3-G CUM 2-G OPERATED UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE

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The project is on robotics.Basically on unmanned ground vehical.It operates both on 2g and 3g technology.

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3-G CUM 2-G OPERATED UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE

  1. 1. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle 3-G CUM 2-G OPERATED UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE A project report submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering submitted to RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDHYALAYA, BHOPAL (M.P) MAJOR PROJECT REPORT submitted by Jaya Menghani (0157EC091037) Sandeep Ghosh (0157EC091075) Dhananjay Singh Yadav (0157EC091026) Nirmal Singh Chouhan (0157EC091053) under the supervision of Prof. Rahul Sharma Prof. Priyanka Dubey DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING LAKSHMI NARAIN COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, BHOPAL Session 2012-13 LAKSHMI NARAIN COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY SCIENCE,BHOPAL Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 1
  2. 2. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Department of Electronic & Communication Engineering CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the work embodied in this thesis entitled “3-G CUM 2-G OPERATED UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE” has been satisfactorily completed by Jaya Menghani,Sandeep Ghosh,Dhananjay S. Yadav,Nirmal S. Chouhan of final year .It is a bonafide piece of work, carried out under our supervision and guidance in the Department of ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION, LAKSHMI NARAIN COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE,BHOPAL for partial fulfilment of the Bachelor of Engineering during the academic year 2012-13. Under the supervision of ____________________ ___________________ Prof. Rahul Sharma Prof. Priyanka Dubey (Project Guide) (Project incharge) Approved by _____________________ Dr. Soni Changlani (Head of the Department) Forwarded by _______________________ Principal (Lakshmi Narain College of Technology & Science, Bhopal) LAKSHMI NARAIN COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, BHOPAL Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 2
  3. 3. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering DECLARATION We Jaya Menghani , Sandeep Ghosh , Dhananjay S. Yadav , Nirmal S. Chouhan Students of Bachelor of Engineering , Branch Electronics & Communication Engineering, LAKSHMI NARAIN COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE,BHOPAL hereby declare that the work presented in this project entitled “3-G CUM 2-G UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE” is the outcome of our own work, is bonafide and correct to the best of our knowledge and this work has been carried out taking care of Engineering Ethics. The work presented does not infringe any patented work and has not been submitted to any other University or anywhere else for the award of any degree or any professional diploma. _________________ _________________ Jaya Menghani Sandeep Ghosh Enrollment No. 0157EC091037 Enrollment No. 0157EC091075 __________________ __________________ Nirmal S. Chouhan Dhananjay S. Yadav Enrollment No. 0157EC091053 Enrollment No. 0157EC091026 Date: ____ /____/____ LAKSHMI NARAIN COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE, BHOPAL Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 3
  4. 4. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Department Of Electronics & Communication Engineering CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL This forgoing dissertation work is hereby approved as a creditable study of an engineering subject carried out and presented in a manner satisfactorily to warranty its acceptance as a prerequisite to degree for which it has submitted. It is understood by this approval the undersigned do not necessarily endorse or approve any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn therein, but approve the thesis only for the purpose for which it has been submitted. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 4
  5. 5. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Every work started and carried out with systematic approach turns out to be successful. Any accomplished requires the effort of many people and this work is no different. This project was a struggle that was made much more difficult due to numerous reasons; some of error correction was beyond our control. Sometimes we were like rudderless boat without knowing what to do next. It was then the timely guidance of that has seen us through all these odds. We would be very grateful to them for their inspiration, encouragement and guidance in all phases of the endeavor. It is our great pleasure to thank Prof. Soni Changlani, HOD of for his constant encouragement and valuable advice during the course of our project. We would also want to extend our thanks for his valuable guidance and help during development of the project. We also wish to express our gratitude towards all other staff members for their kind help. Finally, we would thank Prof. Rahul Sharma who has tremendously contributed to this project directly as well as indirectly; gratitude from the depths of our hearts is due to him. Regardless of source we wish to express our gratitude to those who may contribute to this work, even though anonymously. CONTENTS Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 5
  6. 6. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle TOPICS PAGE NO A PHOTOGRAPH OF PROJECT 6 B ABSTRACT 8 C PROJECT SPECIFICATION 9 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 10 1.1 INTRODUCTION 10 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO ROBOT 11 CHAPTER 2: BLOCK DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION 13 2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM 13 2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION 13 CHAPTER 3: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION 16 3.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 16 3.2 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION 16 3.3 WORKING 18 3.4 SOURCE CODE 18 3.5 CIRCUIT LAYOUT 21 3.6 FLOWCHART 21 CHAPTER 4: 3-G AND 2-G TECHNOLOGY 22 4.1 2-G TECHNOLOGY 22 4.2 3-G TECHNOLOGY 25 4.3 COMPARISON OF 2-G AND 3-G TECHNOLOGY 28 CHAPTER 5: COMPONENTS AND SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION 30 5.1 COMPONENTS USED 30 5.2 SOFTWARE TOOLS 41 Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 6
  7. 7. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle CHAPTER 6: BREADBOARD AND PCB IMPLEMENTATION 44 6.1 BREADBOARD IMPLEMENTATION 44 6.2PHOTOGRAPH OF THE PROJECT 45 6.2 PCB IMPLEMENTATION AND LAYOUT 46 CHAPTER 7: APPLICATIONS 47 CHAPTER 8: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS 48 8.1 ADVANTAGES 48 8.3 LIMITATIONS 48 CHAPTER 9: FUTURE SCOPE 49 CHAPTER 10: PROJECT COST 50 CHAPTER 11: CONCLUSION 51 CHAPTER 12: REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY 52 LIST OF FIGURES Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 7
  8. 8. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle FIGURE NO. FIGURE NAME PAGE NO. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 8
  9. 9. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Figure 1 Breadboard Implementation 6 Figure 2 Unmanned robot 6 Figure 3 Robot with complete hardware setup 7 Figure 4 Robot 12 Figure 5 Block diagram 13 Figure 6 Circuit diagram 16 Figure 7 Circuit layout 21 Figure 8 Flow chart 21 Figure 9 Working of 2-G 24 Figure 10 Working of 3-G 28 Figure 11 DTMF Decoder IC 30 Figure 12 DTMF Keypad 31 Figure 13 Breadboard implementation of IC CM8870 31 Figure 14 Inverter IC 32 Figure 15 Input and Output Buffer IC 33 Figure 16 Pin diagram of Microprocessor AT89S52 33 Figure 17 Block diagram of microprocessor 35 Figure 18 Reset circuit of Microprocessor 37 Figure 19 LED’S 38 Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 9
  10. 10. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Figure 20 Relay construction 40 Figure 21 Relay Design 40 Figure 22 Open KEIL 41 Figure 23 Make a new project 42 Figure 24 Select the microcontroller 42 Figure 25 Write a program 42 Figure 26 Compile 43 Figure 27 Simulate 43 Figure 28 Building connection 44 Figure 29 Connecting components 44 Figure 30 Building a circuit of breadboard 45 Figure 31 Breadboard Implementation 45 Figure 32 PCB Implementation 46 LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. TABLE NAME PAGE NO. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 10
  11. 11. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Table 1 DTMF data output 14 Table 2 DTMF keypad 15 Table 3 Action of robot 16 Table 4 Output of DTMF decoder IC 32 A. PHOTOGRAPH OF THE PROJECT Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 11
  12. 12. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Fig 1: Breadboard Implementation Fig 2: Unmanned Robot Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 12
  13. 13. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Fig 3: Robot With Complete Hardware Setup B. ABSTRACT Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 13
  14. 14. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Conventionally, wireless-controlled robots use RF circuits, which have the drawbacks of limited working range, limited frequency range and limited control. Use of a mobile phone for robotic control can overcome these limitations. It provides the advantages of robust control, working range as large as the coverage area of the service provider, no interference with other controllers and up to twelve controls. Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly, all robots share the features of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of control. The control of robot involves three distinct phases: reception, processing and action. . It provides the advantages of robust control, working range as large as the coverage area of the service provider, no interference with other controllers and up to twelve controls Generally, the preceptors are sensors mounted on the robot, processing is done by the on-board microcontroller or processor, and the task (action) is performed using motors or with some other actuators. Along with various types of motions, this robot detects mines as well as gives a complete visualization of the surroundings where it is present. C. PROJECT SPECIFICATION Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 14
  15. 15. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle The microcontroller used in this project is capable of withstanding 500 ma current and 12 V. The input and output buffer IC’s are used to avoid any damage to the controller IC and loads respectively. The relay driver specifications are 32 V and200 ma per switch. DTMF decoder IC have specifications of maximum power supply voltage of 6V, voltage on any pin is -0.3 V to +0.3 V. CHAPTER -1 Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 15
  16. 16. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT 3G CUM 2G OPERATED UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE is a manually controlled robotic vehicle which is capable of receiving a set of command instructions in the form of dual tone multiple frequencies and performs the necessary actions. The special feature in the physical design of the robot is that it can work at each type of terrain like hills, rough terrain, at destructed planes etc. We will be using a dedicated modem/mobile at the receiver module i.e. with the robot itself and send the commands using DTMF as per the required actions. The mobile unit which is dedicated at the robot is interfaced with an intellectual device called microcontroller so that it takes the responsibility of reading the received commands in the form of DTMF from the mobile unit and perform the corresponding predefined tasks such as move front or back, left or right. The 3G technology is used here for live image feedback from robot to the receiving point with showing the position of robot with the help of google map service provided by the cell phone operator on the cell phone connected to the robot. The microcontroller is also interfaced with few dc motors in order to move the robot in different directions. The major building blocks of this project are: • Regulated power supply • GSM modem • Microcontroller • Robot • RS232 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO ROROT Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 16
  17. 17. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle WHAT IS A ROBOT? Well it is a system that contains sensors, control systems, manipulators, power supplies and software all working together to perform a task. Designing, building, programming and testing a robots is a combination of physics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, structural engineering, mathematics and computing. In some cases biology, medicine, chemistry might also be involved. A study of robotics means that students are actively engaged with all of these disciplines in a deeply problem-posing problem solving environment. CHARACTERISTICS OF ROBOT ARE: • Sensing: First of all your robot would have to be able to sense its surroundings. It would do this in ways that are not dissimilar to the way that you sense your surroundings. Giving your robot: light sensors (eyes), touch and pressure sensors (hands), taste sensors (tongue), chemical sensors (nose) and hearing and sonar sensors (ears) will give your robot awareness of its environment. • Movement: A robot needs to be able to move around its environment. Whether rolling on wheels, walking on legs or propelling by thrusters a robot needs to be able to move. To count as a robot either the whole robot moves, like the Sojourner or just parts of the robot moves, like the Canada Arm. • Energy: A robot needs to be able to power itself. A robot might be solar powered, electrically powered, battery powered. The way your robot gets its energy will depend on what your robot needs to do. • Intelligence: A robot needs some kind of "smarts." This is where programming enters the pictures. A programmer is the person who gives the robot its 'smarts.' The robot will have to have some way to receive the program so that it knows what it is to do. COMPOSITION OF ROBOT: Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 17
  18. 18. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Robots are generally implementing agencies, drives, test equipment and control system. Implementing agency, the robot body, the buttocks generally use the space for open-chain linkage, which Pairs often referred to as joint, joint number of degrees of freedom robot shall normally. According to joint configuration types and the different forms of movement co-ordinates, the robot can be divided into rectangular actuator type, cylindrical coordinate type , Polar Type and other types of joint coordinate type. For anthropomorphic considerations, often the relevant parts of the robot body are there. Drive device is driven actuator movement organizations, in accordance with the directives issued by the signal control system, by means of dynamic elements to the robot action. It is the input signal, the output is the line, angular displacement. Drive the robot is mainly used in electric devices such as Stepping motor, Servo Motor etc. There are also hydraulic and pneumatic actuators. FUNCTIONS OF A ROBOT: • They are capable of interacting with the environment. • They can be used for military purposes. • They are capable of carrying loads on them. • They can be used as a toy robot. • They can be used to detect mines. Fig 4: Robot CHAPTER-2 Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 18
  19. 19. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle 2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig 5: Block Diagram 2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION In this project, the robot is controlled by a mobile phone that makes a call to the mobile phone attached to the robot. In the course of a call, if any button is pressed, a tone corresponding to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is called ‘dual-tone multiple-frequency’ (DTMF) tone. The robot perceives this DTMF tone with the help of the phone stacked in the robot. The received tone is processed by the ATmega16 microcontroller with the help of DTMF decoder MT8870. The decoder decodes the DTMF tone into its equivalent Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 19
  20. 20. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle binary digit and this binary number is sent to the microcontroller. The microcontroller is preprogrammed to take a decision for any given input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors for forward or backward motion or a turn. The mobile that makes a call to the mobile phone stacked in the robot acts as a remote. So this simple robotic project does not require the construction of receiver and transmitter units. DTMF signaling is used for telephone signaling over the line in the voice-frequency band to the call switching centre. The version of DTMF used for telephone tone dialing is known as ‘Touch-Tone’. DTMF assigns a specific frequency (consisting of two separate tones) to each key so that it can easily be identified by the electronic circuit. The signal generated by the DTMF encoder is a direct algebraic summation, in real time, of the amplitudes of two sine (cosine)waves of different frequencies, i.e., pressing ‘5’ will send a tone made by adding 1336 Hz and 770 Hz to the other end of the line. The tones and assignments in a DTMF system are shown in Table 3. Table 1: DTMF Data Output Frequencies Transmitted 120 9 133 6 147 7 1633 Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 20
  21. 21. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle 697 1 2 3 A 770 4 5 6 B 852 7 8 9 C 941 * 0 # D Table 2: DTMF Keypad CHAPTER-3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 21
  22. 22. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle 3.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Fig 6: Circuit Diagram 3.2 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION Figure shows the circuit diagram of the microcontroller-based mobile phone robot. The important components of this robot are a DTMF decoder, microcontroller and motor driver (or relays).. LOOP 1 If pressed 2 Robot moves forward If pressed 1 Robot moves left If pressed 4 Robot moves right If pressed 8 LOOP 2 Robot stops If pressed 1 Robot moves backward If pressed 2 Robot moves left If pressed 4 Robot moves right If pressed 8 Robot stops Table 3: Actions of Robot The built-in dial tone rejection circuit eliminates the need for pre-filtering. When the input signal given at pin 2 (IN-) in single-ended input configuration is recognized to be effective, the correct 4-bit decode signal of the DTMF tone is transferred to Q1 (pin 11) through Q4 (pin 14) outputs. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 22
  23. 23. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Table 2 shows the DTMF data output table of CM8870. Q1 through Q4 outputs of the DTMF decoder (IC1) are connected to port pins PA0 through PA3 of ATmega16 microcontroller (IC2) after inversion by N1 through N4, respectively. The ATmega16 is a low-power, 8-bit, CMOS microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. It provides the following features: 16 kB of in-system programmable Flash program memory with read-while-write capabilities, 512 bytes of EEPROM, 1kB SRAM, 32 general-purpose input/output (I/O) lines and 32 general- purpose working registers. All the 32 registers re directly connected to the arithmetic logic unit, allowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code-efficient. Outputs from port pins PD0 through PD3 and PD7 of the microcontroller are fed to inputs IN1 through IN4 and enable pins (EN1 and EN2) of motor driver L293D, respectively, to drive two geared DC motors. Switch S1 is used for manual reset. The microcontroller output is not sufficient to drive the DC motors, so current drivers are required for motor rotation. The L293D is a quad, high-current, half-H driver designed to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to 600 mA at voltages from 4.5V to 36V. It makes it easier to drive the DC motors. The L293D consists of four drivers. Pin IN1 through IN4 and OUT1 through OUT4 are input and output pins, respectively, of driver 1 through driver 4. Drivers 1 and 2, and drivers 3 and 4 are enabled by enable pin 1 (EN1) and pin 9 (EN2), respectively. When enable input EN1 (pin 1) is high, drivers 1 and 2 are enabled and the outputs corresponding to their inputs are active. Similarly, enable input EN2 (pin 9) enables drive 3.3 WORKING In order to control the robot, you need to make a call to the cell phone attached to the robot (through head phone) from any phone, which sends DTMF tunes on pressing the numeric buttons. The cell phone in the robot is kept in ‘auto answer’ (If Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 23
  24. 24. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle the mobile does not have the auto answering facility, receive the call by ‘OK’ key on the rover-connected mobile and then made it in hands-free mode) mode. So after a ring, the cell phone accepts the call. Now you may press any button on your mobile to perform actions as listed in Table 4. The DTMF tones thus produced are received by the cell phone in the robot. These tones are fed to the circuit by the headset of cell phone. The MT8870 (or CM 8870) decodes the received tone and sends the equivalent binary number to the microcontroller after inverting them. According to the program in the microcontroller, the robot starts moving. When you press key ‘2’ (binary equivalent 00000010) on your mobile phone, the microcontroller outputs ‘10001001’ binary equivalent. Port pins PD0, PD3 and PD7 are high. The high output at PD7 of the microcontroller drives the motor driver (L293D). Port pins PD0 and PD3 drive motors M1 and M2 in forward direction (as per Table 4). Similarly, motors M1 and M2 move for left turn, right turn, backward motion and stop condition as per Table 4. Camera installed on the robot helps in continuous monitoring of the area where robot is present as well as it can detect mines whose presence is indicated by a buzzer and glow of an LED. 3.4 SOURCE CODE PROGRAMME with press of key output on leds goes high to low inputs are low ORG 0000H MOV P0,#0FFH MOV P1,#0FFH MAIN: JNB P1.0,one JNB P1.1,two Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 24
  25. 25. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle JNB P1.2,three JNB P1.3,four SJMP MAIN one: CLR P0.0 JNB P1.0,one SETB P0.0 SJMP MAIN two: CLR P0.1 JNB P1.1,two SETB P0.1 SJMP MAIN three: CLR P0.2 JNB P1.2,three SETB P0.2 SJMP MAIN four: CLR P0.3 JNB P1.3,four Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 25
  26. 26. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle SETB P0.3 SJMP MAIN DELAY: ;.5 sec delay MOV TMOD,#10H ;Timer 1 Mode 1H MOV R0,#100 AGAIN: MOV TL1,#0B0H ; for 50ms 3cb0H is to be put MOV TH1,#03CH ;label can not be repeated in different sub routine SETB TR1 BACK: JNB TF1,BACK ;stay until timer rolls over CLR TR1 CLR TF1 DJNZ R0,AGAIN ;If R3 not zero then reload timer RET ; .END 3.5 CIRCUIT LAYOUT Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 26
  27. 27. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Fig 7: Layout 3.6 FLOWCHART Fig 8: Flowchart CHAPTER-4 Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 27
  28. 28. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle 3-G AND 2-G TECHNOLOGY 4.1 2-G TECHNOLOGY: Introduction: 2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity. 2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and MMS (multimedia messages). 2G is more efficient. 2G technology holds sufficient security for both the sender and the receiver. All text messages are digitally encrypted. This digital encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it. Second generation technologies are either time division multiple access (TDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA). TDMA allows for the division of signal into time slots. CDMA allocates each user a special code to communicate over a multiplex physical channel. Different TDMA technologies are GSM, PDC, iden, iS-136. CDMA technology is IS-95. GSM has its origin from the Group special Mobile, in Europe. GSM (Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile technologies. Although this technology originates from the Europe, but now it is used in more than 212 countries in the world. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. This enabled the mobile subscribers to use their mobile phone connections in many different countries of the world’s is based on digital signals ,unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer analogue signals. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone, other than the voice call or conference. This technology is beneficial to both the network operators and the ultimate users at the same time. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 28
  29. 29. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Benefits of 2-G technology: Digital signals require consume less battery power, so it helps mobile batteries to last long. Digital coding improves the voice clarity and reduces noise in the line. Digital signals are considered environment friendly. The use of digital data service assists mobile network operators to introduce short message service over the cellular phones. Digital encryption has provided secrecy and safety to the data and voice calls. The use of 2G technology requires strong digital signals to help mobile phones work. If there is no network coverage in any specific area, digital signals would be weak. How 2G (FDMA) Works: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) enables the calls to use different frequency by splitting it into small cells. Each call uses different frequency. The phenomenon is same as in radio where different channels broadcast on separate frequency. So every radio station has been assigned different frequency according to the specific band available. FDMA is best in case of analog transmission but also support digital transmission. No doubt it is accommodating to the digital signals yet with poor service. How 2G (TDMA) Works: Different technologies are categorized in second generation’s TDMA standard according to the different time zones indifferent countries in the world. These technologies are: • GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) nearly used in the whole world. • IDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network) is introduced by Motorola used in US and Canada. • IS-136 (Interim Standard-136) also known as D-AMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System) prevail in South and North America. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 29
  30. 30. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle • PDC (Personal Digital Cellular) is used in Japan. TDMA is a narrow band of 30 KHz wide and 6.7 millisecond long. It is divided into three slots of time. TDMA supports both frequency bands IS-54 and IS-136. GSM (TDMA) is a different standard and provide basis for IDEN and PCS. Being an international standard, it covers many countries of the world. There is only the need for changing the SIM and you can get connected no need to buy a new phone. Having two different bands • 900-1800 MHz band covers Europe and Asia • 850-1900 MHz band covers United State Fig 9: Working Of 2-G 4.2 3-G TECHNOLOGY: Introduction: Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 30
  31. 31. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle 3G technologies make use of TDMA and CDMA. 3G (Third Generation Technology) technologies make use of value added services like mobile television, GPS (global positioning system) and video conferencing. The basic feature of 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology) is fast data transfer rates. Technologies used in 3-G: There are many 3-G technologies as W-CDMA, GSM EDGE, UMTS, DECT, WiMax and CDMA 2000.Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward digital technology, because it can operate with older devices. EDGE allows for faster data transfer than existing GSM.EDGE was introduced by AT& T in 2003. EDGE has increased the GSM coverage up to three times more. EDGE is a 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology); therefore it can be used for packet switched systems. Universal mobile telecommunications systems .UMTS conforms to ITU IMT 2000 standard. It is complex network and allows for covering radio access, core network and USIM (subscriber identity module). It is a relatively expensive technology for the network operators because it requires new and separate infrastructure for its coverage. The GSM is the base of this technology. CDMA is also referred to as IMT-MC. this technology is close to 2G technology GSM because it is also backward compatible. Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) is another 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology). DETC was developed by European telecommunications standards institute; however it is now widely popular in the other countries of the world as well. It runs over a frequency of 1900 MHz. WiMax is a 3G Technology (Third Generation Technology) and it is referred to as worldwide interoperability for microwave access. It is a wireless technology. It transmits variety of wireless signals. It can be operated on the multi point and point modes. it is portable technology. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 31
  32. 32. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle This technology is based on the wireless internet access. Name of the WiMax was developed in 2001 by WiMax forum. This technology removes the need for wires and is capable enough to provide 10mbits/sec. it can connect you to hotspot. How 3G (CDMA 2000) Works: Code Division Multiple Access 2000 is approved by 3GPP2 Organization. CDMA 200 hybrid with IS-95 B provides an unlimited access to IMT-200 Band as well as CDMA 200 1x and ideal conditions for the highest data transfer rate. The CDMA 2000 1x evolves into CDMA 200 1x EV. This CDMA 200 1x EV IS put into service in two different forms: • CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO- 1X Evolution data only able to use 1.25 MHz • CDMA 2000 1x EV-DV- 1x Evolution Data and Voice also use 1.25 MHz All these versions are supposed to attain the highest speed for greater efficiency of the mobile phones. How 3G (W-CDMA / UMTS) Works: 3G mobile technology has been marked by the CDMA accomplishment. ETSI Alpha group develop this technology on radio access method. W-CDMA offers challenges in shapes of versatility and complexity of its design. Its multifaceted single algorithm made the complete system more difficult hence the receiver becomes a more complex device. It provides friendly environment to the multi-users with greater simulation and broader interface able to transfer data with time variations. UMTS network group is experimenting on this new technology to maintain previous 2G module features and the added features as well in 3G. How 3G (TD-SCDMA) Works: Developed by China Wireless Telecommunication Standard group TD-SCDMA is approved by the ITU. This technology is based on time synchronization with CDMA. This time division is based on duplex approach where uplink and downlink traffic Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 32
  33. 33. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle transmit in different time slots. This synchronization gives flexibility to the spectrum for uplink and downlink transmission depending on symmetrical or asymmetrical information. Asymmetrical information comprises e-mail and internet applications while call system comes under symmetrical information. During asymmetrical applications downlink is given preference over uplink. Preference is given to uplink during telephony. This technology provides 144 kbps connectivity speed which is the highest one in the present era. It is offering wireless broadband facility an entertainment opportunity of downloading music and videos, games with 3D effects and conference calls with video facility. Based on the services, feature plans and areas with the 3G coverage there are many carriers who are providing it. It is still not fully accessible in all the countries so limitations hinder the availability. The real 3G technology can be enjoyed with a new mobile phone set and the 3G service pack. All the three technologies mentioned above are working in 3G at their best. Now everyone is looking forward with expected amazement for the 4G standard as they have for sure belief on the further advancement in the field of telecommunication already reaches the peak of cellular technology. Drivers of 3-G: • Consumer demand for more robust wireless data services: Declining voice revenues have pushed carriers to consider alternative revenue generating opportunities, and they are responding by offering more data services made possible by 3G technology. Mobile video, music downloads, e-mail, messaging, location-based services and Internet surfing are just a sample of the many new applications users will have access to. • Upgrading infrastructure investment: The faster 3G networks are deployed, the faster 3G adoption rates will rise. Upgrading legacy networks to accommodate 3G technology is very costly. • 3G spectrum licensing fees: Spectrum is the specific frequency used by carriers to transmit data wirelessly. To own and run a proprietary network, a wireless carrier has to rent the frequencies from the government. Recently, mobile Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 33
  34. 34. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle operators have had to pay phenomenal rents in auctions for 3G spectrum licenses. High license acquisition costs are limiting the number of carriers that can participate in 3G. Fig 10: Working Of 3-G 4.3 COMPARISON OF 2-G AND 3-G TECHNOLOGY: The difference between the two is: Term: 2G is the second generation, while 3G is the third generation of mobile networks. History: Looking in their history, 2G technology was first launched in the nation of Finland in 1991, while 3G was first used in Japan in 2001. Function: Comparing 3G and 2G technology, while the function of 2G networks is primarily Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 34
  35. 35. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle the transmission of voice information, the 3G technology offers the additional benefit of data transfer. Implication: Among other differences between 3G and 2G technologies, a higher level of security is offered by the 3G technology over the 2G networks. According to a UK-based technology firm, 3G networks permit authentication measures when communicating with other devices. Features: Due to the advanced 3G technology, many additional features are available here unlike 2G, when comparing 2G and 3G technology. These features include mobile TV, video transfers and GPS systems. Frequencies: When we compare 3G and 2G technology, we find that 2G technology uses a wide array of frequencies in both higher and lower ranges, under which the transmission of the digital signals depends on conditions, such as weather. A drawback of 3G is that it simply is not available in certain regions. CHAPTER-5 COMPONENTS AND SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION 5.1 COMPONENTS LIST • Mobile phones Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 35
  36. 36. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle • IC CM8870 : Fig 11: DTMF Decoder IC When you press the buttons on the keypad, a connection is made that generates two tones at the same time. A “Row” tone and a “Column” tone. These two tones help in identifying that the key you pressed to any equipment you are controlling. If the keypad is on your phone, the telephone company’s “Central Office” equipment knows what numbers you are dialing by these tones, and will switch your call accordingly. If you are using a DTMF keypad to remotely control equipment, the tones can identify what unit you want to control, as well as which unique function you want it to perform. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 36
  37. 37. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Fig 12: DTMF Keypad When you press the digit 1 on the keypad, you generate the tones 1209 Hz and 697 Hz. Pressing the digit 2 will generate the tones 1336 Hz and 697 Hz. Sure, the tone 697 is the same for both digits, but it take two tones to make a digit and the decoding equipment knows the difference between the 1209 Hz that would complete the digit 1, and a 1336 Hz that completes a digit 2. Fig 13: Breadboard Implementation of IC CM8870 Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 37
  38. 38. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Table4: Output of DTMF Decoder IC Thus each key in the keypad gives different 4 bit binary number in the output (pin no 14, 13, 12, 11).This binary number is processed by the microcontroller to give specific output to the motor. • IC 74LS04: Fig 14: Inverter IC Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 38
  39. 39. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle • IC SN74HC245N: Fig 15: Input and output buffer IC • IC AT89S52: Fig 16: Pin diagram of Microcontroller Definition: Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 39
  40. 40. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle It is defined as highly integrated chip that contains all the components comprising a controller. Typically this includes a CPU, RAM, some form of ROM, I/O ports, and timers. Unlike a general-purpose computer, which also includes all of these components, a microcontroller is designed for a very specific task -- to control a particular system. As a result, the parts can be simplified and reduced, which cuts down on production costs. Microcontrollers are sometimes called embedded microcontrollers, which means that they are part of an embedded system – i.e one part of a larger device or system. Description: The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bitCPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256 bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, on-chip oscillator , and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupter hardware reset. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 40
  41. 41. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Fig 17: Blok diagram of Microcontroller Pin description: ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 of the oscillator frequency, for external timing or clocking purposes, even when there are no accesses to external memory. (However, one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory.) This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during EPROM programming. PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external Program Memory. When the device is executing out of external Program Memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle (except that two PSEN activations are skipped during accesses to external Data Memory). PSEN is not activated when the device is executing out of internal Program Memory. EA/VPP: When EA is held high the CPU executes out of internal Program Memory (unless the Program Counter exceeds 0FFFH in the 80C51). Holding EA low, forces the CPU to execute out of external memory regardless of the Program Counter value. In the 80C31, EA must be externally wired low. In the EPROM devices, this pin also receives the programming supply voltage (VPP) during EPROM programming. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 41
  42. 42. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier. XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. Port 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional port. As an open drain output port, it can sink eight LS TTL loads. Port 0 pins that have 1s written to them float, and in that state will function as high impedance inputs. Port 0 is also the multiplexed low- order address and data bus during accesses to external memory. In this application it uses strong internal pull ups when emitting 1s. Port 0 emits code bytes during program verification. In this application, external pull ups are required. Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull ups. Port 1 pins that have 1s written to them are pulled high by the internal pull ups, and in that state can be used as inputs. As inputs, port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current because of the internal pull ups. Port 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during accesses to external memory that use 16-bit addresses. In this application, it uses the strong internal pull ups when emitting 1s. Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull ups. It also serves the functions of various special features of the 80C51 Family as follows: P3.0 RxD (serial input port) P3.1 TxD (serial output port) P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input) P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input) P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe) P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe) VCC: Supply voltage Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 42
  43. 43. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle VSS: Circuit ground potential. Fig 18: Reset circuit of microcontroller Difference between microprocessor and microcontroller: Microprocessor is an IC which has only the CPU inside them i.e. only the processing powers such as Intel’s Pentium 1,2,3,4, core 2 duo, i3, i5 etc. These microprocessors don’t have RAM, ROM, and other peripheral on the chip. A system designer has to add them externally to make them functional. Application of microprocessor includes Desktop PC’s, Laptops, notepads etc. But this is not the case with Microcontrollers. Microcontroller has a CPU, in addition with a fixed amount of RAM, ROM and other peripherals all embedded on a single chip. At times it is also termed as a mini computer or a computer on a single chip. Today different manufacturers produce microcontrollers with a wide range of features available in different versions. Some manufacturers are ATMEL, Microchip, TI, Philips, Motorola etc. Microcontrollers are designed to perform specific tasks. Specific means applications where the relationship of input and output is defined. Depending on the input, some processing needs to be done and output is delivered. For example, keyboards, mouse, washing machine, digicam, pendrive, remote, microwave, cars, bikes, telephone, mobiles, watches, etc. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 43
  44. 44. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Since the applications are very specific, they need small resources like RAM, ROM, I/O ports etc and hence can be embedded on a single chip. This in turn reduces the size and the cost. Microprocessor find applications where tasks are unspecific like developing software, games, websites, photo editing, creating documents etc. In such cases the relationship between input and output is not defined. They need high amount of resources like RAM, ROM, I/O ports etc. The clock speed of the Microprocessor is quite high as compared to the microcontroller. Whereas the microcontrollers operate from a few MHz to 30 to 50 MHz, today’s microprocessor operate above 1GHz as they perform complex tasks. Comparing microcontroller and microprocessor in terms of cost is not justified. Undoubtedly a microcontroller is far cheaper than a microprocessor. However microcontroller cannot be used in place of microprocessor and using a microprocessor is not advised in place of a microcontroller as it makes the application quite costly. Microprocessor cannot be used stand alone. They need other peripherals like RAM, ROM, buffer, I/O ports etc and hence a system designed around a microprocessor is quite costly. • Led’s: Fig 19: LED’s As its name implies it is a diode, which emits light when forward biased. Charge carrier recombination takes place when electrons from the N-side cross the junction and recombine with the holes on the P side. Electrons are in the higher conduction band on the N side whereas holes are in the lower valence band on the P side. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 44
  45. 45. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle During recombination, some of the energy is given up in the form of heat and light. In the case of semiconductor materials like Gallium arsenide (GaAs), Gallium phosphide (GaP) and Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP) a greater percentage of energy is released during recombination and is given out in the form of light. LED emits no light when junction is reverse biased. • Capacitors • Resistors • Batteries • BC5478 (NPN transistors) • Buzzer • Camera • Frame • Motors • P-N junction diodes • Relays: Relays are simple switches which are operated both electrically and mechanically. Relays consist of a n electromagnet and also a set of contacts. The switching mechanism is carried out with the help of the electromagnet. There are also other operating principles for its working. But they differ according to their applications. Most of the devices have the application of relays. In this circuit a 12V magnetic relay is used. In magnetic relay, insulated copper wire coil is used to magnetize and attract the plunger .The plunger is normally connected to N/C terminal. A spring is connected to attract the plunger upper side. When output is received by relay, the plunger is attracted and the bulb glows. There are only four main parts in a relay. They are • Electromagnet Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 45
  46. 46. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle • Movable Armature • Switch point contacts • Spring Fig 20: Relay Construction It is an electro-magnetic relay with a wire coil, surrounded by an iron core. A path of very low reluctance for the magnetic flux is provided for the movable armature and also the switch point contacts. The movable armature is connected to the yoke which is mechanically connected to the switch point contacts. These parts are safely held with the help of a spring. The spring is used so as to produce an air gap in the circuit when the relay becomes de-energized. How relay works? Fig 21: Relay Design The diagram shows an inner section diagram of a relay. An iron core is surrounded by a control coil. Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 46
  47. 47. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle As shown, the power source is given to the electromagnet through a control switch and through contacts to the load. When current starts flowing through the control coil, the electromagnet starts energizing and thus intensifies the magnetic field. Thus the upper contact arm starts to be attracted to the lower fixed arm and thus closes the contacts causing a short circuit for the power to the load. On the other hand, if the relay was already de-energized when the contacts were closed, then the contact move oppositely and make an open circuit. As soon as the coil current is off, the movable armature will be returned by a force back to its initial position. This force will be almost equal to half the strength of the magnetic force. This force is mainly provided by two factors. They are the spring and also gravity. Relays are mainly made for two basic operations. One is low voltage application and the other is high voltage. For low voltage applications, more preference will be given to reduce the noise of the whole circuit. For high voltage applications, they are mainly designed to reduce a phenomenon called arcing. 5.2 SOFTWARE TOOLS • DipTrace: used for making layout of PCB. • Keil uVision 3: used for compilation of codes written in assembly language and convert them to HEX file which is finally burned into the microcontroller IC using uc flash USB Fig 22: Open Keil Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 47
  48. 48. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Fig 23: Make a new project Fig 24: Select the microcontroller Fig 25: Write the program Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 48
  49. 49. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Fig 26: Compile Fig 27: Simulate Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 49
  50. 50. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle CHAPTER-6 BREADBOARD AND PCB IMPLEMENTATION 6.1 BREADBOARD IMPLEMENTATION The three steps for implementing a breadboard are: Step 1 The Breadboard Connections Fig 28: Building Connections Breadboards consist of tiny "holes" in which the leads of the component connect into. Make sure that if you are using wire, use wire links, not the stranded wire, because it will crumple in the holes and damage your breadboard. The top and bottom rows (the rows indicated by the blue) and are usually the (+) and (-) power supply holes and these move horizontally across the breadboard, while the holes for the components move vertically. Each wire forms a node. A node is a point in a circuit where two components are connected. Connections between different components are formed by putting their legs in a common node. On the bread board, a node is the row of holes that are connected by the strip of metal underneath. The long top and bottom row of holes are usually used for power supply connections. Step 2 Connecting the ComponentsThe rest of the circuit is built by placing components and connecting them together with jumper wires. Fig 29: Connecting Components Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 50
  51. 51. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Step 3 Building a Circuit on the Breadboard Fig 30: Building a Circuit on the Breadboard The circuit schematic, and the layout on the breadboard will turn out entirely different. Anyone using a breadboard must focus on the connections rather than their place on the schematic. When you use switches or potentiometers, you must use single-core plastic-coated wire of 0.6mm diameter (the standard size). Stranded wire is not suitable because it will crumple when pushed into a hole and it may damage the board if strands break off. The rest of the circuit is built by placing components and connecting them together with jumper wires. 6.2 PHOTOGRAPH OF BREADBOARD Fig 31: Breadboard Implementation Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 51
  52. 52. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle 6.3 PCB IMPLEMENTATION It includes: PCB Layout: The PCB layout is a mirrored positive one - black on white. Mirrored as viewed from the silk screen top (component) side. PCB Preparation: The PCB layout paper is drenched with sunflower-seed oil. Sunflower-seed oil is common available from your local grocery or wall market. Superfluous oil should be removed carefully with tissue paper. The sunflower-seed oil is used to make the white part of the layout paper transparent for light. PCB UV Exposure: The protective plastic layer is removed. The PCB with the layout is now covered with an appropriate sized windowpane and placed on a piece of plain polished tile or marble. The tile or marble absorbs the heat coming from the UV bulb, which is significant. Three to four minutes 300W bulb UV exposure from a distance of 30-40 cm will do the photo process. Take care when finished and removing the PCB, it gets hot. PCB Development: The PCB is developed with a 1% solution of sodium hydroxide NaOH. You can make this solvent by adding 10 gram of sodium hydroxide pellets to 1 liter of water and mix it until everything is dissolved PCB Etching: The developed PCB is etched with a 220 g/l solution of ammonium peroxydisulfate (NH4)2S2O8, 220 gram added to 1 liter of water and move it until everything is dissolved. Finally, drilling and soldering is done. Fig 32: PCB Implementation CHAPTER-7 Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 52
  53. 53. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle APPLICATIONS • Fire Mishaps: In the event of a fire accident it is better to send the robot, than to send a human inside the affected area to, either search and rescue a person or for surveillance purposes. The arm can also be equipped with a fire extinguisher to put off the fire. • Bomb Detection: In the likely event of a bomb alert, this robotic arm can safely go, detect and diffuse the bomb instead of a human being risking his life. • In Bio Hazardous Areas: In areas where the probability of a chemical accident is more, like in a laboratory or in a factory, the robotic arm can be equipped with certain chemicals to stop the adverse diffusion/reaction of the chemicals. Cleaning bio hazardous debris is also one important activity in which the robotic arm can play a significant role. • In Space Explorations as Land Rover: Recent Chandryaan moon mission employs such robotic arms (a complete version of the robot), to survey the geographical and chemical composition of the surface of the Moon. NASA also has used such robots in its survey of Mars. The collected samples from the surface are then transported back to the space shuttle, from where other chemical tests are conducted, and results relayed back to Earth. • In Coal Mines: In coal mines it is quite natural that Methane gas leaks occurs. The robot can be equipped with a Methane gas sensor and warn the presence of said gas, without exposing humans to the danger. • For military purposes, locomotion, navigation etc. CHAPTER 8: Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 53
  54. 54. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS 8.1 ADVANTAGES • Wireless control. • Surveillance System. • Vehicle Navigation with use of 3G technology. • Takes in use of the mobile technology which is almost available everywhere. • This wireless device has no boundation of range and can be controlled as far as network of cell phone. 8.2 LIMITATIONS • Cell phone bill. • Mobile batteries drain out early so charging problem. • Cost of project if Cell phone cost included. • Not flexible with all cell phones as only a particular, cell phone whose earpiece is attached can only be used. CHAPTER 9 Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 54
  55. 55. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle FUTURE SCOPE • IR Sensors: IR sensors can be used to automatically detect & avoid obstacles if the robot goes beyond line of sight. This avoids damage to the vehicle if we are maneuvering it from a distant place. • Password Protection: Project can be modified in order to password protect the robot so that it can be operated only if correct password is entered. Either cell phone should be password protected or necessary modification should be made in the assembly language code. This introduces conditioned access &increases security to a great extent. • Alarm Phone Dialer: By replacing DTMF Decoder IC CM8870 by a DTMF Transceiver IC’ CM 8880, DTMF tones can be generated from the robot. So, a project called Alarm Phone Dialer can be built which will generate necessary alarms for something that is desired to be monitored (usually by triggering a relay). CHAPTER-10 Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 55
  56. 56. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle PROJECT COST It was approximately Rs 6000. COMPONENTS COST(in Rs) QUANTITY Frame Motors Camera Resistors Capacitors IC CM8870 IC 74LS04 Mobile Phone Batteries IC SN74HC245N IC AT89S52 LED’s Relay’s IC BC 5478 Buzzer Wheels PCB 300 200 1500 20 80 100 80 500 120 200 150 50 150 150 10 100 200 1 2 1 10 10 1 1 1 5 2 1 6 4 5 1 4 3 CHAPTER-11 Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 56
  57. 57. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle CONCLUSION The designing of Project has been an exhilarating and enriching experience. Here during the designing of Project I came to know about all the processes of designing of PCB related to Project, various machines, maintaining and designing of projects tempo to achieve best knowledge and keeping high knowledge of the project designing. I also tried to study about various projects prepared to achieve best experience about projects. To have knowledge of project designing and maintenance of the same in such a big quantum has been highly enriching to me. To sum up, I had come across all the processes related to the electronics Project designing and finally designed a robot which can be operated through mobile phones. CHAPTER-12 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 57
  58. 58. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Books: • Microprocessor Architecture by Ramesh S. Gaonkar . • Communication System by Tob & Shilling. • Microcontroller by K. J. Ayala. • Integrated Electronics by Millman & Hawlkiwas. Websites: • http://www.electronicsforu.com/electronicsforu/circuitarchives/view_article.a sp?sno=481&title%20= %20Cellphone+operated+land+rover&id=4675&article_type=2&b_type=new &ss=%20277013 • http://projectsworld.wordpress.com/2010/05/12/cell-phone-operated-land- rover-landrover • http://www.docstoc.com/docs/142515898/Mobile-controlled-robot-OR-Cell- phone-Operated-Land-rover-Robot • https://www.google.co.in/search? q=mobile+operated+land+rover&client=firefox- a&hl=en&rls=org.mozilla:en- US:official&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=SldoUb2CMcrirAfghI DACQ&ved=0CDQQsAQ&biw=1138&bih=479 • http://www.engineersgarage.com/contribution/cellphone-operated-land- rover-robot • http://123seminarsonly.com/Seminar-Reports/036/49627200-Mobile- Operated-Land-Rover.pdf • http://lighttruth.com/2013/03/09/mobile-operated-land-rover-using-dtmf/ • http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-cell-phone-operated-land-rover-full-report Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 58
  59. 59. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle • http://projectsbysuraj.blogspot.in/2012/07/mobile-control-robot-cell- phone.html • http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/aSGuest135003-1419026- presentation-1 • http://www.way2project.in/projects/wpcontent/uploads/2012/07/Cellphone _Land-Rover.pdf • http://www.scribd.com/doc/29733079/Cell-Phone-Operated-Robot-Report- With-Ckt-Diagram • http://allaboutelectronics.hpage.in/cellphone-operated-land-ROVER • http://theelectronicsproject.blogspot.in/2012/11/cell-phone-operated-land- rover.html Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 59
  60. 60. 3G Cum 2G Operated Unmanned Ground Vehicle Department of Electronics And Communication Engineering 60

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