Manpower Planning Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning consists of putting right number of people, right kind of people at the right place, right time, doing the right things for which they are suited for the achievement of goals of the organization. Human Resource Planning has to be a system approach and is carried out in set procedure.1. Analysing the current manpower inventory2. Making future manpower forecasts3. Developing employment programmes4. Design training programmes
Manpower Planning…contd• Analysing the current manpower inventory: ▫ Type of organization ▫ Number of departments ▫ Number and quantity of such departments ▫ Employees in these work units• Making future manpower forecasts: ▫ Expert Forecasts: includes informal decisions, formal expert surveys and Delphi technique. ▫ Trend Analysis: Manpower needs can be projected through extrapolation, indexation, and statistical analysis. ▫ Work Load Analysis: Depends upon the nature of work load in dept., branch or in a division ▫ Work Force Analysis ▫ Other methods: Several Mathematical models, with the aid of computers are used to forecast manpower needs, like budget and planning analysis, regression, new venture analysis.
Manpower Planning…contd• Developing employment programmes: Once the current inventory is compared with future forecasts, the employment programmes can be framed and developed accordingly, which will include recruitment, selection procedures and placement plans.• Design training programmes: Depends upon the extent of improvement in technology and advancement to take place and also improve upon the skills, capabilities, knowledge of the workers.
Need of Manpower Planning• Shortages and surpluses can be identified so that quick action can be taken wherever required.• All the recruitment and selection programmes are based on manpower planning.• Helps to reduce the labour cost as excess staff can be identified and thereby overstaffing can be avoided.• Helps to identify the available talents and accordingly training programmes can be chalked out to develop those talents.• Helps in growth and diversification of business. Through manpower planning, human resources can be readily available and they can be utilized in best manner.• Helps the organization to realize the importance of manpower management which ultimately helps in the stability of a concern. Obstacles in Manpower Planning • Under Utilization of Manpower • Degree of Absenteeism • Lack of Education and Skilled Labour • Manpower Control and Review
Recruitment Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, selecting, and onboarding a qualified person for a job.
Recruitment Process• Job Analysis: ▫ Starting point of recruitment ▫ Relevent information is captured in documents called job descriptions and job specifications ▫ Recruiters are commissioned with requirements and objective of the project.• Sourcing: ▫ Strategy to attract or identify candidates to fill job vacancies Eg. internal and/or external advertising, using appropriate media, such as local or national newspapers, recruitment media, professional publications, job centres, or through internet.• Screening & Selection: ▫ Suitability for a job is assessed looking for relevant skills, knowledge, aptitude, qualifications and educational or job related experience. These can be determined via. screening resumes (also known as CVs), job applications and through interviews. ▫ More proactive identification methods include psychological and aptitude tests. ▫ In addition to the above selection assessment criteria, employers are likely to recognise the value of candidates who also have the so-called soft skills, such as interpersonal or team leadership and have the ability to reinforce the company brand through their behaviour in front of customers and suppliers.
Recruitment Process contd…• Lateral Hiring: ▫ The hiring organization targets employees of another, similar organization, possibly luring them with a better salary and the promise of better career opportunities. Eg. the recruiting of a law firm by another law firm ▫ A lateral hire is a newly hired employee who has no prior specific applicable expertise for the new job, and for whom this job move is a radical change of career. Eg. recruiting of a university professor to become chairman of the board of a company.• Onboarding: ▫ Onboarding" is a term which describes the process of helping new employees become productive members of an organization. ▫ Companies have onboarding campaigns in hopes to retain top talent that is new to the company; campaigns may last anywhere from 1 week to 6 months.
Recruitment Policy• Framework for HR Department to choose its priorities relating to recruitment. Features of a good recruitment policy• In accordance with relevant public policy and regulations.• Enough drive and progressiveness to attract best talents for the organization.• Constantly strive to make necessary human resources available to match the skills recruitment of the organization.• Ensure equal employment opportunities for all sections of the society
Factors governing recruitment policy • Internal Factors • HR policy of the Organization. • Nature of the Job. • Reputation of the Firm. • Conventional Wisdom. External Factors • Labour Market Conditions. • Legal Provisions. • Socio-Economic Factors.
Sources of Recruitment Internal Sources. • Existing Employees. • Former Employees. • Employee Referrals. External Sources • Employment Exchanges. • Outsourced to Recruitment Agencies. • Advertisements. • Campus Recruiting. • Walk-ins and Write-ins. • Raiding or Poaching.
E-Recruitment• E-recruitment, also known as online recruitment, is the practice of using technology and in particular Web-based resources for tasks involved with finding, attracting, assessing, interviewing and hiring new personnel. The purpose of e- recruitment is to make the processes involved more efficient and effective, as well as less expensive. Online recruitment can reach a larger pool of potential employees and facilitate the selection process.
Cont..• According to Forrester Research of Cambridge, Massachusetts, there are approximately 30,000 different websites devoted in some manner to job posting activities and approximately 71 percent of all job listings occur on just a handful of the big board’s such as Monster (monster.com), CareerBuilder (careerbuilder.com), Hot Jobs (hotjobs.com), etc.
Selection• Selection is the process of picking individuals with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organisation. Although, some selection methods can be used within an organisation for promotion or transfer, this chapter focuses on selecting applicants from outside the organisation.
Selection Procedure • Selection is a long process, commencing from the preliminary interview of the applicants and ending with the contract of employment..Below are the following various selection process: Preliminary Interview – The applications received from job seekers would be subject to scrutiny so as to eliminate unqualified applicants. This is usually followed by a preliminary interview the purpose of which is more or less the same as scrutiny of applications, that is, elimination of unqualified applications. Selection Tests – Job seekers who pass the screening and the preliminary interview are called for the tests. Different types of tests may be administered, depending on the job and the company. Generally, tests are used to determine the applicant’s ability, aptitude, and personality. Employment Interview – The next step in the selection process is employment interview. Interview is a formal, in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicant’s acceptability.
Cont.. Reference and Background Analysis – Many employers request names, addresses, and telephone numbers or references for the purpose of verifying information and perhaps gaining additional background information on an applicant. Reference checks cover the following: 1. Criminal records checks 2. Previous employment checks. 3. Educational records checks. 4. Credit records checks 5. Civil records checks 6. Union affiliations checks 7. Character reference checks 8. Neighbourhood reference checks.Background checks are become all the more essential because of terrorists working for a BPOand cases of money being defrauded.
Cont.. Selection DecisionAfter obtaining information through the proceeding steps, selection decision-the most criticalof all the steps-must be made. The other stages in selection process have been used to narrowthe number of the candidates. The final decision has to be made from the pool of individualswho passed the test, interviews and reference checks.
Cont.. Physical ExaminationAfter the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required toundergo a physical fitness test. One reason for a physical test is to detect if the individual carriesany infectious diseases.Secondly the test assists in determining whether the applicant is physically fit to perform.Thirdly, the physical examination test would help to determine if there are certain physicalcapabilities which differentiate successful and less successful employees.Fourth, medical checkup protects applicants with health defects from undertaking work thatcould be detrimental to themselves or might endanger the employee’s property.
Cont.. Job OfferThe next procedure is the job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. Joboffer is made through a letter of appointment. Such a letter generally contains a date by which theappointee must report on duty.
Cont.. Employment Contract After the job offers have been made and the candidates accept the offers, certain documents need to be executed by the employers and the candidates. 1. Job Title 2. Duties, including a phrase such as “The employee will perform such duties and will be responsible to such a person as the company may be from time to time direct 3. Date when continuous employment starts and the basis for calculating service 4. Rate of pay, allowances, overtime and shift rates, method of payments 5. Hours of work including lunch break and overtime and shift arrangements 6. Holiday arrangements – • Paid holidays per year • Calculation of holiday pay • Qualifying period • Accrual of holidays and holiday pay • Details of holiday year • Dates when holidays can be taken • Maximum holidays that can be taken at any one time • Carryover of holiday entitlement • Public holidays
Cont..7. Sickness • Pay for time lost • Duration of sickness payment • Deduction of national insurance benefits • Termination due to continued illness • Notification of illness (medical certificate)8. Length of Notice due to and from employee9. Grievance Procedure (or reference to it)10. Disciplinary Procedure (or any reference to it)11. Work rules (or any reference to them)12. Arrangements for terminating employment13. Arrangements for union membership ( if applicable)14. Special terms relating to rights to patents and designs, confidential information and restraints ontrade and after termination of employment.
Cont.. Evaluation of Selection ProgrammeThe broad test of the effectiveness of the selection process is the quality of the personnel hired. A firmmust have competent and committed personnel. The selection process, if properly done, will ensureavailability of such employees. How to evaluate the effectiveness of a selection programme? A periodicaudit is the answer.Audit must be conducted by people who work independent of the HR Department.
Interview• A)Interview:• a formal meeting in which one or more persons question, consult, or evaluate another person• B)Purpose of interview:• typically precedes the hiring decision, and is used to evaluate the candidate.• C)How to conduct interview:• i)Criterias to be judged
Traits to interview• General traits:• Experiential factors:• Core job elements:• Social effectiveness skills:• Interpersonal Presentation:• Personal/contextual factors:• ii)Types of questions asked :• Behavioural questions:• Situational interview questions :• Other types of questions:
Placement• “The determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned, & his assignment to that job.”• Last stage in recruitment & selection process.• Appropriate fit between people & position.• Require lots of time & energy to assign job to the selected employees.• Stipulate orientation or training required before placing on the Job.• Growing attitudinal problem & incompatibility between employees.• Utilizes orientation programmed for identification of behavior, knowledge & attitude.
Challenges In Placement Failed placement lead to increase attrition, thus pushing up the cost of recruitment & selection.a) Cultural & behavioral incapability:• Generally consider Job requirement & employee’s qualifications• Overlook Behavioral requirement• Culture differs within the organization & department to department.b) Nature of the Job:• Classified into independent & interdependent.• Socialization & leadership skill to be taken into consideration.c) Level of adaptability:• Exhibits high degree of flexibility & openness.
Objective of induction • New comer is stranger to the people, work place & work environment. • Incompatibility between expectation from new job & realities are confronted with. • Purpose is to introduce new employee & organization to each other. • Help overcome this problem by providing realistic expectations & more understanding.Induction procedure:a) Formal Placement orientation Include a tour to plant, a talk about history of the organization & organization benefit plans.b) Informal placement orientation Introduction of the new employee to the others & showing other things too.
Techniques of Inductionprogrammersa) General orientation by the staff of the personnel department. General information about history & operations of the firm, Employee services like pension health & welfare plans, safety programmer etc.b) Specific orientation by the job supervisor, or his representative.• Purpose is to adjust himself to his work & environment.• shown department & his place of work, introduce to other employee.c) Follow-up orientation by either the personal department or the supervisor.• Purpose is to monitor the process.