Recent Mass Mortality EventsAffecting Pacific Oysters in Europe               Mike Gubbins          Fish health Inspectora...
Officially Reported* Mortalities in France                  During 2008HistologyNo listed diseaseBacteriologyVibrio aestua...
Officially Reported Mortalities in France                  During 2008BacteriologyVibrio aestuarianusV. Splendidus* IFREME...
Officially Reported Mortalities in France                  During 2008BacteriologyVibrio harveyii* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OI...
Officially Reported Mortalities in France                  During 2008   Virology   OsHV-1* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OIE) 2008...
Identification of OsHV-1 in 2008            OsHV-1 µvar            OsHV-1            Both* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OIE) 2008,...
Identification of OsHV-1 in 2008            OsHV-1 µvar            OsHV-1            Both* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OIE) 2008,...
Control Measures•   No movement control inside the    country in 2008•   Surveillance outside    containment and/or buffer...
Spread of Mortality• Greater than usual mortalities appear to  be linked to shellfish introductions• Evidence of spread to...
Increased Mortality in Republic of          Ireland 2008                         • 3 reports of abnormal                  ...
Historical Perspective on OsHV-1•   First indication of herpesvirus in oysters    in1972•   1991 associated with high mort...
Historical Perspective on OsHV-1•   Found world wide•   Often, but not always, associated with    “summer mortality”
An Emerging Biotype of OsHV-1?• 2008 - 42% new biotype• 2009 - 100% new biotype• OsHV-1 µvar in the past?• 38 batches of o...
An Emerging Biotype of OsHV-1?• 2008 - 42% new biotype• 2009 - 100% new biotype• OsHV-1 µvar in the past?• 38 batches of o...
Sequence differences between the µVar OsHV(PM09162)and OsHV-1 in the C2/C6regionPM09162           AAAAGTTG GGATAATGAT TTTA...
2009
Officially Reported* Mortalities in France                During 2009     Reported in May* IFREMER 2010, WAHID (OIE) 2009
Officially Reported* Mortalities in France                During 2009     Reported in May      Reported in June* IFREMER 2...
Officially Reported* Mortalities in France                During 2009          OsHV-1 µvar* IFREMER 2010, WAHID (OIE) 2009
Identification of OsHV-1 in 2008            OsHV-1 µvar            OsHV-1            Both* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OIE) 2008,...
Control Measures• Controls limited to juveniles from affected  areas?• Only whilst mortality event causes more  than 15% l...
Spread of Mortality• Greater than usual mortalities appear to  be linked to shellfish introductions• Evidence of spread to...
2009movements for farming/purification                                     Key                      Purification          ...
Increased Mortality in the Republic        of Ireland in 2009                • 35 samples from 17 sites                • 3...
Increased Mortality in Jersey       Started in June       Affected only Pacific oysters       Up to 68% mortality       Se...
Disease Investigation•   Samples from Jersey (mortality event)•   Vibrios found – of significance?•   PCR positive for OsH...
Initial Survey of England and Wales• High risk sites sampled• 3 Mortality events  investigated• No evidence for OsHV-1
Introduction of Community        Measures             ?
Introduction of Community        Measures
Introduction of Community        Measures
2010?Official reportsSo far (May) 2 official reports
Monitoring ProgrammesOyster herpesvirus surveillance 2010   Crassostrea gigas Site                                       1...
Mike Gubbins (CEFAS) – Recent Mass Mortality Events Affecting Farmed Pacific Oysters in Europe (2009)
Mike Gubbins (CEFAS) – Recent Mass Mortality Events Affecting Farmed Pacific Oysters in Europe (2009)
Mike Gubbins (CEFAS) – Recent Mass Mortality Events Affecting Farmed Pacific Oysters in Europe (2009)
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Mike Gubbins (CEFAS) – Recent Mass Mortality Events Affecting Farmed Pacific Oysters in Europe (2009)

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Mike Gubbins (CEFAS) – Recent Mass Mortality Events Affecting Farmed Pacific Oysters in Europe (2009)

  1. 1. Recent Mass Mortality EventsAffecting Pacific Oysters in Europe Mike Gubbins Fish health Inspectorate Cefas Weymouth
  2. 2. Officially Reported* Mortalities in France During 2008HistologyNo listed diseaseBacteriologyVibrio aestuarianusV. SplendidusV. harveyiiVirologyOsHV inmanysamples* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OIE) 2008, 2009
  3. 3. Officially Reported Mortalities in France During 2008BacteriologyVibrio aestuarianusV. Splendidus* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OIE) 2008, 2009
  4. 4. Officially Reported Mortalities in France During 2008BacteriologyVibrio harveyii* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OIE) 2008, 2009
  5. 5. Officially Reported Mortalities in France During 2008 Virology OsHV-1* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OIE) 2008, 2009
  6. 6. Identification of OsHV-1 in 2008 OsHV-1 µvar OsHV-1 Both* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OIE) 2008, 2009
  7. 7. Identification of OsHV-1 in 2008 OsHV-1 µvar OsHV-1 Both* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OIE) 2008, 2009
  8. 8. Control Measures• No movement control inside the country in 2008• Surveillance outside containment and/or buffer zone• Surveillance within containment and/or buffer zone• No treatments
  9. 9. Spread of Mortality• Greater than usual mortalities appear to be linked to shellfish introductions• Evidence of spread to naive stock in same areas
  10. 10. Increased Mortality in Republic of Ireland 2008 • 3 reports of abnormal mortality investigated in August • OsHV-1 identified in all 3 areas • Seed imports in March – June, but majority from May – June. Marine Institute data
  11. 11. Historical Perspective on OsHV-1• First indication of herpesvirus in oysters in1972• 1991 associated with high mortality in hatchery reared larval gigas in France• 1993 associated with spat at some sites• Replication / identification of virus in other species
  12. 12. Historical Perspective on OsHV-1• Found world wide• Often, but not always, associated with “summer mortality”
  13. 13. An Emerging Biotype of OsHV-1?• 2008 - 42% new biotype• 2009 - 100% new biotype• OsHV-1 µvar in the past?• 38 batches of oysters tested from previous OsHV-1, from USA, Japan, China, France Data from J. F. Pepin, Ifremer 2009
  14. 14. An Emerging Biotype of OsHV-1?• 2008 - 42% new biotype• 2009 - 100% new biotype• OsHV-1 µvar in the past?• 38 batches of oysters tested from previous OsHV-1, from USA, Japan, China, France• None of these samples displayed the identical profile to the new biotype OsHV-1 µvar Data from J. F. Pepin, Ifremer 2009
  15. 15. Sequence differences between the µVar OsHV(PM09162)and OsHV-1 in the C2/C6regionPM09162 AAAAGTTG GGATAATGAT TTTAGAATAG ATGTGATGTG CGGCAAGATG AATGGCAAGA TACACAATGAOsHV-1 ........ .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........PM09162 GCTATTACCC GACCACAAAC CTAACGTTGT ATTCGATTAC GGATTAAGAA AATGGGTTCC ACAATCTAAAOsHV-1 ......G... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........PM09162 ATTAAAAAC- CCACATGGGG GCCAAGGAAT TTAAAGCCCC GGGGAAAAAA GTATAAATAG GCGCGATTTGOsHV-1 ........AA .......... .......... .....--... C...G..... .......... ..........PM09162 TCAGTTTAGA ATCATACCCA CAC--TCAAT CTCGAGTATA CCACAACTGC TAAATTAACA GCATCTACTAOsHV-1 .......... .......... ...AC..... .......... .......... .......... ..........PM09162 CTACTACTG- ---------- --AAAAATGC AGCCTTTCAC AGAATTTTGC ACCTTGACCA AAGCCATCACOsHV-1 ........AC TACTACTACT GA........ .......... .......... .......... ..........PM09162 ATCAGCCAGC AACGACTTTT TCATCAACCA GACGAGGTTA ACATGCGACA TTTGTAAAGA GCTCGTCTCTOsHV-1 .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........PM09162 TTCAATTGCA AAGATAAAGT CGTGGCATCA TTGGCTGCAG TCAGATCTGA CATACCCATA GAAGTCACGGOsHV-1 ...G.....G .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........PM09162 AACGCAAAGA CCTGAACCTC CTCGACOsHV-1 .......... .......... ......
  16. 16. 2009
  17. 17. Officially Reported* Mortalities in France During 2009 Reported in May* IFREMER 2010, WAHID (OIE) 2009
  18. 18. Officially Reported* Mortalities in France During 2009 Reported in May Reported in June* IFREMER 2010, WAHID (OIE) 2009
  19. 19. Officially Reported* Mortalities in France During 2009 OsHV-1 µvar* IFREMER 2010, WAHID (OIE) 2009
  20. 20. Identification of OsHV-1 in 2008 OsHV-1 µvar OsHV-1 Both* IFREMER 2009, WAHID (OIE) 2008, 2009
  21. 21. Control Measures• Controls limited to juveniles from affected areas?• Only whilst mortality event causes more than 15% loss?• Adult oysters allowed from all areas?• No notifiable diseases found
  22. 22. Spread of Mortality• Greater than usual mortalities appear to be linked to shellfish introductions• Evidence of spread to naive stock in same areas
  23. 23. 2009movements for farming/purification Key Purification Relaying
  24. 24. Increased Mortality in the Republic of Ireland in 2009 • 35 samples from 17 sites • 31 positive for OsHV-1 • All OsHV-1 µvar • All positive sites had received shellfish from France • Sites that did not receive French stock were all negative for OsHV-1 Marine Institute data
  25. 25. Increased Mortality in Jersey Started in June Affected only Pacific oysters Up to 68% mortality Several areas affected Re-occurred in September Stock originated from FranceEpidemiology reported by Ashley Pinel atJersey State Veterinary dept.
  26. 26. Disease Investigation• Samples from Jersey (mortality event)• Vibrios found – of significance?• PCR positive for OsHV in all groups• When sequenced = OsHV-1 µvar
  27. 27. Initial Survey of England and Wales• High risk sites sampled• 3 Mortality events investigated• No evidence for OsHV-1
  28. 28. Introduction of Community Measures ?
  29. 29. Introduction of Community Measures
  30. 30. Introduction of Community Measures
  31. 31. 2010?Official reportsSo far (May) 2 official reports
  32. 32. Monitoring ProgrammesOyster herpesvirus surveillance 2010 Crassostrea gigas Site 1 Larne Lough 2 Strangford Lough 3 Dundrum Bay 4 Killough Bay 1 2 3 4

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