compounded annually, since World War II).
According to much national or state legislation, large arrays of fiscal obligation are taxed for capital gains. Taxes are charged by the state over the transactions, dividends and capital gains on the stock market, in particular in the stock market.
However, these fiscal obligations may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction because, among other reasons, it could be assumed that taxation is already incorporated into the stock prices through the different taxes companies pay to the state, or that tax free stock market operations are useful to boost economic growth.
Founded in 1986 by Sri Nirmal Bang Group is recognized as one of the largest retail broking houses in India, providing an array of financial products and services.
Our retail and institutional clients have access to product such as equities, derivatives, commodities, currency derivatives, mutual fund, IPOs, insurance, depository services and PMS.
Throughout our history, we have fostered one overriding purpose each client with personal services and quality work by adhering to the principal, we have grown to become a successful as well-respect firm of highly qualified professional.
The group is headed by Mr. Dilip Bang and Mr. Kishore Bang who bring forward industry expertise, insight and most important, create an environment of unmatched to client.
We are registered members of the Bombay Stock Exchanges limited (BSE), National Stock Exchanges of India limited (NSE), Multi Commodity Exchanges of India limited (MCX), national commodity & Derivatives Exchanges limited (NCDEX), National Multi Commodity Exchanges of India limited (NMCE) and MCX stock Exchange limited and also depository participants of NSDL and CDSL.
Client relationship from the core of our business. We value each client, no matter what size, as a long-term relationship. And we seek to provide unmatched services to each client and place him as a partner at the center of everything we do.
From the very beginning of the relationship, we work closely with every client to identify his financial goals and risk tolerance levels and leverage our strength of the product offering, research and financial strength to help achieve his goals. In the process, we become an professional partners, creating opportunity, adding value and transform vision into reality.
In addition to traditional broking services, we are also equipped to handle commodity trading facility as well as currency derivatives and have access to a wide range of financial services like IPOs, mutual funds and insurance.</li></ul>Timely services<br /><ul><li>In an increasingly competitive environment, clients today require personalized solution and greater flexibility and responsiveness than ever before. Our professionals are always ‘on call’. We provide them services throughout the year and not just at the end of the year. We believe such service is essentials for delivering solution and constructive relationship.
We have developed a strong and enduring team by recruiting from leading graduate and postgraduate universities and promoting from within. Our team work together to provide superior results to our client. At the same time, each of our clients is assigned a specific team member who ‘owner’ the relationship, providing continuity, responsiveness and a point of easy access to the firm.
The strength of our balance sheet is such that it gives greater confidence to all our retail and institutional clients in detail with us. The financial strength of the group helps in future building the network and infrastructure to cater to the larger market.
INFRASTURUCTURE:</li></ul>We believe or best infrastructure gives a significant advantage allowing us to provide efficient, transparent and qualitative services. Our technology supports everything from executive trades and managing our investors of stocks to communicating up-to-the-second information to our clients and monitoring for compliance.<br /><ul><li>Client interface:
We have trading terminal (both direct and indirect), online monitoring, control terminal (administration terminals) and back office support terminal (settlement terminal) across all location and centers.
We have India’s best single screen Multi Exchanges Trading Software platform. Our entire centers across the country are connected through our own network, leased ISDN lines and LAN network, MPLS and internet.
The high-end IBM serves with sophisticated security features that we use caters to trading points across the country. This also gives u rte advantage of scalability in terms of location and size of our planned operations. We provide telephonic and chat support for technical and functional issues of branches, franchises and all our clients.</li></ul>Our websites www.nirmalbang.com is comprehensive and provides online feeds, net trading and provides online feed, net trading portfolio tracking tool. Investors also have access to a wide range of financial news, information and various research reports facilitating quick decision-making.<br /> Our online trading portal at www.nirmalbang.com is equipped with facilities like all segment broadcasts, multi-features graphs, online payment gateways and automatic password mailer utility for better security. It user-friendly navigation allows easy viewing of trading accounts, depository accounts and research reports, which are linked to the trading platform. <br /> The website also has a provision for creating portfolios and monitoring them on a regular basis. Our ‘wealth trackers’ module helps investors in getting ready updates n their investment so that they can know the changing trends of the markets and the impact of the same on their portfolio.<br /><ul><li>Back office:
For back office operations, we use the lidha Didha system of Apex Soft cell Pvt. Ltd. This is one of the top most back office software in the industry. It has the capacity to process over one lakh traders in a five minute frame.
Our operation teams has an easy-to-navigate client login system, which is used to generate activity reports, short-terms and long-term tax reports, holding and portfolio valuation reports as well as trading to delivery activity reports.</li></ul>We also have the requisite infrastructure needed to handles STP, upload and download and download information to or from exchanges, bank and depositories, support units to ensure delivery notes, bills and ledgers of trading accounts and cash management services for efficient and effective fund management within the group.<br />Internal control:<br />Compliance and internal control play a major role in determining business strategies as well as day-to-day operation of the group. A well-equipped risk management department ensures that the delinquency rates are minimal, while efficient risk management software provides online MTM margin data to branches and franchisees. Our efficient back-up system and software have been developed specially for branches and channel partners with a capacity to handle numerous transactions. Our online position monitoring system ensures better risk management and surveillance from our head office as well as branches and franchises. Our people from them cornerstone of the business and their expertise and motivation delivery of exceptional solution and services to all our clients.<br />Experienced professional:<br />Our teams of professional consist of individual with significant experience in securities trading, market structure, trading technology and portfolio management. They have a strong experience in trade execution and understanding of order flow dynamics. This combined with technical analysis of market momentum, help our clients to determine the price at which they buy and /or sell.<br />We believe, we are the first choice for our clients because we among the very best at trade executive solution and assets management services. At Nirmal bang, each and every professional is focused on turning the initial trade or investment into a collaborative, person-to-person relationship that keeps delivering true added value.<br />Research Expertise:<br />Our research team is headed by two senior research analysts who have more than 15 years of experience in this field.<br />Our team of experienced fundamental research and technical analysts provide reports on industries, sectors, companies and individual stocks. Our research reports are backed by in-depth research and analysis of emerging as well as current market trends. Besides, our research analysts also appear on leading business news channel where they share their insights on the market.<br />Nirmal Bang Group’s business strives the largest number of common people. Consider these: Equity* /commodity/ currency*/mutual fund/IPO/PMS/insurance/DP products.<br />Management philosophy:<br /> Nirmal Bang Group’s business ventures are highly successful due to our Management philosophy. Features of this include total empowerment of its employee, decentralized decision-making process and freedom of action. Most of all, the Group views every employee as a potential partner in business. Group Companies has also been instrumental in creating innumerable indirect jobs in the communities they serve.<br />About Nirmal Bang:<br />Nirmal Bang Securities Pvt Ltd. is the stock-Broking arm of the Rs. 7,500 crore (approx) Nirmal Bang. With over 450 branches, 8000 employees (approx), 28 lakh investors, Nirmal Bang, with evolved into a premier financial supermarket providing a host of services including stock-broking, distribution of investment products, properly, property development, industrial investment, risk management, insurance products and consumer finance.<br /><ul><li> </li></ul>Human Resources:<br />Human resources is the key to any services sectors industry. We have a strong and vibrant workforce in every field or our activity, be it research, system, accounts, marketing or networking.<br />With the manpower strength of over 1100 employees, the Company is managed by a highly motivated, qualified & talented team of professional qualified CA’s, MBA,s, Engineers, etc with proven track records.<br />Technology:<br />Stock-broking being a process intensive activity, issues such as speed, accuracy, round-the-clock system availability and system securities are of paramount importance and technology forms the backbones of the business.<br />This is why Nirmal Bang is technology driven. We boast of state-of-the-art technology and an in-house team of highly competent software and networking engineers who constantly review system and procedures to ensure operational efficiency.<br />All our branches are connected through Wide Area Network (WAN) and are served by a centralized back office processing system, which enables clients to obtain up to date information online at the click of a button.<br />Customer Focus:<br />Despite a rapidly expanding client base and a dizzying increase in transaction volumes, each client at Nirmal Bang is special. We specialize in building long term relationship with our customers by providing them with the four things they desire most, viz., speed,, convenience, reliability and personalized services.<br />Our continuous strive to provide best services to our clients, results in receipt of not a single Arbitration Award against the company since its inception.<br /><ul><li>
Nirmal Bang is the most comprehensive website, which allows you to invest in shares, mutual funds, derivatives (Future and Option) and other financial products. Simply put, we offer you products for every investment need of yours.
You can also do an intra-settlement trading up to 3 to 4 times your available funds, where in you take long buy/short sell position in stocks with in the intention of squaring off the position within the same day settlement cycle.
In margin trading, you take buy/sell position in stocks(s) with the intention of acquiring off the position within the same settlement cycle. If, during the course of the settlement cycle, he price moves in your favor (rises in case you have a buy position or falls in case you have a sell position), you make profit. In case you have the option to take/give delivery of buy/sell position respectively if you have sufficient cash/securities to do so.
Normally to buy shares, you have to place (ensure availability of limit) 100% of the order value, while to sell shares, you need to have shares in your Demat account. However, margins are blocked only to safeguard any adverse price movement. At present, you have to place 33.33% of the order value as margin. With margin trading, you can leverage on your trading limit by taking buy/sell positions much more than what you could have taken in cash segment. However, the risk profile of your transaction goes up.
Through Margin PLUS you can do an intra-settlement trading up to 10 times your available funds, where in you take long buy/sell position in stock with the intention of squaring off the position within the same day’s settlement cycle. Margin PLUS will give a much higher leverage in your limits.
Margin PLUS is an order placement feature where you can take a position at market price and also place a cover order for the position specifying the SLTP and the limit price. This will minimize the loss cover at the time of taking the position itself. There by it gives a clear view of maximum downside involved in a particular position at a particular price, Nirmal Bang won’t levy a normal margin ranging from 21% to 50%. It would block he maximum loss which customer can suffer.
This facility can be used only for selling you is demat stocks which already exist in you’re demat account. When you are looking at an immediate liquidity option, ‘cash on spot’ may work the best for you, on selling shares through “cash on spot”, money is certified to your bank a/c the same evening & not on the exchange payout date.
Buy today sell tomorrow (BTST) is a facility that allows you sell shares even on 1st and 2nd day after the buying order date, without you having to Waite for the receipt of shares into your demat account.
Call N Trade allow you call on a local number in your city & trade on the telephone through our customer services Executive.
Trading in NSE/BSE: through Nirmal Bang you can trade on NSE and BSE.</li></ul>Market order:<br /><ul><li>This is an order to buy sell securities at the best price obtainable in the market at the time it is matched by the exchange. Therefore, change of its getting executed are better. In case of market order for NSE, all market order placed which are not executive fully; it becomes a limit order for the balance quantity at the last traded price.</li></ul>Market Order in BSE: Explanation:<br />Market order can be placed only during market hours (i.e., when the Exchanges is open for trading).<br />You could trade by placing market orders during market hours that allows you to trade at the best obtainable price in the market at the time of execution of the order.<br />Limit Order:<br />Limit Order is an order to buy or sell securities in which you specify the maximum price per unit in case of a buy order and the minimum price per unit in case of sell order. The actual transaction can be at a price more favorable than the price specified.<br />Allow you to place a buy/sell order at a price defined by you. The execution can happen at a price more favorable than the price, which is defined by you, limit orders can be placed by you during holidays & non market hours too.<br />Online confirmation of Order and trade:<br />You get online confirmation of orders and trades- the status of any order is updated on real-time basis in the Order Book. As soon as you place your order they are validated by the system and sent to the exchange for execution. The entire process is fully automation and there are no manual interventions.<br />GTC, GTD and IOC Order:<br />A Good Till cancelled (GTC) order remains in the system until the trading members cancels it. However, the system cancels this order if it is not trade within a number of days parameterized by the Exchanges. A Good Till Days/Date (GTD) order allows the user to specify the number of days/date till which the order should stay in the system if not executed. The maximum number of days for which the GTC/GTD order can remain in the system is notified by the exchange from time to time after which the day/date on which the order is placed and inclusive of holidays. An immediate or cancel (IOC) order allows the user to buy or sell a security as soon as the order is released into the system, falling which the order is cancelled from the system. Partial match is possible for the order and the unmatched portion of the order is cancelled immediately.<br />Disclose Quantity (DQ) Order:<br />Normally, the order quantity is disclosed in full to the market. An order with a disclosed quantity (DQ) condition/attribute allows the trading members to disclose only a part of the order quantity to the market. For example, an order of 1000 with a disclosed quantity condition of 200 will mean that 200 is displaced to the market at a time. After this traded, another 200 is automatically released soon till the full order is executed. DQ (Disclosed Quantity) should not be less that 10% of the order quantity and at the same time should not be greater than or equal to the order quantity.<br />Stop Loss Order:<br />A stop loss order allows the client to place an order which gets activated only when the market price of the relevant securities reached or crosses a threshold price specified by the investors in the form of ‘stock loss trigger price’. When a stop loss trigger price (SLTP) is specified in a limit order, the order becomes one which is conditional on the market price of the stock crossing the specified SLTP. The order remains passive (i.e. not eligible for execution) till the condition is satisfied. Once the last traded price of the stock reached or surpasses the SLTP, the order becomes activated (i.e. eligible for execution by being taken up in the matching process of the exchange) and then on behave like a normal limit order. It is used as a tool to limit the maximum loss on a position.<br /> Stop Loss by Order:<br />‘A’ short sell reliance shares at Rs. 325 in experience that the price will fall. However, in the event the price rises above his buy price ‘A’ would like to limit sell order specifying a stock loss trigger price Rs. 305 and a limit price of Rs. 300. The stop loss trigger prices price has to be between the limit prices an trade price at the time of placing the stop loss order. Once the last trade price touches or crosses Rs. 305, the orders get converted into a limit sell order at RS. 300.<br />2: Trade in derivatives:<br />Future:<br />Through Nirmal Bang you can now trade in index and stock futures on the NSE in future trading, you take buy/sell position in index or stock (S) contract having a longer contract period of upto 3 month.<br />Trading in FUTURE is simple if, during the course of the contract life, the price moves in favor (i.e. rises in case you have a by position or sell in case you have a sell position), you make a perfect. Presently only selected stock, which meet the certain liquidity and volume, have been enabled for future trading.<br />Calculate index and now your margin are tools to help you in calculating your margin requirement and also the index & stock price movement.<br />Option:<br />An option is a contract, which gives buyer the right to buy or sell shares at a specific prices, on a before a specific date. For this, the buyer has to pay to the seller some money, which is called premium. There is now obligation on the buyer to complete the transaction if the price is not favorable to him.<br />To take the buy/sell position on index/stock option, you have to place certain % of order value as margin. With option trading, you can leverage on your trading limit buy taken buy/sell position much more that what you could have taken in cash segment.<br />The buyer of a call option has the right but not the obligation to purchase the underlying asset at the specified strike price buy paying a premium whereas the seller of the call has the obligation of selling the underlying asset at the specified strike price.<br />The buyer of a put option as the right but not the obligation to sell the underlying asset at the specified strike price paying a premium whereas the seller of the put has the obligation of buying the underlying the asset at the specified price. Buy paying lesser amount of premium, you can create position order option and take advantage of more trading opportunities.<br />Switch:<br />To suit your changing needs you may wish to shift monies between different schemes. You can switch your monies online form one schemes to another in the some fund family without any hassles.<br />Systematic investment plans (SIP)<br />SIP allows you to invest a certain some of money over a period of time periodically. Just fill in investment amount, the period of investment and the frequency of investing and submit. We will do the rest for you automatically investing periodically for you.<br />Systematic withdrawal plan:<br />This allows you to withdraw or certain some money over up period of time periodically.<br />Transfer-in: we can convert to existing mutual funds into electronic more through a transfer-in request.<br />3: IPOS and BONDS Online:<br />You can also invest in initial public offers (IPO’s) and bonds online without going through the hassles of filling any application form/paperwork.<br />Get –in-depth analysis for new IPO’s issue (initial public offering) which are about to hit the market and analysis on these. IPO calendar, recent IPO listing, prospectus/offer document, and IPO analysis are few of the features, which helps you keep, keep on talk of the IPO markets.<br />Taxation of Indian Resident:<br />The below mentioned FAQs are restricted to tax implication of the resident investors only.<br />Q: Buy and sell securities; do I have to play tax on these transactions?<br /> Yes, you are liable to play tax on his transaction: on the difference between the price at which you sell and the price at which you acquired it. You can also claim deduction for expenses incurred these securities along with cost of buying these securities. Further if these securities are held or along term before selling them, your cost of acquisition can be increased by the indexations, which reduce your capital gains, indexation benefits, is not available on debenture and bonds. In case these securities are held as stock-in-trade i.e. if you are in the business of buying and selling securities. The profit and loss from purchase and sell of securities will be taxed under the head “profit of gains of business or profession”.<br />Q: what is the nature of income under which transaction in securities will be taxed?<br /> Profit and loss from purchase and sales of securities will be taxed under the head of income from “capital gains”, provided such securities are held as investment by you. In case these securities a new held as stock-in-trade.i.e. If you are in the business of buying and selling securities under the head “profit or gains of business or profession”.<br />Capital gain/loss:<br />Capital gain/loss means any profit or loss arising from transfer of a capital asset affected in the previous year.<br />Capital Assets:<br />Capital asset means property of any kind held by an assesses, whether or not connected with his business or profession, but does not include 1:stock-in-trade, 2: personal effect such as jewelers, furniture, motor car held for personal use. 3: 61/2% Gold Bonds. 1980. 4: 7% Gold Bonds. 5: National Defiance Gold Bonds 1999. 6. Gold deposit Bond under the gold deposit scheme, 1999 notified by the central government.<br />Transfer of a capital asset:<br />Transfer includes sale, exchanges or relinquishment of the asset of the extinguishment on any right there in or compulsory acquisition thereof under any low. In a case where as asset is converted by the owner or treated by him, is also treated as transfer. However, the following specific transaction are not regarded as transfer e.g. (a) any distribution of capital assets on total or partial partition of an HUF (a) any transfer of a capital under a gift or will or an irrevocable trust expect share, debenture or warrants allotted to employee under approved EFOP scheme, <br />(b) Issue of share by resulting of amalgamated company in lieu of shares held in the demerged or amalgamating company (providing in case of amalgamation, amalgamation company in Indian company)<br /> (c) any transfer by way of conversion of bonds or debentures of a company into shares or debentures of that company in case of (a) and (b) above, if the resulting owner sells the capital asst subsequently, the cost of acquisition shall be deemed to be the cost at which the capital asset was acquire by the previous owner. In case of demerger, it shall be the portion of the cost which bears to the total cost the same proportion as the net-book value of the assets transferred in the demerged bears to the net worth of the demerged company immediately before demerged. The cost of acquisition of the original shares would stand reduced correspondingly.<br />Short term Asset:<br />Capital is divided as long term and short term with reference to the period of holding of the asset by you. The period of holding computed from the date acquisition to the date immediately preceding its sale. If the shares, unit os specific mutual fund u/s 10(23D) or any other listed securities are held by you for less than 12 months then such shares/ units or listed securities would be treated as short term assets. In all other cases, the asset is required to hold for 36 month so as to quality for long term capital gain. <br />Long Term Asset:<br />If the shares, unit of specified mutual fund u/s 10(23D) or any other listed security are held by you for more then 12 month then such share/units or listed security would be treated as long term asset.<br />Example:<br />You purchase 1000 shares of ACC on 10.6.2005 for Rs 1, 10,000/-<br /> You were allotted 1000 shares as bonus on 11.8.2005<br />You sold these shares on 12.8.2006 for Rs 1, 30,000/-<br /> Calculation of long term capital gain would be as follows:<br />Amount in Rs<br />Sale consideration 1, 30,000<br />Cost of 1000 shares purchased on 10.6.2000 110000*406/389 (indexation benefits) 1, 14,807<br />Cost of one thousand bonus shares nil<br />Long term capital 15, 193<br />DEMAT SERVICES <br /> Company offering<br />Nirmal Bang is a registered member (Depository participant) of CDSL.<br />In this system, physical security holding are converted into electronic (or in other words, dematerialized) holdings.<br />Why NIRAML BANG Demat Account?<br /><ul><li>Demat A/C free open.
Portfolio valuation on the account statements.
Online execution of transactions at branches.
Special rates for stock market intermediaries and sub brokers.
Transaction update from back-office four times a day.</li></ul>Transfer of shares and settlements<br />Transfer and settlements have never been easy as it under the depository system. All that is required is an instruction slip from you. If you are selling securities then it has to be a delivery instruction slip. If you are purchasing securities it has to be a receipt instruction slip or standing instruction for credit.<br />Receipt of Corporate Benefits<br />Even securities establishment like bonus and right can be credit to your Demat account electronically. All you have to do is choose the right option in the share application from. Crash benefits like dividend and interest will, however be forward to you directly and not through the depository.<br />Holding & Transaction Statements<br />We provide statements of holding cum transaction every month at Zero cost.<br />Dematerialization of shares <br />At you request we arrange to convert your physical holding into electronic from. To do this would require to open an account with CDSL through us called “Beneficiary Account” in the name and style in which the shares are held and lodge the share certificates with us accompanied by a dematerialized request from, separate for each scrip.<br />You are required to only make sure that CDSL has admitted that scrip for dematerialization. An upto date list will be provided to you which will be constantly updated.<br />Rematerialization<br /> You have the option to convert your electronic shares back to physical shares.<br />Pledge-Hypothecation<br />You can also avail against your electronic shares. This process is also much faster than in the case of physical shares.<br />HEAD OFFICE:-<br />38-b/39, Khatau building, 2 floor, Alkesh dinesh moby marg fort, Mumbai.<br />SMS “BANG’ TO 54646<br />E-MAIL:email@example.com<br />Contact at: 022-30272323<br />www.nirmalbang.com<br />MANADATORY DOCUMENT:-<br /><ul><li>PROOF FO IDENTITY (For individual /Karta / Sole proprietor / Authorized person (s) for Partnership, corporate and Trust)
Passport, Voter ID Card, Driving license, Bank Passbook, Rent Agreement, Ration Card, Current Telephone Bill, Current Electric Bill, Flat Maintenance Bill, and Certificate Issued by employer registered under MAPIN, Insurance Policy.
Copy of the balance sheet for the last 2 financial years (copies of annual balance sheet to be submitted every years)
Copy of latest share holding pattern including list of all those holding more than 5% in the share capital of the company, duly certified by the company secretary/ whole time Director/MD. (copy of updated shareholding patterns to be submitted every year)
Copies of the memorandum and articles of association in case of a company / body corporate or partnership deed in case of a partnership firm
Copy of the Resolution of Board of Directors’ approving participation in equity / derivatives/ debts trading and naming authorized persons for dealing in securities.
Photographs of partners/whole time directors, individual promoters holding 5% or more, either directly or indirectly, in the shareholding of the company and of persons authorized to deal in securities.
Volatility refers to the dynamic changes in price that securities undergo when trading activity continues on the Stock Exchanges. Generally, higher the volatility of a security/contract, greater is its price swings.
There may be normally greater volatility in thinly traded securities/contracts than in active securities/contracts. As a result
Of volatility, your order may only be partially executed or not executed at all.
Or the price at which your order got executed may be substantially different from the last traded price or changes substantially thereafter, resulting in notional or real losses.
Liquidity refers to the ability of market participants to buy and or sell securities/ contracts expeditiously at a competitive price and with minimal price difference.
Generally, it is assumed that more the number or order available in a market, greater is the liquidity.
Liquidity is important because with greater liquidity, it is easier for investors to buy and/or sell securities/ contracts swiftly and with minimal price difference, and as a result, investors are more likely to pay or receive a competitive price for securities/contracts purchased or sold.
There may be a risk of lower liquidity in some securities/contracts as compared to active securities/contracts. As a result, your order may only be partially executed, or may be executed with relatively greater price difference or may not be executed at all.
1.2 Buying/Selling without intention of giving and or taking delivery of a securities, as part of a day trading strategy, may also result into losses, because in such a situation, stock may have to be sold/purchased at a low/high prices, compared to the executed price levels, so as not to have any obligation to delivery/receive a security.
Most exchanges have a facility for investors to place “limit orders”, “stop loss orders” etc”. The placing of such orders (e.g., “stop loss” limit orders) which are intended to limit losses to certain amount may not be effective many a time because rapid movement in market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders..
A “market” order will be executed promptly, subject to available of orders on opposite side, without regard to price and that, while the customer may receive a prompt of a “market” order, the execution may be at available prices of outstanding orders, which satisfy the order quantity, on price time priority. It may be understood that these prices may be significantly different from the last traded prices or the best prices in that security.
A “limit” order will be executed only at the time “limit” price specified for the order or a better price. However, while the customer receives prices protection, there is a possibility that the order may not be executed at all.
A stop loss order is generally placed “away” from the current price of a stock / contract, and such order gets activated if and when stock/contract reaches, or trades through, the stop price.
Sell stop order are entered ordinarily below the current price, and buy stop orders are entered ordinarily above the current price. When the stock reaches the pre-determined price, or trades through such price, the stop loss order convert to a market/limit order and is executed at the limit order.
There is no assurance therefore that the limit order will be executable since a stock/contract might penetrate the pre-determined price, in which case, the risk of such order not getting executed arises, just as with a regular limit order.
</li></ul>1.5 Risk of New Announcements:<br />Issuers make news announcements that may impact the prices of the securities/contracts. These announcements may occur during trading, and when combined with lower liquidity and higher volatility, may suddenly cause an unexpected positive or negative movement in the price of the security/contracts.<br /><ul><li> </li></ul>1.6 Risk of Rumors:<br />Rumors about companies at times float in the market through word of mouth, newspapers, websites or news agencies, etc. the investors should be wary of and should desist from acting on rumors.<br />1.7 System Risk:<br />High volume trading will frequently occur at the market opening and before market close. Such high volume may also occur at any point in the day. These may cause delays in order execution or confirmation.<br /><ul><li>During periods of volatility, on account of market participants continuously modifying their order quantity or prices or placing fresh orders, there may be delays in order execution and its confirmation.
Under certain market condition, it may be difficult or impossible to liquidate a position in the market at a reasonable price or at all, when there are no outstanding order either on the buy side or the sell side, or if trading is halted in a security due to any action on account of unusual trading activity or stock hitting circuit or for any other reason.
system/network congestion:</li></ul>Trading on NSE/BSE is in electronic mode, based on satellite/leased line based communication, combination of technology and computer system to placed and route orders.<br />Thus, there exist a possibility of communication failure or system problem or slow or delay response from system or trading halt, or nay such other problem/glitch whereby not being able to establish access to the trading system/network.<br />Which may be beyond the control of and may result in delay in processing or not processing buy or sell orders either in part or in full?<br />You are cautioned to note that although these problems may be temporary in nature, but when you have outstanding open position or unexecuted orders, these represent a risk because of your obligations to settle all executed transactions.<br />As far as Future and option segment is concerned, please note and get yourself acquainted with the following additional features:-<br /><ul><li>Effect of “Leverage” or “Gearing”</li></ul> The amount of margin is small relative to the value of the derivatives contracts so the transactions are ‘leveraged’ or ‘geared’. Derivatives trading, which is conducted with a relatively small amount of margin, provides the possibility of great profit or loss in comparison with the principal investment amount.<br />But transactions in derivatives carry a high degree of risk. You should therefore completely understand the following segments before actually trading in derivatives trading and also trade with caution while taking into account one’s circumstances, financial resources, etc.<br />If the price moves against you, you may lose a part of our whole margin equivalent to the principal investment amount in a relatively short period of time. Moreover, the loss may exceed the original margin amount.<br /><ul><li>Future trading involves daily settlement of all positions. Every day the open positions are marked to market based on closing level of the index has moved against you, you will be required to deposit the amount of loss (national) resulting from such movement.
This margin will have to be paid within a stipulated time frame, generally before commencement of trading next dat.
If you fail to deposit the additional margin by the deadline or if an outstanding debt occurs in your account, the broker/member may liquidate a part of or the whole position or substitute securities. In this case, you will be liable for any losses incurred due to such close-outs.
Under certain market condition, an investor may find it difficult or impossible to execute transactions. For example, this situation can occur due to factors such as illiquidity i.e. when there are insufficient bids or offers or suspension of trading due to price limit or circuit breakers etc.
In order to maintain market stability, the following steps may be adopted: changes in the margin rate increase in the cash margin rate or others. These new measures may also be applied to the existing open interests. In such conditions, you will be required to put up additional margins or reduce your options.
You must ask your broker to provide the full details of the derivatives contracts you plan to trade i.e. the contracts specifications and the associated obligations.</li></ul>2.0. Risk of Option Holders:<br /><ul><li>An option holder run the risk of losing the entire amount paid for the option in a relatively short period of time. This risk reflects the nature of an option as a wasting asset which becomes worthless when it expires.
An option holder who neither sells his option in the secondary market nor exercises it prior to its expiration will necessary lose his entire investment in the option. If the price of the underlying does not change in the anticipated direction before the option expires to an extent sufficient to cover the cost of the option, the investors may lose all or a significant part of his investment in the option.
The exchange may impose exercise restrictions and have absolute authority to restrict the exercise of option at certain times in specified circumstances.
</li></ul>2.1 Risk of Option Writers:<br />If the price movement of the underlying is not the anticipated direction, the option writers run the risks of losing substantial amount.<br /> <br /><ul><li> </li></ul>INVESTOR’S RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS:<br />From the trade date upto five trading days. Where trade on the websites, do not tally with the detail mentioned in the contract note, immediately get in touch with the investors grievances cell of NSE/BSE.<br />2.1.1 Ensure that payment/delivery of securities against is given to the concerned members within one working day prior to the date of pay-in-announced by NSE/BSE or it’s clearing corporation/clearing House.<br />Payments should be made only by account payee cheque in favors of the firm/company of the trading members and a receipt or acknowledgement towards what such payment is made be obtained from the member.<br />Delivery of securities is made to the pool account of the members rather than to the beneficiary account of the members.<br />2.1.2 In case pay-out of money and /or securities is not received on the next working day after date pay-out announced by NSE/BSE or its clearing corporation/clearing House.<br />Please follow-up with the concerned members for its release. In case pay-put is not released as above from the members within five working days, ensure that you lodge a complaint immediately with the investors’ Grievance cell of NSE/BSE.<br />2.1.3 Every member is required to send a complete ‘statement of Accounts’, for both funds and securities settlement to each of its constituents, at such periodicity as may be prescribed by time to time.<br />You should report errors, if any, in the statement immediately, but not later than 30 calendar days of receipt thereof, to the members. In case the error is not rectified or there is a dispute, ensure that you refer such matter to the investors Grievance cell of NSE/BSE, without delaying.<br />2.1.4 In case of a complaint against a members/registered sub-broker, you should address the complaint to the office as may be specified by NSE/BSE from time to time.<br />2.1.5 In case where a member surrenders his membership, NSE/BSE gives a public notice inviting claim, if any from investors. In case of a claim, relating to “transaction executed on the trading system” of NSE/BSE, ensure that you lodge a claim with NSE/BSE/NSCCL clearing House within the stipulated people and with the supporting documents.<br />2.1.6 In case where a member is expelled from trading membership or declared a defaulter, NSE/BSE gives a public notice inviting claims, if any, from investors. In case of claim, relating to “transaction executed on the trading system” of NSE/BSE, ensure that you lodge a claim with NSE/BSE within the stipulated period and with the supporting documents.<br />2.1.7 Claims against a defaulter/expelled member found to be valid as prescribed in the relevant Rules/Bye-laws and the scheme under the Investors’ Protection Fund (IPF) may be payable first out of the amount vested in committee for settlement of claims against Defaulters, on pro-rata basis if the amount is inadequate.<br />The balance amount of claims, if any, to a maximum amount of Rs.10 lakh per investors claim, per defaulter/expelled members may be payable subject to such claims being found payable under the scheme of the IPF.<br />3. GENERAL:<br />3.1 Commission and Other Charges <br />Before you begin to trade, you should obtain a clear explanation of all commission, fees and other charges for which you will be liable. These charges will affect your net profit (if any) or increase your loss.<br /><ul><li>Deposited Cash and Property </li></ul>You should familiarize yourself with the protections accorded to the money or other property you deposit particularly in the event of a firm insolvency or bankruptcy.<br />The extent to which you may recover your money or property may be governed by specific legislation or local rules. In some jurisdiction, property which has been specifically identifiable as your as your own will be pro-rated in the same manner as cash for purpose of distribution in the event of a shortfall.<br />In case of nay dispute with the member, the same shall be subject to arbitration as per the byelaws/regulation of the exchange.<br /><ul><li>For right and obligation of the clients, please refer to Annexure-1 enclosed with this document.
The terms ‘constituent’ shall mean and include a client, a customer or an investor, who deals with a members for the purpose of acquiring and/or selling of securities through the mechanism provided by NSE/BSE.
The terms ‘members’ shall mean and include a trading members, a broken or a stock broker, who has been admitted as such by NSE/BSE and who holds a registration certificates as a stock broker from SEBI.</li></ul>Capital Market Segment:<br /><ul><li>Order Entry & Execution:
The order placed by the clients over the phone or orally from the office would be entered into the trading system and after due surveillance would be transmitted to concerned Exchange instantaneously within a few seconds.
But some orders at the discretion of Shriram Insight Share Brokers Ltd. (SISBL) may be subject to manual review and clearances which may cause delay in processing the order or rejection of the order.
The client agrees that placing an order, including a market order does not guarantee execution of the order. It is understood by the client that with respect to market order, the order will be executed at a price which may be different from the price at which the securities is traded when their order was entered into system.
The client are required to take confirmation of their order immediately or at least once a day either in person or over telephone which would be deemed to have the same effect as given in person.
The order placed by the clients would be their own investment decisions and the clients will not hold SISBL or any of its employees or associates, liable for any losses incurred by them.
This extends to any decisions made by the client on the basis of any information that may be made available on the website of SISBL.
However SISBL shall not be liable for failure of the system or for any loss,
Telecom network or system failures including failure of ancillary or associated system which forms or does not form or does not form part of trading workstation installation, or fluctuation of power, or other environmental conditions: or
Act of god, fir, flood, war, act of violence, or any other similar occurrence: or
Any incidental, special or consequential damages including without limitation of loss or profit.
The execution or order cancellation or modification is not guaranteed. Cancellation of orders is possible only if the original remains pending at the exchanges. Unless otherwise specified by SISBL, any order not executed at the end of the day shall stand cancelled.
Sufficient Margin Maintenance for Placing Orders:</li></ul> The clients have to maintain sufficient margin before placing the order. The requirement of margin will be intimated by SISBL from time to time depending on the market condition, rules framed by the concerned Exchanges or SEBI, and assessment of the client by SISBL.<br />This information would be communicated to the client orally or over the phone or in writing and decision of SISBL would be final in his regard. The margin would vary from 0% to 100% of the open position of the client.<br />Open position would mean all pending orders and transaction, both purchase and sale, of the client which are either unpaid or undelivered, respectively.<br />However, the client would be responsible for all of their orders including any order which exceeds the limit available based on their available margin.<br />The client should on a regular basis enquire about the margin requirement to ensure smooth transaction. SISBL may require the client to immediately deposit funds or collateral into their account prior to any applicable settlement date in order to assure due performance of their open contractual commitments.<br />If the clients does not provide the additional collateral, the client hereby understands and knowledge that SISBL has the right to sell any or all the securities and other properties available with it and can cancel any or all open orders and/or closes any or all outstanding to raise the required margin.<br />The client will be liable to bear any loss arising out of the same. Clients have to pay margin for the open position they may have at any point of time in the following manners:<br /><ul><li>Margin in the form of money deposit (Cash Margin)
Margin in the form of specified securities to be calculated at a specified percentage of value of the securities depending on the scrip as specified by SISBL from time to time. All deliveries against margin are to be made by transferring the share from the declared DP account of the client to the designated beneficiary account of SISBL:</li></ul>For NSE cash segment-1203840000009946<br />For NSE F&O segment-1203840000132265<br /><ul><li>Margin in the form of FD (as specified by SISB)
Payment from client against purchase of securities:
Payment for purchase of securities has to be made by account payee cheque only from the declared bank a/c of the client only favoring ‘Shriram Insight Share Brokers Ltd’
By T+ 1st day but not later than the due date for playing of funds to the concerned exchanges and not to nay employee or purported representatives of SISBL. The client shall not make any payments of SISBL through any third party account or an account of any other client SISBL.
It is understood by the client that date on which clear funds are available in the bank account of SISBL would be treated as the date of having received the payment although a receipt may be issued at an earlier date for the cheque given by the client.
Therefore, the clients are required to give the cheque sufficiently in advance so that the amount is credited in SISBL account before the due date. SISBL would present the cheques in normal clearing and would not be responsible for any delay due to clearing in the banking system.
The client further undertakes that in case he fails to make payment of consideration to SISBL in respect of any one or more securities purchased by him before the pay in date notified by the exchange from time to time.
SISBL can sell the securities at any time on the exchanges not later than the fifth trading day reckoned from the date of pay-in.
Otherwise SISBL shall have the power to pledge the shares with scheduled Banks and/or non banking finance companies to realize the money and meet the Pay-in obligations to the concerned exchanges.
Delivery to client of securities Purchased By Them:
Securities purchased by the client will be delivered to the DP account of the client (as specified in the registration from the by the client) by SISBL only if all the money, on any account, due from the client till date of delivery is realized in full.
Part delivery of securities based on part payment will not be allowed. Any error in giving the details regarding default DP account will be clients’ responsibility and he will not hold SISBL responsible for any loss due to transfer of shares into the account as mentioned above.
The instruction for delivery to client account will be issued within time schedule specified by the concerned Exchanges, prevalent at the time. If the delivery could not be made on the due date, due to nonpayment of dues from the client then the delivery will be made within seven days of payment of the dues.
But, nonpayment for dues date may result in sale of such purchased securities at the cost and penalty of the client. In case the securities are unpaid on the pay-out date, same will be taken/transferred into the designated beneficiary account of SISBL to avoid SEBI pool penalty charges.
Delivery from Clients of securities Sold By Them:
Dematerialized shares:</li></ul>The client should instruct his depository participants, sufficiently in advance, to transfer shares into the pool account of SISBL preferably on the same day.<br />i.e. trading day itself or latest before 9 am. On the respective settlement day as specified by the exchange and shall not cause delivery of shares of SISBL through any third party account or an account of any client of SISBL.<br />All third parties against pay-in obligations have to be honored by transferring the shares from the declared DP account of the client to pool account of SISBL.<br />For NSE cash segment-for NSE pay in<br /> NSDL POOL-CMBP-IN 563399 (28836274/IN 301250)<br />CDSL A/C -1203840000000067<br />For BSE cash segment principal A/C-1203840000000033<br /><ul><li>Redelivery from purchase of earlier settlement:</li