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  2. THE SELF  Who are you?  What make you different from everyone else?  How do you describe yourself? How would you described yourself when you were 15 years old?  What features would you have emphasized?  What am I like as a person?
  3. An individual developing sense of self and uniqueness is a motivating force in life  What are understanding self, self-esteem & self-concept.  Types of Self-Esteem.  How to measure one self-esteem and self concept.  How do parent and peer relationships influences one self esteem.  Symptoms / indicators of low Self-Esteem.  Consequences of low Self-Esteem.  Four ways of Increasing Self-Esteem.  Benefits of Self-Esteem.  Conclusion.  Recommendations.
  4. What is understanding self?  Understanding self means understanding who really you are, and what makes you unique. The self cognitive presentation The substance and content of the individual self  Self understanding help to answer the question who are you? who am I? who is me?  Self understanding not only define and describe the attribute of self, it also evaluate those attributes that is, self esteem and self concept
  5. What is Self-Esteem?  Self esteem also referred to as self worth or self image > it is the global evaluative dimension of the self e.g. an adolescent might perceive that she is not a mere person but, a good, beautiful person and of course not all individual have an overall positive image of themselves .  Self esteem is how we value /what value we put on ourselves and how we perceive ourself. Opinions and beliefs we have about ourselves.  Your self esteem can affect whether you: like and value yourself as a person or not  sth. Self esteem encompasses beliefs about oneself as well as emotional status i.e. triumph, despair, pride, shame.
  6. Types of self esteem.  Self esteem it can be influenced by attitude about yourself your confidence, your identity, your sense of belonging and feeling confident in your abilities. Self-esteem can be high, low or somewhere in between 1. Your self-confidence Self-confidence is all about your sense of security you have in yourself and in your life. Having your needs met means you have things like a place to live, physical health, and stable finances. 2. Your identity Your sense of identity it is the knowledge you have about yourself. This can include your confidence in your body, your gender, your sexuality, your job, your beliefs, your culture, or anything else about yourself. It’s helpful to be confident in these things because they can help you understand what you need and what you want in life.
  7. 3. Feeling like you belong Belonging is all about feeling welcome and an active part of where we actually are in life, whether that’s in your school, your workplace, your family, or the other groups you’re a part of. Sometimes, if you don’t feel belonging in one group you’re in, like your workplace, you can find your sense of belonging in another group, like your family or friends. 4. Feeling confident in your abilities It’s important to feel confident in your abilities so that you can control what happens to you in life. If you’re confident in what you can do, you can handle big challenges and make the changes you need to make to respond to them. However, being confident in your abilities isn’t just about succeeding.
  8. Low self esteem Having low self-esteem might mean you aren’t confident in your abilities, your personality, or the value you bring to others in your life. Low self esteem might be caused by: • not feeling a sense of security in life • doubts about your gender, sexuality, or body • feeling like you don't belong with your family, friends, or colleagues.
  9. Good self esteem Having good self-esteem means you have positive beliefs about your abilities and your place in the world. It can be caused by: • Being confident in your ability to create change and withstand challenges in your life • A sense of confidence and pride in your identity • Feeling like you belong in your family, school, or group of friends
  10. What is self concept  Self concept refer to the domain specific evaluation of self.  Making self evaluation in domains such as academic, athletics, physical appearance etc. 1. Physical appearance, 2. Scholastic competence, 3. Social acceptance, 4. Behavioral conduct, 5. Athletic competence, 6. Close friendship, 7. Romantic appeal and 8. Job competence
  11. How to measure one self esteem and self concept.  The following are some of the ways one can measure self esteem and self concept: 1. By assessing the eight domains-specific of self. Using the Self Perception Profile for adolescents by Susan Harter 1989] The eight domains are; physical appearance, scholastic competence, social acceptance, behavioral conduct, athletic competence, close friendship, romantic appeal and job competence. Are some domains more closely linked to self esteem than the other? What is your powerful contributor to your self esteem? In Harter’s research ,for example ,global self esteem was correlated most strongly with physical appearance was .65 and .62. in USA and other countries like japan Germany Canada Ireland etc In another study adolescents’ concept of their physical attractiveness was the strongly predictor of their overall self esteem [lord &Eccles,1994]
  12. 2. By using behavioral indicators of self esteem Positive indicators  Gives others directives or commands  Use voice quality appropriate for situation  Expresses opinions  Sits with others during social activities  Work cooperatively in a group  Faces others when speaking or being spoken to  Maintains eye contacts during conversations  Initiate friendly contacts with others  Maintain comfortable space between self and others  Has little hesitation in speech ,speaks fluently  Negative indicators  Puts down others by teasing, name calling or gossiping  Uses gestures that are dramatic or out of context  Gives excuses for failure  Brags excessively about achievement skills appearance  Verbally puts self down; self depreciation  Engaging in inappropriate touching or avoids physical contact  Speaks too loudly, abruptly or in a dogmatic tone  Constantly comparing yourself with others
  13. How do parent, peer and school relationships influences one self esteem?  One research study found that family cohesiveness increased adolescent's self esteem over time. This family cohesiveness was based on: 1. The amount of time the family spent together, 2. The quality of coParents, peer and school contribute to development of one self esteem. mmunication and 3. The extent the adolescent was involved in family decision making. Other parent-child relationship factors that are closely related to increased adolescent's self esteem include: 1. Parental approval 2. Care and concern 3. Harmony in the family 4. Clear and fair rules in the family 5. Ability to express affection 6. Availability to/for help in times of need etc.  Peer approval and support from general peer group are strongly related to adolescents increased self esteem.  Teachers comments to the pupil e.g.
  14. Symptoms / indicators of low Self- Esteem.  Poor confidence  Feeling having little or no control over your life  Negative social comparison: comparing your self to people who they think are better than yourself. Social media comparison  Problem asking for what you need.  Worry after making any decision and self doubt of their opinion, what they think  Constant negative self talks, focusing on flaws rather than strength  Fear of failure hence avoid challenges, give up easily  Try to please others :people pleasing :focus on external validation
  15. Consequences of low Self-Esteem  Low self esteem has been linked to mental health issues such as anxiety, bulimia nervosa , panic disorder, social phobia stress etc.  Difficulty achieving your goals and forming health relationships.  May lead to be sensitive to criticism or rejection.  Makes someone to take things personally instead of shaking off negative feedback.  Research has shown that people with low self esteem often engage in behaviors that are design to help preserve their limited self worth ie acting sad and sulking=silent, morose
  16. Four ways of Increasing Self-Esteem 1) Identify the cause of low self esteem and the domain of competence important to self. 2) Face problems realistically honestly and nondefensively and try to cope with than to avoid. This produces favorably self evaluative thoughts which leads to self generated approval that raises self esteem. Unlike denial, deception and avoidance which produces self degenerating thoughts hence low self esteem. 3) Learn real skills that results to achievement. Foster your achievements. Know what task are important for achieving goals and have an experience in performing them. self efficacy is individual beliefs that they can master situations and produce positive outcome by ALBERT BANDURA. 4) Surround yourself with a supportive squad. find people who make you feel good.
  17. Other ways include:  Be nice to your self, write down things that you like about yourself. forgive, value and accept your self. Care for your self  Do what makes you happy, enjoy doing ,make deliberate time for that thing.  Celebrate the small stuff, victories and achievements.  Don’t compare yourself with others ,focus on your goals and achievements.  Remember nobody is perfect, be the best version of yourself.  Remember that every one makes mistakes, mistakes to learn from them.  Be pal, be considerate for others this make you.  Focus on what you can change.  Exercise helps improve your moods and also as a goal to accvhieve.
  18. Benefits of Self-Esteem.  high self-esteem generally have more success at school and work, better social relationships, improved mental and physical health, and less anti- social behavior.
  19. Conclusion  In a conclusion, self esteem plays an important roles in variety of areas in life, which having unhealthy self esteem can be such a serious problem hence the big term to carry home is to FIND WAYS>  TO GAIN CONFIDENCE IN YOURSELF  THERAPIES  Also self esteem plays an important role in your ability to pursue goals,develop your abilities and develop health relationship and general felling good about your self.  Every on in a while struggles with their confidence, low self esteem can make you susecptible to mental health condition such as anxiety  If you are experiencing symptoms of poor self esteem, help is available ,consider to take a step to seek for professional help or learn more about self concept self understanding and self esteem. A therapist can help you change the thoughts patterns that contribute to your self esteem. 
  20. 1. RECOMMEDATIONS to the: parents, peers, and to the individual 1. Since self concept develops from childhood parents should be trained about parenting styles that will improve self esteem of child for example the parent should promote child autonomous by supporting child activities that will promote independence of the child 2. Parents should be role models to their children that is parents should have high self esteem so that their children can emulate them. 3. Parents should be very keen to identify their child potential so as to promote recognize abilities at an early age and support the child early. 4. Parents should not discriminate children on bases of their physical appearance as this can have a negative impact to their self esteem and affect social interactions. To the peers give positive feedback and approval to your friends To the individual. Should seek therapeutic interventions. Surrounds yourself with supportive squad
  21. The End. Any Questions or Comments THANKYOU VERY MUCH