This is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online.                                                            ...
This Australian Handbook was prepared by Committee P-012, Hazardous Areas Competency                                      ...
HB 13—2007                                                                 Handbook                                       ...
HB 13—2007                                          2                                                                     ...
3                                         HB 13—2007                                                                 The r...
HB 13—2007                                                           4                                                    ...
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HB 13—2007                                                          6                                                     ...
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HB 13—2007                                                  8                                                             ...
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Hb 13 2007 electrical equipment for hazardous areas

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Hb 13 2007 electrical equipment for hazardous areas

  1. 1. This is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online. HB 13—2007 areas Handbook Electrical equipment for hazardous HB 13—2007
  2. 2. This Australian Handbook was prepared by Committee P-012, Hazardous Areas Competency Standards Advisory Panel. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 14 December 2007. This Handbook was published on 31 December 2007. The following are represented on Committee P-012: • Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry • Australian Coal Association • Australian Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers Association • Australian Industry Group • Australian Institute of Petroleum • Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association • Certification Interests (Australia) • Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources, Tas. • ElectroComms and Energy Utilities Industries Skills Council • Electrotechnology Industry Training Organisation • Energy Networks Association •This is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online. Engineers Australia • Institute of Electrical Inspectors • Institute of Instrumentation, Control and Automation Australia • Mining Electrical and Mining Mechanical Engineering Society • NSW Department of Primary Industries, Mineral Resources • New South Wales Grain Corporation • New Zealand Hazardous Areas Electrical Coordinating Committee • Simtars (Natural Resources, Mines and Water) • TAFE NSW • The Royal Australian Chemical Institute • WorkCover New South Wales Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the Committee. Keeping Standards up-to-date Australian Standards® are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued. Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been published since the Standard was published. Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can be found by visiting www.standards.org.au Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at mail@standards.org.au, or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.
  3. 3. HB 13—2007 Handbook Electrical equipment for hazardousThis is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online. areas Originated as HB 13—1988. Previous edition 2000. Fourth edition 2007. COPYRIGHT © Standards Australia All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the publisher. Published by Standards Australia GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia ISBN 0 7337 8514 X
  4. 4. HB 13—2007 2 PREFACE In the last decade there has been an increased awareness of the use of electrical equipment in potentially explosive gas and dust atmospheres. This has led to a substantial expansion of recognized explosion-protection techniques, construction and test specifications, codes of practice and safety legislation. The range of equipment is extensive, offering designs and types to suit specific situations. An incorrect selection or installation of equipment may prove to be not only a costly error, but also unsafe. Many people have an interest in the safe use of electrical equipment in hazardous areas— plant management, consulting engineers, manufacturers, electrical contractors, construction and maintenance personnel, electrical inspectors, workshops and insurance underwriters. The main objective of this Handbook is to provide a basis for understanding the principles involved in the identification of a hazardous area, relevant statutory requirements and the selection and installation, maintenance, testing, overhaul and repair of appropriate electrical equipment.This is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online. This Handbook also provides a basic introduction to the relevant Australian, New Zealand, Joint (Australian/New Zealand) and International Standards dealing with hazardous areas. During the 1990s two fundamental changes have occurred in the explosion-protected electrical equipment field, in Australia and New Zealand. The first took place in the early 1990s, when an Active Cooperation Agreement between Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand was signed for the preparation and marketing of Joint Standards (Australian/New Zealand). This Agreement came into effect on 1 July 1992 and since then several Joint Standards have been published within the Hazardous Areas field. While not all Australian Standards applicable to hazardous areas have progressed to Joint Standards status, almost all the Australian Standards that are not joint, are applicable in New Zealand either through citation in regulations, principally by NZECP 24, or through citation in Joint Standards. There are a small number of ‘New Zealand only’ Standards applicable to some aspects of hazardous areas, however they are generally not consistent with the homologous joint series and therefore should be considered as obsolescent Standards, which are retained for particular special applications. As a consequence of this, the term ‘Joint Standard’ should be read in this document to include all Standards referenced, whether or not they are official Joint Standards. Where a particular Standard does not have applicability in New Zealand that aspect will be highlighted in the text. In respect to Standards relating to competencies, there will be slight differences for New Zealand due to the differing competency and qualification frameworks; however these differences do not apply to the ‘technical’ aspects of the requirements and therefore the AS/NZS 4761 Series (EEHA Competency Standards) is fully applicable in New Zealand. The second major change was the strategic decision made by the Joint Committee EL-014 in December 1996, to adopt all the relevant IEC Standards and publish them as Joint Standards (AS/NZS).
  5. 5. 3 HB 13—2007 The rationale behind the adoption of the IEC Standards is: Australia and New Zealand are part of the global economy and must compete on such a basis and to allow freedom of trade. The IECEx Scheme permits apparatus certified in Member Countries of the Scheme to be used in Australia and New Zealand without further certification being required by an Australian or New Zealand testing laboratory (Section 7 for further details). At the same time the European countries, who now operate under the ATEX Directives and EN (CENELEC) Standards, are moving to adopt the IEC Standards. Leading up to the adoption of the IEC Standards as Joint Standards, both countries had considerable input into their formulation and it became clear that in the interests of rationalization there was no impediment from a technical or philosophical point of view in adopting the IEC Standards in their entirety. Due to the ongoing alignment with IEC Standards the term ‘equipment’ is being replaced by the term ‘apparatus’, in the most recent published Joint Standards (AS/NZS). In this Handbook you may find in some sections references to one or another of these terms, but they should be considered equivalent. Regarding the numbering of Standards in Australia and New Zealand, different patterns co- exist nowadays, and some examples are:This is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online. AS 2380.1 (valid in Australia and New Zealand) NZ 5425 (valid only in New Zealand) AS/NZS 3800 Joint Standard—Australia/New Zealand AS/NZS 60079.0 Joint Standard—Australia/New Zealand—adoption of IEC 60079-0 As the long term future of this Handbook is still being discussed by the relevant Committees—P-012, EL-014 and EL-023—and considering that most of the references are out of date, Committee P-012 decided to embark on a light revision just for updating the references. Therefore the changes introduced in this edition are basically those relating to the update of all the references included in this publication. Committee P-012—Hazardous Areas Competency Standards Advisory Panel has overseen the preparation of this Edition. The cooperation and assistance of CSE-Ex, Cooper Electrical Australia, Orica Engineering Ltd, Standards Australia and TAFE—NSW (Manufacturing and Engineering Education Services) in the preparation of photos, diagrams and figures (already used in the previous Edition) are recognized and highly appreciated. WARNING THE INFORMATION IN THIS HANDBOOK IS INTENDED ONLY AS A GUIDE TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE BACKGROUND AND PRINCIPLES IN THIS EXTREMELY COMPLEX FIELD OF ELECTROTECHNOLOGY. THIS INFORMATION DOES NOT PURPORT TO COVER ALL THE ISSUES THAT MAY ARISE IN THE DESIGN, SELECTION, INSTALLATION, TESTING, MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, OVERHAUL OR MODIFICATION OF EXPLOSION-PROTECTED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES CAN THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS HANDBOOK BE USED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE RELEVANT STANDARDS OR THE EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATION/APPROVAL DOCUMENTATION.
  6. 6. HB 13—2007 4 CONTENTS Page SECTION 1 WHAT IS A HAZARDOUS AREA? 1.1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 8 1.2 HAZARDOUS AREAS ............................................................................................... 8 1.3 CONDITIONS FOR AN EXPLOSION ....................................................................... 9 1.4 FLAMMABLE MATERIALS ..................................................................................... 9 1.5 PROPERTIES OF FLAMMABLE MATERIALS ..................................................... 10 1.6 IGNITION SOURCES............................................................................................... 18 1.7 TOXICITY ................................................................................................................ 23 SECTION 2 WHO IS RESPONSIBLE? 2.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 24 2.2 UNDERGROUND COAL MINING.......................................................................... 24 2.3 OTHER INDUSTRIES .............................................................................................. 25This is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online. 2.4 COMPETENCIES OF PERSONNEL........................................................................ 29 SECTION 3 THE IMPORTANCE OF STANDARDS 3.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 30 3.2 AUSTRALIAN, NEW ZEALAND AND JOINT STANDARDS (AS/NZS) ............. 30 3.3 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS........................................................................... 33 3.4 OTHER NATIONAL STANDARDS ........................................................................ 34 SECTION 4 CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS AREAS 4.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 36 4.2 RESPONSIBILITY ................................................................................................... 36 4.3 RELEVANT INFORMATION .................................................................................. 37 4.4 TYPE OF HAZARD.................................................................................................. 37 4.5 ZONES 0, 1 AND 2 (GASES) ................................................................................... 37 4.6 ZONES 20, 21 AND 22 (DUSTS) ............................................................................. 42 4.7 IMPLEMENTATION OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR GAS/VAPOUR AND DUST AREAS ................................................................................................. 46 4.8 SUMMARY OF AREA CLASSIFICATION............................................................. 48 SECTION 5 EXPLOSION-PROTECTION TECHNIQUES 5.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 49 5.2 EXPLOSION-PROTECTION TECHNIQUES .......................................................... 49 5.3 Ex d - FLAMEPROOF ENCLOSURE....................................................................... 51 5.4 Ex e - INCREASED SAFETY .................................................................................. 57 5.5 Ex i - INTRINSIC SAFETY ...................................................................................... 60 5.6 Ex m - ENCAPSULATION....................................................................................... 68 5.7 Ex n - NON-SPARKING ........................................................................................... 68 5.8 Ex o - OIL-IMMERSION .......................................................................................... 70 5.9 Ex p - PRESSURIZED ROOMS OR PRESSURIZED ENCLOSURES..................... 70 5.10 Ex q -POWDER-FILLING ........................................................................................ 73 5.11 Ex s - SPECIAL PROTECTION................................................................................ 73 5.12 Ex v - VENTILATION .............................................................................................. 74 5.13 Ex h - HERMETIC SEALING................................................................................... 75 5.14 Ext ‘tD PROTECTION BY ENCOSURE Ex ‘tD’ (DIP) - DUST IGNITION PROTECTION .......................................................................................................... 75 5.15 MIXED TECHNIQUES ............................................................................................ 79
  7. 7. 5 HB 13—2007 SECTION 6 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR EXPLOSION-PROTECTION TECHNIQUES AND REQUIREMENTS OF OTHER RELEVANT STANDARDS 6.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 81 6.2 AS 2380.1 AND AS/NZS 60079.0—GENERAL REQUIREMENTS........................ 81 6.3 DEGREES OF PROTECTION (IP CODE) ............................................................... 85 6.4 CABLE GLANDS ..................................................................................................... 88 6.5 ELECTRICALLY HEATED OVENS ....................................................................... 89 6.6 BATTERY OPERATED VEHICLES........................................................................ 89 6.7 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS OF DISPENSING APPARATUS ................................... 90 6.8 ELECTROSTATIC PAINT AND POWDER SPRAY GUNS ................................... 90 6.9 GAS DETECTION INSTRUMENTS ....................................................................... 90 6.10 UNDERGROUND COAL MINING.......................................................................... 91 SECTION 7 CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL OF APPARATUS 7.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 92 7.2 CERTIFICATION/APPROVAL OF Ex EQUIPMENT IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND ...................................................................................................... 93 7.3 THE IECEx SCHEME............................................................................................... 97This is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online. 7.4 OVERSEAS TESTING AND CERTIFICATION, OUTSIDE THE IECEx SCHEME................................................................................................................. 101 7.5 APPROVED MINING EQUIPMENT ..................................................................... 102 7.6 EXEMPTION FROM CERTIFICATION................................................................ 105 7.7 PERSONAL EQUIPMENT ..................................................................................... 105 SECTION 8 SELECTION OF APPARATUS 8.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 106 8.2 APPARATUS FOR GASES ................................................................................... 107 8.3 APPARATUS FOR DUSTS .................................................................................... 113 8.4 APPARATUS ABOVE A HAZARDOUS AREA ................................................... 114 8.5 APPARATUS NOT PERMITTED .......................................................................... 115 8.6 SELECTION OF REPAIRED OR EXISTING EQUIPMENT................................. 115 SECTION 9 INSTALLATION OF EXPLOSION-PROTECTION APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS 9.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 117 9.2 GENERAL INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS .................................................. 117 9.3 PROTECTION AND ISOLATION OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS ........... 118 9.4 COMPONENTS OF AN INSTALLATION............................................................. 119 9.5 WIRING SYSTEMS................................................................................................ 120 9.6 INSTALLATIONS IN ZONE 0 AREAS ................................................................. 122 9.7 INSTALLATIONS IN ZONE 1 AND ZONE 2 AREAS ......................................... 123 9.8 INTRINSICALLY SAFE ELECTRICAL APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS ........... 123 9.9 FLAMEPROOF ELECTRICAL APPARATUS....................................................... 125 9.10 INCREASED SAFETY ELECTRICAL APPARATUS........................................... 127 9.11 INSTALLATIONS IN ZONE 20, 21 AND 22 AREAS ........................................... 129 9.12 SPECIFIC OCCUPANCIES .................................................................................... 130 9.13 VERIFICATION DOSSIER .................................................................................... 131 9.14 PRE-COMMISSIONING INSPECTION AND TESTING ...................................... 132 SECTION 10 MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTIONS 10.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 134 10.2 USE OF GAS DETECTORS ................................................................................... 134 10.3 QUALIFICATIONS OF PERSONS CARRYING OUT INSPECTIONS AND MAINTENANCE .................................................................................................... 134
  8. 8. HB 13—2007 6 10.4 RELEVANT STANDARDS.................................................................................... 134 10.5 STATUTORY REGULATIONS ............................................................................. 135 10.6 CURRENT STANDARDS ...................................................................................... 135 10.7 IMPORTANT MAINTENANCE ASPECTS........................................................... 135 10.8 RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................................... 145 SECTION 11 TESTING AND FAULT FINDING 11.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 148 11.2 TESTING INTRINSICALLY SAFE SYSTEMS ..................................................... 148 11.3 TESTING OF EXPLOSION-PROTECTED ELECTRICAL APPARATUS OTHER THAN INTRINSICALLY SAFE APPARATUS ....................................... 149 11.4 TESTS IN THE SAFE AREA ................................................................................. 149 11.5 PORTABLE APPARATUS..................................................................................... 149 11.6 FAULT FINDING ................................................................................................... 150 11.7 TYPICAL USES AND RESTRICTIONS OF USE OF TEST APPARATUS.......... 150 SECTION 12 OVERHAUL AND REPAIR 12.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 159 12.2 OVERHAULS ......................................................................................................... 159This is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online. 12.3 TRACEABILITY/MARKING................................................................................. 160 12.4 MINIMUM MARKING........................................................................................... 160 12.5 SUBSEQUENT OVERHAULS............................................................................... 160 12.6 OVERHAUL CERTIFICATE ................................................................................. 160 12.7 SCOPE OF WORK.................................................................................................. 160 12.8 REPAIR OR REPLACE .......................................................................................... 161 12.9 REPAIR WORK NOT AFFECTING THE EXPLOSION-PROTECTION INTEGRITY............................................................................................................ 162 SECTION 13 CERTIFIED /ACCREDITED WORKSHOPS 13.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 163 13.2 THE CERTIFIED/ACCREDITED WORKSHOP.................................................... 163 13.3 TYPES OF WORKSHOPS...................................................................................... 163 13.4 PERSONNEL .......................................................................................................... 163 13.5 FACILITIES............................................................................................................ 163 13.6 EXAMPLE OF A VERIFICATION SCHEME PROGRAM FOR WORKSHOP CAPABILITIES ...................................................................................................... 164 13.7 THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMPETENT PERSONS...................................... 165 13.8 RECORDS............................................................................................................... 166 13.9 MARKING .............................................................................................................. 166 13.10 CONDITIONS FOR APPARATUS RELEASE....................................................... 166 13.11 IECEx CERTIFIED SERVICE FACILITIES PROGRAM ...................................... 166 SECTION 14 GAS DETECTORS 14.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 167 14.2 WHAT IS THE MAKE-UP OF THE ATMOSPHERE AROUND US?................... 168 14.3 SOME COMMON PROPERTIES OF GASES AND VAPOURS ........................... 169 14.4 THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GASES AND VAPOURS ................................. 170 14.5 APPLICABLE STANDARDS FOR EXPLOSION-PROTECTION AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF GAS AND VAPOUR DETECTORS .................................. 171 14.6 APPARATUS MARKING ...................................................................................... 172 14.7 GAS AND VAPOUR DETECTORS TESTED IN AUSTRALIA PRIOR TO 2000 173 14.8 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES IN THE USE OF COMBUSTIBLE GAS AND VAPOUR INSTRUMENTS ................................................................................... 173 14.9 THE INSTRUMENT INSTRUCTION MANUAL .................................................. 175
  9. 9. 7 HB 13—2007 14.10 SUMMARY OF VARIATIONS TO VAPOUR HAZARDS, DUE TO TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND OTHER FACTORS. ...................................... 176 14.11 SOME COMMON TERMS USED WITH TOXIC GASES AND VAPOURS ........ 177 14.12 SAFETY WHEN USING A GAS DETECTOR IN A HAZARDOUS AREA ......... 179 14.13 OXYGEN DEFICIENCY ........................................................................................ 180 14.14 SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS WHEN USING A HIRED, BORROWED, OR OTHERWISE UNFAMILIAR GAS OR VAPOUR DETECTOR............................ 182 14.15 THE ‘READ AND RUN’ CONCEPT FOR INEXPERIENCED OPERATORS ...... 182 14.16 THE CATALYTIC COMBUSTION DETECTION TECHNIQUE.......................... 183 14.17 CONTAMINATION OF GAS DETECTION SYSTEMS BY LIQUIDS ................. 184 14.18 SOME CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT FLASHPOINT AND TEMPERATURE...... 185 14.19 SOME INSTALLATION ‘DOs’ AND ‘DO NOTs’ OF PERMANENT GAS DETECTION .......................................................................................................... 186 14.20 SUMMARY ............................................................................................................ 188 APPENDICES A RELEVANT GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY BODIES ................................... 189 B AUSTRALIAN, NEW ZEALAND AND JOINT STANDARDS (AS/NZS) ........... 198 C RELEVANT OVERSEAS STANDARDS............................................................... 203This is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online. D TESTING STATIONS, CERTIFYING AUTHORITIES AND STANDARDS BODIES .................................................................................................................. 207
  10. 10. HB 13—2007 8 STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Australian Standard Electrical equipment for hazardous areas SECT ION 1 WHAT IS A HA ZARDO US AREA? 1.1 INTRODUCTION There is a danger of an explosion or fire occurring wherever flammable or combustible materials are handled. This is graphically illustrated by the dreadful toll taken by coal mining explosions in the past. For example in England in the last century hundreds of lives were lost every year. The hazard today exists not only in the coal mining industry but also in many other industries. Major industries include the petrochemical, pharmaceutical, chemical, sewageThis is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online. treatment, and grain handling industries. In 1866, in a series of explosions in the Oaks Colliery, 361 people were killed in one accident alone. In 1988 the Piper Alpha oil and gas platform in the North Sea caught fire and exploded killing 167 workers. Smaller industries involve such areas as paint shops and dry-cleaning premises. In many cases the hazards occur in areas frequented by the public, for example petrol service stations. In all these situations, electricity is used. Where it is necessary to use electrical apparatus in an environment in which there may be an explosion it is essential that measures are taken to eliminate the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere occurring around any source of ignition or limiting the possibility of an ignition source, (e.g. arcs, sparks or hot surfaces) occurring. To prevent any of the electrical apparatus becoming a source of ignition for an explosion, special precautions have to be taken in the design, construction, selection, installation and maintenance of such apparatus. Many incidents around the world have driven governments into establishing regulating bodies and appropriate Standards and codes of practice. The codes of practice and appropriate Standards must be adhered to, for it is not the many tasks performed correctly but the one task performed incorrectly that could cause death, injury and plant destruction. 1.2 HAZARDOUS AREAS A hazardous area is defined as an area in which an explosive atmosphere is present, or may be expected to be present, in quantities such as to require special precautions for the construction, installation, and use of potential ignition sources. The explosive atmosphere may be caused by the presence of a flammable liquid, gas or vapour or by the presence of combustible dust in suspension or in layers or a combination of explosive gas and dust atmospheres. In the design of industrial plants, every effort is usually made to minimize the extent of hazardous areas but it may be difficult to ensure that an explosive atmosphere will never occur. Incorrect design of the plant may result in the occurrence of small, local fireballs which could ignite other flammable materials and lead to extensive damage to the whole plant, adverse effects to the environment and serious injuries to personnel. © Standards Australia www.standards.org.au
  11. 11. This is a free preview. Purchase the entire publication at the link below: HB 13-2007 Electrical equipment for hazardous areasThis is a free 10 page sample. Access the full version online. Looking for additional Standards? Visit SAI Global Infostore Subscribe to our Free Newsletters about Australian Standards® in Legislation; ISO, IEC, BSI and more Do you need to Manage Standards Collections Online? Learn about LexConnect, All Jurisdictions, Standards referenced in Australian legislation Do you want to know when a Standard has changed? Want to become an SAI Global Standards Sales Affiliate? Learn about other SAI Global Services: LOGICOM Military Parts and Supplier Database Metals Infobase Database of Metal Grades, Standards and Manufacturers Materials Infobase Database of Materials, Standards and Suppliers Database of European Law, CELEX and Court Decisions Need to speak with a Customer Service Representative - Contact Us

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