The Role and Position of Universities of Applied Science  in Industrial and Socio-Economic Development  –  German perspect...
Development and University <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Economic ...
<ul><li>ZA:  48 Mio. </li></ul><ul><li>GE:  82 Mio </li></ul><ul><li>Baden-Württemberg: 11 Mio (in the FRG, education is g...
University Landscape
Portfolio <ul><li>Industrial Development vs. Socio-Economic Development </li></ul>Industry   Society „ Market “ „ Free “ p...
Development <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Economic </li></ul></ul>...
Sustainable Development <ul><li>World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 “Sustainable development is developm...
Development Humanity World Country Region
Development Company Organisation Society  Ecology  Economy Industry  University  
Universities ... support for  … Development ...  Govern-ment Enter-prises NGO/ NPO University Economy Sus-tain- Business C...
<ul><li>Innovation is the basis for  decoupling wealth from  resource consumption </li></ul>Development  U. Holzbaur 11.08...
Society and Industry <ul><li>Society consists of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture...
University <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Economic </li></ul></ul><...
Tasks of a University <ul><li>Depends on University type </li></ul><ul><li>Main Tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science -> Re...
Tasks of a University Research Lecturing Transfer Number of Publications Graduates Commercial Turnover Evauation Task outp...
Universities ... support for  … Development ...  Govern-ment Enter-prises NGO/ NPO University Economy Sus-tain- Business C...
Knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge is the basis for  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research  </li></...
Knowledge and Money case study Ba-Wü <ul><li>All 69 Ba-Wü Universities  260.000 students </li></ul><ul><li>Sci U:  140 000...
Knowledge and Money case study Ba-Wü <ul><li>Third party projects on research: 800 M€ in total. Sci.U:  170 M€ DFG  90 M€ ...
Knowledge Transfer  <ul><li>Knowledge transfer is more than information transfer it is the task of enabling the receiver  ...
Structures for Knowledge Transfer <ul><li>Technology Transfer can be  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull: demand-driven “we need” ...
Transfer Portfolio <ul><li>Overall Portfolio of Knowledge Transfer Methods (symbolical, qualitative) </li></ul><ul><li>who...
From Research to Transfer <ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied research:...
STW  Steinbeis Foundation <ul><li>Services: Consultancy Services, Research and Development, Evaluation and Expert Reports,...
STW Services  Consulting At every stage of the value chain Fostering successful transfer Research and development Evaluati...
STW Organisation Steinbeis GmbH & Co. KG für Technologietransfer (StC) Management Board Steinbeis-Stiftung (StW) Board of ...
STC portfolio <ul><li>STC types each of the 700 STC is different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating TC  Addressing all Pro...
STC relation to the university <ul><li>own rooms/ machines/ software or rent from university </li></ul><ul><li>own personn...
STW  cost structure <ul><li>Variable Project account: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VAT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STW Steinbeis S...
Success factors <ul><li>STW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardisation (proces...
Development and University <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Economic ...
University Projects <ul><li>Joint Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual benefit for University (professor, organization, stude...
Transfer via  student´s thesis  <ul><li>Thesis in cooperation with industry  </li></ul>Student Scientific work Problem sol...
Aalen Case Study <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Economic </li></ul>...
Research:  Institutes of Applied Research <ul><li>Institute of Applied Research - 30 .. 50 professors  Third Party Funding...
STC in Aalen <ul><li>STC Technical Consulting - AWFE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centre for industry-oriented research and devel...
Student’s projects  <ul><li>Student’s projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skills and competences which the students have to acq...
Examples for cooperation <ul><li>The examples listed below comprise university projects </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly students´...
Support for economic development <ul><li>support local industry,  business, enterprises and start-ups  </li></ul><ul><li>f...
AAUAS - WIW Project Examples  <ul><li>Support of projects on  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Eel EMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Experiential orientation four the young <ul><li>Technology and science </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainablility </li></ul><ul><li...
AAUAS - WIW Project Examples  <ul><li>Modules  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excelle...
Green Eel as an Project on ESD <ul><li>Environmental Management for Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Project of the UN Decade  Ed...
Green Eel –  student´s project
Aalen for all –Barrier free supported by students´ projects
Day of the region  supported by students´ projects  <ul><li>Aalen 2006, 2007, 2008 … </li></ul>
Project portfolio  for students project  <ul><li>Summer 2009:  20 projects 135 students 15000 working hours   12 final pro...
Summary <ul><li>Tasks of a university/ professor comprise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectu...
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The Role and Position of Universities of Applied Science in Industrial and Socio-Economic Development by Prof Holzbaur

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Prof Holzbaur’s (Aalen University of Applied Sciences) presentation at the SATN Annual Conference 2009.

Theme: “Technological innovation at Universities in South Africa: towards industrial and socio-economic development”

16 - 17 July 2009
Cape Peninsula University of Technology
Bellville Campus.

Published in: Technology, Education
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The Role and Position of Universities of Applied Science in Industrial and Socio-Economic Development by Prof Holzbaur

  1. 1. The Role and Position of Universities of Applied Science in Industrial and Socio-Economic Development – German perspective Aalen experiences Ulrich D. Holzbaur Aalen University
  2. 2. Development and University <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universities of Applied Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures and Projects </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>ZA: 48 Mio. </li></ul><ul><li>GE: 82 Mio </li></ul><ul><li>Baden-Württemberg: 11 Mio (in the FRG, education is governed by the 16 states) </li></ul>Germany and Baden-Württemberg Bavaria Berlin
  4. 4. University Landscape
  5. 5. Portfolio <ul><li>Industrial Development vs. Socio-Economic Development </li></ul>Industry Society „ Market “ „ Free “ projects Res e arch Transfer STZ Consulting projects Education Individual Company Individual Organisation Benefit für all Benefit für all R&D R&D
  6. 6. Development <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universities of Applied Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures and Projects </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Sustainable Development <ul><li>World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs .&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda 21 = Rio 1992 declaration </li></ul><ul><li>World Summit Jo´bg, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Education for SD Decade 2006 - 2014 Bonn Declaration 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Baden-Württemberg Network of Universities (AS) fur Sustainability </li></ul>
  8. 8. Development Humanity World Country Region
  9. 9. Development Company Organisation Society  Ecology Economy Industry  University 
  10. 10. Universities ... support for … Development ... Govern-ment Enter-prises NGO/ NPO University Economy Sus-tain- Business COC ... R&D Entrepreneurship able Programs Networks Education Environment Deve-lop- EMS ............. Transfer Social structures ment Value Projects
  11. 11. <ul><li>Innovation is the basis for decoupling wealth from resource consumption </li></ul>Development U. Holzbaur 11.08.09 Ressource consumption Qualitative growth utility, welfare Quantitative growth Ressource consumption
  12. 12. Society and Industry <ul><li>Society consists of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public, Administration, Government witin a hierarchy from UN to suburb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Organisations, Companies, Industry, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NGO/NPO, associations, clubs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. University <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universities of Applied Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures and Projects </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Tasks of a University <ul><li>Depends on University type </li></ul><ul><li>Main Tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science -> Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education -> Lecturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society -> Transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social aspects (students, gender, disabled) -> internal </li></ul></ul>University Research Lecturing Transfer
  15. 15. Tasks of a University Research Lecturing Transfer Number of Publications Graduates Commercial Turnover Evauation Task output output University 3rd party pro- ject turnover 3rd party pro- ject turnover
  16. 16. Universities ... support for … Development ... Govern-ment Enter-prises NGO/ NPO University Economy Sus-tain- Business COC ... R&D Entrepreneurship able Programs Networks Education Environment Deve-lop- EMS ............. Transfer Social structures ment Value Projects
  17. 17. Knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge is the basis for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul>Know- ledge Deci- sions Inno- vation Industry and Society The Product of the University
  18. 18. Knowledge and Money case study Ba-Wü <ul><li>All 69 Ba-Wü Universities 260.000 students </li></ul><ul><li>Sci U: 140 000 students 2300 prof. BA, BSc, BEng, MA, MEng, Msc, PhD </li></ul><ul><li>UAS: 60 000 students 2300 prof. BA, BSc, BEng, MA, MEng, MSc </li></ul><ul><li>Sci.U: 1.800 M€ staff: 1130 M€ UAS: 388 M€ staff: 270 M€ </li></ul><ul><li>Third party projects on research: 800 M€ in total. Sci.U: 170 M€ DFG 90 M€ fed. 107 M€ industry UAS: 1/2 M€ DGF 11 M€ fed. 8 M€ Industry </li></ul>
  19. 19. Knowledge and Money case study Ba-Wü <ul><li>Third party projects on research: 800 M€ in total. Sci.U: 170 M€ DFG 90 M€ fed. 107 M€ industry UAS: 1/2 M€ DGF 11 M€ fed. 8 M€ Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Steinbeis: 100 M€ mainly BaWü mainly UAS </li></ul>
  20. 20. Knowledge Transfer <ul><li>Knowledge transfer is more than information transfer it is the task of enabling the receiver to apply, to assess and to advance this knowledge. </li></ul>Produce knowledge Transfer knowledge Enhance knowledge Existing knowledge Recieve knowledge
  21. 21. Structures for Knowledge Transfer <ul><li>Technology Transfer can be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull: demand-driven “we need” from the customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Push: result-driven “we can” from the research organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective technology transfer from university to enterprises and community needs a supportive infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing and acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting and billing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal framework </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Transfer Portfolio <ul><li>Overall Portfolio of Knowledge Transfer Methods (symbolical, qualitative) </li></ul><ul><li>who and how? </li></ul>Skill level Size Publication Technology Transfer Joint Projects
  23. 23. From Research to Transfer <ul><li>Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied research: pre-competitive general knowledge typically publishes in journals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer is direct support. It is the most direct and most obvious measure, creating and transferring immediately needed (competitive) know-how. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultancy and Development give results to the customer as deliverable items. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Researchers must be allowed to bridge the gap between pure and applied research </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers should be urged to bring their results a little bit closer to practical application. </li></ul>
  24. 24. STW Steinbeis Foundation <ul><li>Services: Consultancy Services, Research and Development, Evaluation and Expert Reports, International Technology Transfer, Training and Further Education </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer Network 700 Steinbeis Transfer Centers (STC) and subsidary companies. Cooperation and project partners in over 47 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Competence in all fields of technology and management </li></ul><ul><li>Customers: more than 10,000 per year companies, organisations of all sizes and areas of business, individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Projects: more than 20,000 per year </li></ul><ul><li>Staff: over 4,000: professors, permanent and project based staff </li></ul>
  25. 25. STW Services Consulting At every stage of the value chain Fostering successful transfer Research and development Evaluation and expert reports Forming the basis for decision making As a key competitive factor Training and employee development
  26. 26. STW Organisation Steinbeis GmbH & Co. KG für Technologietransfer (StC) Management Board Steinbeis-Stiftung (StW) Board of Trustees and Committee Executive Board Steinbeis Enterprises (SU) Steinbeis Transfer Centers (STC) Steinbeis Research Centers (SRC) Steinbeis Consulting Centers (SCC) Steinbeis Transfer Institutes (STI) at Steinbeis University Berlin - SHB Steinbeis Shareholding (SBT) 496 STC 42 SRC 58 SCC 102 STI 46 SBT
  27. 27. STC portfolio <ul><li>STC types each of the 700 STC is different </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating TC Addressing all Professors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad spectrum of knowledge in a certain field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special knowledge </li></ul></ul>locally, broad specialised global player local specialist specialist sector focus extensive in-ten-sive
  28. 28. STC relation to the university <ul><li>own rooms/ machines/ software or rent from university </li></ul><ul><li>own personnel of shared (rent or side jobs) </li></ul><ul><li>clearly separate between University and Steinbeis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time expenses, material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personnel (staff, students) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>machines, rooms, software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Professors participate as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STC manager </li></ul></ul>University Customer/ Company STW STC Project
  29. 29. STW cost structure <ul><li>Variable Project account: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VAT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STW Steinbeis Stuttgart overhead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STC overhead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff salary (university or free) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff Fees (professor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machines (university or free) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Room (university or free) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travelling Expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project manager's profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STC profit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Running costs: STC account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rooms rent and administrative staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STC manager´s profit </li></ul></ul>Project STC University or market prof
  30. 30. Success factors <ul><li>STW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardisation (processes, administration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steinbeis is a strong brand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility, Reliability, Responsiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility of project manager = Prof. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibilty and standardisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Care for the customer´s requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation among several faculties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul>Customer/ Company STW STC Project
  31. 31. Development and University <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universities of Applied Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures and Projects </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. University Projects <ul><li>Joint Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual benefit for University (professor, organization, students) and partners </li></ul><ul><li>Students: do the projects - real world hands on experience </li></ul><ul><li>University: reputation and partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Professor: practical experience, training success, reaching targets </li></ul><ul><li>Partners: projects bring innovative results and new ideas </li></ul>University Customer Society Project Professor Students
  33. 33. Transfer via student´s thesis <ul><li>Thesis in cooperation with industry </li></ul>Student Scientific work Problem solving University Examination Prof: supervising the thesis is part of his regular job Company: have some problem to solve. Pay the student Severe legal restrictions
  34. 34. Aalen Case Study <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universities of Applied Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role and Position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Research: Institutes of Applied Research <ul><li>Institute of Applied Research - 30 .. 50 professors Third Party Funding: Chemistry 300 k€ Laser Technology 700 k€ Production 1500 k€ .. other Projects 600 k€ TOTAL 3 M€ 100 papers (30 peer-reviewed) </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of applied economic research – 10 professors Low funding as research is mainly based on final and postgraduate projects – no big equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Baden-Württemberg: 130 k€ / prof </li></ul>
  36. 36. STC in Aalen <ul><li>STC Technical Consulting - AWFE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centre for industry-oriented research and development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STC Applied Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management and organisation, economics, logistics, BIS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steinbeis Transfer Centres in Aalen specialized in the following areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymer technology (moulding), polymer engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metals foundry, die casting, materials science, surface technology, automation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image processing, applied informatics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production planning </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Student’s projects <ul><li>Student’s projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skills and competences which the students have to acquire. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Definition and Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>didactical competence, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>challenging projects that gives the opportunity to learn </li></ul><ul><li>successful project that provides a visible result and a positive feedback from the project partners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concise project planning </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Examples for cooperation <ul><li>The examples listed below comprise university projects </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly students´ projects within a course or thesis. </li></ul>Engineering Management Environmental Management Quality Management Sustainable Development Final Thesis Project Project Management Excellence and Sustainability
  39. 39. Support for economic development <ul><li>support local industry, business, enterprises and start-ups </li></ul><ul><li>foster contacts among each other and with external competences </li></ul><ul><li>“ city-business-development” and “economic development” by two dedicated city employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the structure of stores in the city centre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure the survival and diversity of stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the city centre attractive for visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide space for start-ups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support local market and regional products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>supported via joint students´ projects </li></ul>
  40. 40. AAUAS - WIW Project Examples <ul><li>Support of projects on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Eel EMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiential orientation in ESD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aalen for All / barrier free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis of public transportation for students (semester ticket) </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of special places and special groups with respect to security feeling and crime prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of alcohol consumption and sales as a contribution to prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of special events </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and Excellence </li></ul>
  41. 41. Experiential orientation four the young <ul><li>Technology and science </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainablility </li></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul>
  42. 42. AAUAS - WIW Project Examples <ul><li>Modules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Information on sustainability and regenerative energies at Aalbäumle tower </li></ul>
  43. 43. Green Eel as an Project on ESD <ul><li>Environmental Management for Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Project of the UN Decade Education for Sustainable Development 2006-07 und 2008-09 </li></ul>
  44. 44. Green Eel – student´s project
  45. 45. Aalen for all –Barrier free supported by students´ projects
  46. 46. Day of the region supported by students´ projects <ul><li>Aalen 2006, 2007, 2008 … </li></ul>
  47. 47. Project portfolio for students project <ul><li>Summer 2009: 20 projects 135 students 15000 working hours 12 final projects (BEng) 5000 working hours </li></ul>
  48. 48. Summary <ul><li>Tasks of a university/ professor comprise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecturing (Education) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applied Research bridges the gap between Research and Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>In Universities of Applied Science, Transfer is mainly seen as transfer to industry </li></ul><ul><li>At Universities of Applied Science, structures for Transfer are well established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3rd party funded projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steinbeis projects </li></ul></ul>

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