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What to learn?
• Who are the Rajputs?
• Character of Rajput Society
• Strengths of Rajputs
• Weakness of Rajputs
• Rajput Coins
• Culture
• Architecture
Who are the Rajputs?
• Traditionally, they are traced to
Solar, lunar dynasties & also to a
sacrificial fire at Mount Abu
• In reality, different Rajput clans
have different origins:
1. Scythians
2. Hunas
3. Indigenous tribes
• All ruling class belonging to
various castes began to be
termed as Rajputs
• They took over the declining
Prathihara empire through the
formation of a number of states.
1. Gahadavalas of Kannauj
2. Paramaras of Malwa
3. Chauhans of Ajmer
4. Kalachuris of Jabalpur
5. Chandellas of Bundhelkhand
6. Tomars of Delhi
Character of Rajput Society
• Every Rajput society is based on
a clan
• They trace their origin to a real
of an imaginary ancestor
• Attachment to land, family and
honour was a characteristic of
Rajputs
• Territory sometimes compose of
units of 12, 24, 48 or 84 villages
• Rajput states are ruled by
rulers in conjunction with their
chiefs (blood brothers).
• The chief would allot land for
individual Rajput warriors.
• The warriors may use the land
for maintaining their family
and horses.
• Land once allotted is seldom
taken back by the ruler
Strengths of Rajputs
• Sense of brotherhood
• Egalitarianism
• Bravery and valour
Weakness of Rajputs
• Egalitarianism made it difficult
to discipline the warriors
• Feuds lasting several generation
• Formation of exclusive groups
• Groups claiming superiority over
others
• Not ready to extend the sense of
brotherhood to NonRajputs
• They treated war as a sport
• Continuous warfare among
themselves and with
neighbours
• They protected Brahmana
supremacy by force which
invited resentment among
lower castes
• Rajput society was highly
discriminatory in nature
Rajput Coins
• The coins issued by the Rajput
dynasties were mostly of gold,
copper or billon (an alloy of silver
and copper)but very rarely silver.
• There were two types of Rajput
coinage.
1. One type showed the ‘name of
the king in Sanskrit on one side
and a goddess on the other side.
2. The other type of silver coins that
had a seated bull on one side and
a horseman on the other.
Culture
• They patronised Hinduism
and templebuilding
(Nagara Style)
• They also patronised
Sanskrit, Prakrit and
scholars
• Modern languages such as
Hindi, Bengali and Marathi
became popular
languages
Nagara Style Architecture
• Developed from the 5th Century
AD.
• The temples generally followed
the Panchayatan style of temple
making.
• Presence of assembly halls or
mandaps in front of the principal
shrine.
• Outside the garbhagriha, images
of the river goddesses, Ganga
and Yamuna, were placed
• There were no water
tanks or reservoirs
present in the temple
premises.
• The temples were
generally built on
upraised platforms.
• The ambulatory
passageway or the
pradakshina path around
the sanctum sanctorum
was covered.
• Generally, the temple premises did not have
elaborate boundary walls or gateways.
• Under the Nagara School, there were three
sub-schools:
1. Odisha School
2. Khajuraho School
3. Solanki School
Nagara Style Architecture – Sun
Temple at Konark
Nagara Style – Vishwanatha Temple,
Khajuraho
Nagara Style - Modhera Sun temple,
Gujarat - Solanki School
Invaders
What to learn?
• Developments in the Middle East
• Who are Ghaznavids?
• Mahmud of Ghazni
• Was Mahmud a barbarian?
• Hindu-Muslim interactions
• Changes in Central Asian Politics
• Battle of Tarain I & II
• Path to Sultanate
• Were Ghazni & Ghuri Radical Islamists?
• Why did the Rajputs lose?
Developments in the Middle East
• The restlessness in the
middle east (due to strife
between different Muslim
sects & constant Turkish
attacks on Muslim states)
• Rise of Ghazi Spirit
• Islamization of Turks
• Turks became the greatest
defenders of Islam
• Defending of Islam & Love
of Plunder went side by
side
Ghaznavids ruled region
Who are Ghaznavids?
• Ghaznavids were Islamized Turks who were
defending Islamic lands from Non-Islamic
Central Asian Tribes
• Mahmud Ghazni was a Ghaznavid king who
fought against Turkish invaders
• The Ghazi Spirit rises even higher under
Mahmud
• Iranian Spirit also rose under Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
• Apart from defending his
lands, Mahmud fought on
the east with Indian rulers.
• He warred with Hindushahi
rulers (Jayapala) and rulers
belonging to opposing
Islamic sects
• They were all defeated and
annexed by Mahmud
• Subsequently he started
raiding rich Hindu temples
for plunder
• His raids were primarily focused
on garnering resources for his
fight against central Asian tribes
in the north
• Also, he did not want the Indian
rulers to regroup against him.
• Ghazi Soldiers came in handy to
fight Hindu Rulers
• He proved to be a great but-
Shikan (Destroyer of Idols)
• He plundered Kannauj,
Somnath & Mathura, Thanesar
among other places
Was Mahmud a barbarian?
• Not necessarily
• He made no attempts to annex any of those
territories
• He never encountered any serious resistance
• There was no strong state in existence at that
time.
• There was no unity among the states either.
• After the death of Mahmud, the Ghaznavid
empire declined
Hindu-Muslim interactions
• The Hindu Muslim relations
during the time of Ghaznavid
plunder had 2 distinct patterns
1. Lure of plunder -> constant
conflict with Rajputs
2. Welcoming of Muslim
traders -> to improve trade
with middle east and Central
Asia (Sufis also entered
India)
• Interaction between the 2
religions started.
Changes in Central Asian Politics
• Khwarizmis & Ghurids rose as
powerful tribes.
• Ghurids were vassals of Ghazni
• Khwarizmis were more powerful &
captured Khorasan
• The Ghurids were forced to turn
towards India
• Muizzuddin Muhammad (Ghori)
tried invading India
• At the very same time, a young
brave lad aged 16 was rising in
power
Battle which modified Indian History
Battle of Tarain I & II
• Muizzuddin Muhammad & Pritiviraja
Fought in 1191
• Ghurid forces were routed and
Muizzuddin escaped
• 2 nd Battle took place a year later
(1192).
• Muizzuddin had made careful
preparations and regrouped his
soldiers well.
• Pritiviraja appealed to fellow Rajputs
to aid him defeat a Muslim ruler
• Nevertheless, he did not get help and
lost.
• Pritiviraja was allowed to rule over
Ajmer for sometime, but he was later
executed
Path to Sultanate
• Muizzuddin hands over the affairs
of India to his able slave Qutbuddin
Aibak and goes back to Ghazni
• Aibak and Bakhtiyar Khalji
expanded Turkish rule in India
• Muizzuddin was trying to expand
the Turkish rule in Central Asia
• After facing defeat at the hands of
Khwarizmi rulers Muizzuddin bids
goodbye to his Central Asian
Ambition.
• He now decides to focus exclusively
on India.
Were Ghazni & Ghuri Radical
Islamists?
• Not necessarily
• They certainly used the
Ghazi Spirit to their benefit
• They were not concerned
with spreading of religion
• Once a ruler submitted,
they are usually led to rule
over his territories
• Hindu officers were
recruited into their army
Nevertheless, within 15 years,
Turkish army had defeated
almost all major North India
states
Why did the Rajputs lose?
• Social and political weakness
• Backwardness of economy &
military
• Rajput’s treated was as a sport
• They impractical virtues
• Rise of feudalism weakened the
Rajputs
• Whereas the tribal nature of
Turks helped them win wars
• Rajputs lacked mounted
archers
• Turks were organised in a superior fashion
• They had Iqta and Khalisa system => Large
standing army
• Turkish horses were sturdier
• Indians otherwise had superior weapons and yet
they lost
• Rajputs always tried to defend and never made
the offensive against the Turks
• To put it simply: they lacked a Strategic Vision

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Rajput , invaders

  • 1.
  • 2. What to learn? • Who are the Rajputs? • Character of Rajput Society • Strengths of Rajputs • Weakness of Rajputs • Rajput Coins • Culture • Architecture
  • 3. Who are the Rajputs? • Traditionally, they are traced to Solar, lunar dynasties & also to a sacrificial fire at Mount Abu • In reality, different Rajput clans have different origins: 1. Scythians 2. Hunas 3. Indigenous tribes • All ruling class belonging to various castes began to be termed as Rajputs
  • 4. • They took over the declining Prathihara empire through the formation of a number of states. 1. Gahadavalas of Kannauj 2. Paramaras of Malwa 3. Chauhans of Ajmer 4. Kalachuris of Jabalpur 5. Chandellas of Bundhelkhand 6. Tomars of Delhi
  • 5. Character of Rajput Society • Every Rajput society is based on a clan • They trace their origin to a real of an imaginary ancestor • Attachment to land, family and honour was a characteristic of Rajputs • Territory sometimes compose of units of 12, 24, 48 or 84 villages
  • 6. • Rajput states are ruled by rulers in conjunction with their chiefs (blood brothers). • The chief would allot land for individual Rajput warriors. • The warriors may use the land for maintaining their family and horses. • Land once allotted is seldom taken back by the ruler
  • 7. Strengths of Rajputs • Sense of brotherhood • Egalitarianism • Bravery and valour
  • 8. Weakness of Rajputs • Egalitarianism made it difficult to discipline the warriors • Feuds lasting several generation • Formation of exclusive groups • Groups claiming superiority over others • Not ready to extend the sense of brotherhood to NonRajputs
  • 9. • They treated war as a sport • Continuous warfare among themselves and with neighbours • They protected Brahmana supremacy by force which invited resentment among lower castes • Rajput society was highly discriminatory in nature
  • 10. Rajput Coins • The coins issued by the Rajput dynasties were mostly of gold, copper or billon (an alloy of silver and copper)but very rarely silver. • There were two types of Rajput coinage. 1. One type showed the ‘name of the king in Sanskrit on one side and a goddess on the other side. 2. The other type of silver coins that had a seated bull on one side and a horseman on the other.
  • 11. Culture • They patronised Hinduism and templebuilding (Nagara Style) • They also patronised Sanskrit, Prakrit and scholars • Modern languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Marathi became popular languages
  • 12. Nagara Style Architecture • Developed from the 5th Century AD. • The temples generally followed the Panchayatan style of temple making. • Presence of assembly halls or mandaps in front of the principal shrine. • Outside the garbhagriha, images of the river goddesses, Ganga and Yamuna, were placed
  • 13. • There were no water tanks or reservoirs present in the temple premises. • The temples were generally built on upraised platforms. • The ambulatory passageway or the pradakshina path around the sanctum sanctorum was covered.
  • 14. • Generally, the temple premises did not have elaborate boundary walls or gateways. • Under the Nagara School, there were three sub-schools: 1. Odisha School 2. Khajuraho School 3. Solanki School
  • 15. Nagara Style Architecture – Sun Temple at Konark
  • 16. Nagara Style – Vishwanatha Temple, Khajuraho
  • 17. Nagara Style - Modhera Sun temple, Gujarat - Solanki School
  • 19. What to learn? • Developments in the Middle East • Who are Ghaznavids? • Mahmud of Ghazni • Was Mahmud a barbarian? • Hindu-Muslim interactions • Changes in Central Asian Politics • Battle of Tarain I & II • Path to Sultanate • Were Ghazni & Ghuri Radical Islamists? • Why did the Rajputs lose?
  • 20.
  • 21. Developments in the Middle East • The restlessness in the middle east (due to strife between different Muslim sects & constant Turkish attacks on Muslim states) • Rise of Ghazi Spirit • Islamization of Turks • Turks became the greatest defenders of Islam • Defending of Islam & Love of Plunder went side by side
  • 23. Who are Ghaznavids? • Ghaznavids were Islamized Turks who were defending Islamic lands from Non-Islamic Central Asian Tribes • Mahmud Ghazni was a Ghaznavid king who fought against Turkish invaders • The Ghazi Spirit rises even higher under Mahmud • Iranian Spirit also rose under Ghazni
  • 24. Mahmud of Ghazni • Apart from defending his lands, Mahmud fought on the east with Indian rulers. • He warred with Hindushahi rulers (Jayapala) and rulers belonging to opposing Islamic sects • They were all defeated and annexed by Mahmud • Subsequently he started raiding rich Hindu temples for plunder
  • 25. • His raids were primarily focused on garnering resources for his fight against central Asian tribes in the north • Also, he did not want the Indian rulers to regroup against him. • Ghazi Soldiers came in handy to fight Hindu Rulers • He proved to be a great but- Shikan (Destroyer of Idols) • He plundered Kannauj, Somnath & Mathura, Thanesar among other places
  • 26. Was Mahmud a barbarian? • Not necessarily • He made no attempts to annex any of those territories • He never encountered any serious resistance • There was no strong state in existence at that time. • There was no unity among the states either. • After the death of Mahmud, the Ghaznavid empire declined
  • 27. Hindu-Muslim interactions • The Hindu Muslim relations during the time of Ghaznavid plunder had 2 distinct patterns 1. Lure of plunder -> constant conflict with Rajputs 2. Welcoming of Muslim traders -> to improve trade with middle east and Central Asia (Sufis also entered India) • Interaction between the 2 religions started.
  • 28. Changes in Central Asian Politics • Khwarizmis & Ghurids rose as powerful tribes. • Ghurids were vassals of Ghazni • Khwarizmis were more powerful & captured Khorasan • The Ghurids were forced to turn towards India • Muizzuddin Muhammad (Ghori) tried invading India • At the very same time, a young brave lad aged 16 was rising in power
  • 29. Battle which modified Indian History
  • 30. Battle of Tarain I & II • Muizzuddin Muhammad & Pritiviraja Fought in 1191 • Ghurid forces were routed and Muizzuddin escaped • 2 nd Battle took place a year later (1192). • Muizzuddin had made careful preparations and regrouped his soldiers well. • Pritiviraja appealed to fellow Rajputs to aid him defeat a Muslim ruler • Nevertheless, he did not get help and lost. • Pritiviraja was allowed to rule over Ajmer for sometime, but he was later executed
  • 31. Path to Sultanate • Muizzuddin hands over the affairs of India to his able slave Qutbuddin Aibak and goes back to Ghazni • Aibak and Bakhtiyar Khalji expanded Turkish rule in India • Muizzuddin was trying to expand the Turkish rule in Central Asia • After facing defeat at the hands of Khwarizmi rulers Muizzuddin bids goodbye to his Central Asian Ambition. • He now decides to focus exclusively on India.
  • 32. Were Ghazni & Ghuri Radical Islamists? • Not necessarily • They certainly used the Ghazi Spirit to their benefit • They were not concerned with spreading of religion • Once a ruler submitted, they are usually led to rule over his territories • Hindu officers were recruited into their army Nevertheless, within 15 years, Turkish army had defeated almost all major North India states
  • 33. Why did the Rajputs lose? • Social and political weakness • Backwardness of economy & military • Rajput’s treated was as a sport • They impractical virtues • Rise of feudalism weakened the Rajputs • Whereas the tribal nature of Turks helped them win wars • Rajputs lacked mounted archers
  • 34. • Turks were organised in a superior fashion • They had Iqta and Khalisa system => Large standing army • Turkish horses were sturdier • Indians otherwise had superior weapons and yet they lost • Rajputs always tried to defend and never made the offensive against the Turks • To put it simply: they lacked a Strategic Vision