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Nano Drug Delivery Approaches
and Importance of Quality by
Design (QbD)
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Technology
Birla Institute of Technology
Mesra, Ranchi
SABYA SACHI DAS
PhD Scholar,
(Pharmaceutics)
cONTENTS
• Introduction
• Literature Review
• References
Introduction
Based on general classification [1]
MICROMETER
Based on particle size differentiation
Nanocarriers as Drug Delivery Systems
• Nanoparticles are solid, colloidal particles consisting of
macromolecular substances that vary in size from 10 nm to
1000 nm. Typically, the drug of interest is dissolved, entrapped,
adsorbed, attached and/or encapsulated onto a nano-matrix.
• The term nanoparticle encompasses both nanocapsules and
nanospheres.
• Nanocapsules are vesicular systems in which a drug is confined to
a cavity surrounded by a polymer membrane, whereas
nanospheres are matrix systems in which the drug is physically
and uniformly dispersed.[2]
Advantages
 Attention has been focused on nanoparticles due to several
advantages :
• Small size and the consequently larger relatively high surface area,
• Influence on biodistribution.
• Ability to make drugs available for intravascular delivery.
• Stabilizing effect on therapeutic agents.
• Capability of sustaining and controlled release of the drug molecule.
All these elements ultimately lead to more effective delivery of
the active pharmaceutical agents to a desired physiological or
pathophysiological location.[3]
• Targeted nanocarriers as drug delivery is a special form of drug
delivery system where the medicament is selectively targeted or
delivered only to its site of action or absorption and not to the non
target organs or tissues or cells
 Some of the ways the drug may be delivered are:-
• To the capillary bed of the active sites.
• To the specific type of cell or an intracellular region, e.g., Targeted
to the tumor cells but not to normal cells.
• To a specific organ by complexation with the carrier that recognizes
the target.[3]
Types of Nanocarriers
 NANO TUBES [4]
• They are hollow cylinder made of carbon atoms which can be
filled and sealed for potential drug delivery.
Application :
• Cellular scale needle for attaching drug molecule to cancer cells.
• As an electrode in thermo cells.
 DENDRIMERS[5]
• Dendrimers are nano-sized, radially
symmetric molecules with well-defined,
homogeneous, and monodisperse structure
that has a typically symmetric core, an inner
shell, and an outer shell.
• A variety of dendrimers exist, and each has
biological properties such as polyvalency,
self-assembling, electrostatic interactions,
chemical stability, low cytotoxicity, and
solubility.
• Recent developments of polymer and dendrimer chemistry have
provided a new class molecules called dendronized polymers, which
are linear polymers that bear dendrons at each repeat unit. Their
behavior differs that of linear polymers and provides drug delivery
advantages because of their enhanced circulation time.
• Liposomes are simple microscopic vesicles in which an aqueous
volume is entirely composed by membrane of lipid molecule.
• The drug molecules can either be encapsulated in aqueous
space or intercalated into the lipid bilayers The extent of
location of drug depends upon its physico-chemical
characteristics and composition of lipids.
• These systems use ‘contact-facilitated drug delivery’, which
involves binding or interaction with the targeted cell membrane.
• This permits enhanced lipid–lipid exchange with the lipid monolayer
of the nanoparticle, which accelerates the convective flux of
lipophilic drugs (e.g., paclitaxel) to dissolve through the outer lipid
membrane of the nanoparticles to targeted cells.
 LIPOSOMES[6]
 SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES (SLNs)
• Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are sub-micron colloidal carriers
ranging from 50-1000nm,which are composed of a physiological lipid
dispersed in water or in aqueous surfactant solution
• They are generally spherical in shape consisting macromolecular
materials in which the active component is dissolved, entrapped, or to
which the active component is adsorbed or attached. [7,8]
Application:
• Used in cancer chemotherapy, for delivering peptides and proteins.
• Applied for the treatment of malaria, parasitic diseases, tuberculosis.
• They are advanced technique of nanodrug delivery system which can
be defined as submicronic systems made of polymer preferably
biodegradable nanoparticle that are 10 times smaller than the
microparticles which allows them to administer intravenously.
 NANOCAPSULES AND NANOSPHERES[9]
Application:
• They contains nutrients that would be released when nano-sensors
detect a vitamin deficiency in the body.
• It minimizes drug degradation and receptors can be added without
change to drug structure.
 NANOEMULSION[7]
• Nanoemulsions can be defined as oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions with
mean droplet diameters ranging from 50-1000nm.
• Synonyms: sub-micron emulsion and mini-emulsion.
• Usually submicron emulsions contains 10 to 20 percent oil stabilized
with 0.5 to 2 percent egg or soyabean lecithin.
Application:
• They improved oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs.
• They are used as a vehicle for transdermal delivery.
• Used in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.
• Hydrogel-nanoparticles are based on technology that uses hydrophobic
polysaccharides for encapsulation and delivery of drug, therapeutic protein, or
vaccine antigen.
• Alternatively, larger hydrogels can encapsulate and release monoclonal antibodies.
• Ex: Curcumin, a substance found in the cooking spice turmeric, has long been
known to have anti-cancer properties.
• Clinical application of this relatively efficacious agent has been limited due to its
poor solubility and minimal systemic bioavailability. This problem has been resolved
by encapsulating curcumin in a polymeric nanoparticle, creating “nanocurcumin’’
HYDROGELS[10]
• Nanoshells are hollow silica spheres
covered with gold. Scientists can attach
antibodies to their surfaces, enabling the
shells to target certain shells such as cancer
cells.
 Application : Technique has potential for
targeting cancerous drug.
 NANOSHELLS[11]
• Nanocrystal is any Nano material with at least one dimension
≤100nm and that is single crystalline. More properly, any material
with a dimension of less than 1 micrometre, i.e., 1000 nanometers,
should be referred to as a nanoparticle, not a Nanocrystal. For
example, any particle which exhibits regions of crystallinity should
be termed nanoparticle or nanocluster based on dimensions.
 Other various ways of targeted drug delivery for nano particles
include niosomes, virosomes, cubosomes and nanobots.
 NANOCRYSTALS[11]
• Polymersomes, hollow shell nanoparticles, have unique properties
that allow delivery of distinct drugs.
• Polymersomes break down in the acidic environments for targeted
release of these drugs within tumor cell endosomes.
• A polymersome is comprised of two layers of synthetic polymers.
• Polymersomes have been used to encapsulate paclitaxel and DOX for
passive delivery as cancer therapy.
 POLYMERSOMES[12]
• Quantum dots are miniscule semiconductor particles that can
serve as sign posts of certain types of cells or molecules in the body.
 QUANTUM DOTS [13]
 Application :
• Technique has potential for targeting cancerous drug in
photodynamic therapy.
Quality by Design (QbD)
QbD definition as per ICH guidelines in ICH-Q8R[15]
o It is a systematic approach to pharmaceutical development that begins
with predicted objectives and emphasizes product and process
understanding based on sound science and quality risk management.
o Basically, it means designing and developing formulations and
manufacturing processes to ensure predefined product quality
objectives.
o Pharmaceutical QbD is a systematic ,scientific ,risk-based ,holistic
and proactive approach to pharmaceutical development that begins
with predefined objectives and emphases product and processes
understanding and process control.
Design of Experiments (DoE) for Formulation Development[16]
Why DoE?
To find answers of following common questions,
1) What is an optimum formulation?
2) How does the optimum change if changes are made to formulation or
process?
3) Which variables are sensitive to the machine or process?
4) For performance consistency, what are the limits for these variables?
5) How one design can effectively troubleshoot the problem?
 TO SAVE TIME, TO REDUCE COST, TO GET RELIABLE QUALITY.
o The factors to be studied in a DoE could come from the risk assessment
exercise or prior knowledge
1.Randomization
By properly randomizing the experiments, the effects of controllable
factors that may be present can be ‘averaged out’.
2.Blocking
It is the blocking arrangement of experimental units into groups
(blocks) that are similar to one another. Blocking reduces known but irrelevant
sources of variation between groups and thus allows greater precision in the
estimation of the source of variation under study.
3.Replication
It allows the estimation of the pure experimental error for determining
whether observed differences in the data are really statistically different.
 Three basic principles of statistical experimental design
 Types of Experimental Design[17]
• Completely Randomized Design
• Randomized Block Design
• Factorial Design
• Response Surface Design
• Three level full factorial design
Full Factorial Design
Fractional Factorial Design
Central Composite Design
Box-Behnken Design
Sl.
No.
Author, Year
and
Publication
Experimental Finding Ref.
1. Mertens.,
Talcott, et. al.
(2003), Journal
of Nutrition
The interaction of ellagic acid and quercetin demonstrated
an enhanced anticarcinogenic potential of polyphenol
combinations.
18
2. Shan, B., E., et
al., (2009)
Cancer
Investigation
Effects of quercetin on the growth of the colon carcinoma
cell line , effect of quercetin on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling
pathway for innovative treatment strategies of colorectal
cancer.
19
3. Chou, C., C., et
al. (2010), Arch
Pharm Res
Effect of quercetin on the induction of the apoptotic
pathway in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells(Michigan
Cancer Foundation-7).
20
4. Sun, M. et. al.
(2010) ,
J Biomed
Nanotechnol
Enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of
quercetin and quercetin loaded nanosuspension (QT-NS)
was fabricated by a tandem of nanoprecipitation (NP) and
high pressure homogenization (HPH) method.
21
LITERATURE SURVEY : Nanoformulation
5. Zhao, L. et. al.
(2011) ,
J Biomed
Nanotech
Quercetin loaded polymeric micelles composed of pluronic
P123 and D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate
were prepared and evaluated for in-vitro.
22
6. Sivasudha, T. et.
al. (2013) ,
Colloids and
Surfaces B:
Biointerfaces
Quercetin nanostuctured lipid carriers (QT-NLC), was
prepared and detected their physicochemical properties
24
7. Farooqi, A., A.
et. al. (2014) ,
Asian Pac J
Cancer Prev
Cancerous cells were targeted with Nano-Bullets: Curcumin,
EGCG, Resveratrol and Quercetin on Flying Carpets
25
8. Hamed, H. et.
al. (2014),
Colloids and
Surfaces B:
Biointerfaces
Enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of
quercetin and quercetin loaded nanosuspension (QT-NS)
was fabricated by a tandem of nanoprecipitation (NP) and
high pressure homogenization (HPH) method.
26
9. Shu, W. et. al.
(2014) , Colloids
and Surfaces B:
Biointerfaces
Synthesized biocompatible and biodegradable Quercetin-
nanostructured lipid carriers (Q-NLC) using a novel phase
inversion-based process method , Q-NLC enhanced the
anti-cancer activities of Quercetin (Q).
27
10. Thomas, D., D.
et. al. (2015),
Acta
Biomaterialia
Synthesized nanogels using a novel but simple single phase
reaction–precipitation system with control over the size and
the quercetin nanogel systems (QNGs) when compared with
other nanocarriers showed the highest reported quercetin
drug loading
28
11. Sergio, M. et.
al. (2015) ,
Colloids and
Surfaces B:
Biointerfaces
Formulated cubosomes stabilized by a dansyl-conjugated
blockcopolymer for possible nanomedicine applications.
29
12. Divyashree, R.,
et. al. (2015) ,
Scientific World
Journal
Anticancer and antitumor potential of fucoidan and
fucoxanthin, two main metabolites isolated from brown
algae was reported.
30
13 Du, H., et al.
(2015) , J
Colloid
Interface Sci.
Justified the effect Glycyrrhetinic acid decorated polymer
(GA-CMCA) and used to deliver quercetin (QC) which
showed enhanced cell cytotoxicity and higher cell
apoptosis rate in vitro,
31
14. Hadrich, G., et
al. (2016) , Drug
Dev Ind Pharm
Synthesized 12-HAPGC(12-hydroxystearic acid–polyethylene
glycol copolymer), lecithin and castor oil was used to
encapsulate quercetin and a lipid-based nanocarrier with a
reduced size of 20nm showing morphology of a
nanocapsule.
32
15. Qing, W. et. al.
(2016) ,
Journal of Micro
encapsulation
Evaluated a new solid non-aqueous self-double emulsifying
drug-delivery system for topical application of quercetin
33
16. Shruti,S., et. al.
(2016) , Int J
Biol Macromol
Effects of molecular weight and hydrolysis conditions on
anticancer activity of fucoidans from sporophyll of Undaria
pinnatifida
34
17. Se, G., L. et. al.
(2016), Colloids
and Surfaces B:
Biointerfaces
Antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of quercetin-
loaded silica nanoparticles .
35
18. Kaisar, R. et. al.
(2016) , .
International
Journal of
Pharmaceutics.
Quercetin-loaded nano lipidic carriers (NLCs) employing
biocompatible components like phospholipids and
tocopherol acetate for enhanced brain delivery
36
19. Chabita, S. et.
al. (2016),
PLOS ONE
Synthesised and characterised the nano formulations (NFs)
from Quercetin loaded PLGA (poly lactic-co-glycolic acid)
nano particles (NPs) by surface modification for cancer
therapy.
37
20. Zhou, J., et al.
(2017),
PLOS ONE
Investigated the anti-cancer effect of quercetin on HepG2
cells in vivo.
38
21. Antonio, A., L.,
P. et. al. (2017) ,
Int. Jour. Of
Pharmaceutics
Silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNs) were capable of adsorbing
and releasing quercetin (Q) and how its integrity was highly
preserved, as confirmed by antioxidant activity assays
39
22 Qing, C., Y. et. al.
(2017), Biomed. &
Pharmacotherapy
VCR (Vincristine) and QU (Quercetin) dual- loaded lipid-
polymeric nanocarriers (LPNs) (VCR/QU LPNs) were
prepared and investigated their antitumor efficacy in vitro
cell culture models and a tumor xenograft mouse model.
40
23 Shengtang, H. et.
al. (2017) , .
Journal of Colloid
and Interface
Science
Nanosized near-infrared triggered co-delivery system of
Doxurubicin (DOX), Quercetin (QUR) ,Biotin-PEG-SH gold
(Au) nanocages (BPQD-AuNC) by using photothermal gold
nanocages were prepared to maximize anti-tumor effect on
MCF-7/ADR cells.
41
24 Swarupa, G. et. al.
(2017) ,
Nanomedicine
Synthesised and characterised the nano formulations (NFs)
from Quercetin loaded PLGA (poly lactic-co-glycolic acid)
nano particles (NPs) by surface modification for cancer
therapy.
42
25 Hanaa, H., A. et.
al. (2017) ,
CS-PEG decorated PLGA nano-prototype for delivery of
bioactive compounds which was used as a novel approach
for induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cell line.
43
27. Kaili, H. et. al.
(2017) , ACS
Nano.2017
Prepared targeted lipid/ calcium/phosphate nanoparticle
formulation consisting of a prodrug of quercetin, i.e.,
quercetin phosphate which improved therapeutic
treatment for desmoplastic tumors
44
28. Rogaie, R. S. et.
al. (2017) ,
Quercetin encapsulated liposomes was prepared and
intracellular ROS protection efficiency ,free radical
scavenging activity of quercetin was investigated.
45
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FFor any query or suggestion please contact:
sabbyphd007@gmail.com

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Nano Drug Delivery Approaches and Importance of Quality by Design (QbD)

  • 1. Nano Drug Delivery Approaches and Importance of Quality by Design (QbD) Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Technology Birla Institute of Technology Mesra, Ranchi SABYA SACHI DAS PhD Scholar, (Pharmaceutics)
  • 3. Introduction Based on general classification [1] MICROMETER
  • 4. Based on particle size differentiation
  • 5.
  • 6. Nanocarriers as Drug Delivery Systems • Nanoparticles are solid, colloidal particles consisting of macromolecular substances that vary in size from 10 nm to 1000 nm. Typically, the drug of interest is dissolved, entrapped, adsorbed, attached and/or encapsulated onto a nano-matrix. • The term nanoparticle encompasses both nanocapsules and nanospheres. • Nanocapsules are vesicular systems in which a drug is confined to a cavity surrounded by a polymer membrane, whereas nanospheres are matrix systems in which the drug is physically and uniformly dispersed.[2]
  • 7. Advantages  Attention has been focused on nanoparticles due to several advantages : • Small size and the consequently larger relatively high surface area, • Influence on biodistribution. • Ability to make drugs available for intravascular delivery. • Stabilizing effect on therapeutic agents. • Capability of sustaining and controlled release of the drug molecule. All these elements ultimately lead to more effective delivery of the active pharmaceutical agents to a desired physiological or pathophysiological location.[3]
  • 8. • Targeted nanocarriers as drug delivery is a special form of drug delivery system where the medicament is selectively targeted or delivered only to its site of action or absorption and not to the non target organs or tissues or cells  Some of the ways the drug may be delivered are:- • To the capillary bed of the active sites. • To the specific type of cell or an intracellular region, e.g., Targeted to the tumor cells but not to normal cells. • To a specific organ by complexation with the carrier that recognizes the target.[3]
  • 9. Types of Nanocarriers  NANO TUBES [4] • They are hollow cylinder made of carbon atoms which can be filled and sealed for potential drug delivery. Application : • Cellular scale needle for attaching drug molecule to cancer cells. • As an electrode in thermo cells.
  • 10.  DENDRIMERS[5] • Dendrimers are nano-sized, radially symmetric molecules with well-defined, homogeneous, and monodisperse structure that has a typically symmetric core, an inner shell, and an outer shell. • A variety of dendrimers exist, and each has biological properties such as polyvalency, self-assembling, electrostatic interactions, chemical stability, low cytotoxicity, and solubility. • Recent developments of polymer and dendrimer chemistry have provided a new class molecules called dendronized polymers, which are linear polymers that bear dendrons at each repeat unit. Their behavior differs that of linear polymers and provides drug delivery advantages because of their enhanced circulation time.
  • 11. • Liposomes are simple microscopic vesicles in which an aqueous volume is entirely composed by membrane of lipid molecule. • The drug molecules can either be encapsulated in aqueous space or intercalated into the lipid bilayers The extent of location of drug depends upon its physico-chemical characteristics and composition of lipids. • These systems use ‘contact-facilitated drug delivery’, which involves binding or interaction with the targeted cell membrane. • This permits enhanced lipid–lipid exchange with the lipid monolayer of the nanoparticle, which accelerates the convective flux of lipophilic drugs (e.g., paclitaxel) to dissolve through the outer lipid membrane of the nanoparticles to targeted cells.  LIPOSOMES[6]
  • 12.
  • 13.  SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES (SLNs) • Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are sub-micron colloidal carriers ranging from 50-1000nm,which are composed of a physiological lipid dispersed in water or in aqueous surfactant solution • They are generally spherical in shape consisting macromolecular materials in which the active component is dissolved, entrapped, or to which the active component is adsorbed or attached. [7,8] Application: • Used in cancer chemotherapy, for delivering peptides and proteins. • Applied for the treatment of malaria, parasitic diseases, tuberculosis.
  • 14. • They are advanced technique of nanodrug delivery system which can be defined as submicronic systems made of polymer preferably biodegradable nanoparticle that are 10 times smaller than the microparticles which allows them to administer intravenously.  NANOCAPSULES AND NANOSPHERES[9] Application: • They contains nutrients that would be released when nano-sensors detect a vitamin deficiency in the body. • It minimizes drug degradation and receptors can be added without change to drug structure.
  • 15.  NANOEMULSION[7] • Nanoemulsions can be defined as oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions with mean droplet diameters ranging from 50-1000nm. • Synonyms: sub-micron emulsion and mini-emulsion. • Usually submicron emulsions contains 10 to 20 percent oil stabilized with 0.5 to 2 percent egg or soyabean lecithin. Application: • They improved oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. • They are used as a vehicle for transdermal delivery. • Used in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems.
  • 16. • Hydrogel-nanoparticles are based on technology that uses hydrophobic polysaccharides for encapsulation and delivery of drug, therapeutic protein, or vaccine antigen. • Alternatively, larger hydrogels can encapsulate and release monoclonal antibodies. • Ex: Curcumin, a substance found in the cooking spice turmeric, has long been known to have anti-cancer properties. • Clinical application of this relatively efficacious agent has been limited due to its poor solubility and minimal systemic bioavailability. This problem has been resolved by encapsulating curcumin in a polymeric nanoparticle, creating “nanocurcumin’’ HYDROGELS[10]
  • 17. • Nanoshells are hollow silica spheres covered with gold. Scientists can attach antibodies to their surfaces, enabling the shells to target certain shells such as cancer cells.  Application : Technique has potential for targeting cancerous drug.  NANOSHELLS[11]
  • 18. • Nanocrystal is any Nano material with at least one dimension ≤100nm and that is single crystalline. More properly, any material with a dimension of less than 1 micrometre, i.e., 1000 nanometers, should be referred to as a nanoparticle, not a Nanocrystal. For example, any particle which exhibits regions of crystallinity should be termed nanoparticle or nanocluster based on dimensions.  Other various ways of targeted drug delivery for nano particles include niosomes, virosomes, cubosomes and nanobots.  NANOCRYSTALS[11]
  • 19. • Polymersomes, hollow shell nanoparticles, have unique properties that allow delivery of distinct drugs. • Polymersomes break down in the acidic environments for targeted release of these drugs within tumor cell endosomes. • A polymersome is comprised of two layers of synthetic polymers. • Polymersomes have been used to encapsulate paclitaxel and DOX for passive delivery as cancer therapy.  POLYMERSOMES[12]
  • 20. • Quantum dots are miniscule semiconductor particles that can serve as sign posts of certain types of cells or molecules in the body.  QUANTUM DOTS [13]  Application : • Technique has potential for targeting cancerous drug in photodynamic therapy.
  • 21. Quality by Design (QbD) QbD definition as per ICH guidelines in ICH-Q8R[15] o It is a systematic approach to pharmaceutical development that begins with predicted objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding based on sound science and quality risk management. o Basically, it means designing and developing formulations and manufacturing processes to ensure predefined product quality objectives. o Pharmaceutical QbD is a systematic ,scientific ,risk-based ,holistic and proactive approach to pharmaceutical development that begins with predefined objectives and emphases product and processes understanding and process control.
  • 22. Design of Experiments (DoE) for Formulation Development[16] Why DoE? To find answers of following common questions, 1) What is an optimum formulation? 2) How does the optimum change if changes are made to formulation or process? 3) Which variables are sensitive to the machine or process? 4) For performance consistency, what are the limits for these variables? 5) How one design can effectively troubleshoot the problem?  TO SAVE TIME, TO REDUCE COST, TO GET RELIABLE QUALITY. o The factors to be studied in a DoE could come from the risk assessment exercise or prior knowledge
  • 23. 1.Randomization By properly randomizing the experiments, the effects of controllable factors that may be present can be ‘averaged out’. 2.Blocking It is the blocking arrangement of experimental units into groups (blocks) that are similar to one another. Blocking reduces known but irrelevant sources of variation between groups and thus allows greater precision in the estimation of the source of variation under study. 3.Replication It allows the estimation of the pure experimental error for determining whether observed differences in the data are really statistically different.  Three basic principles of statistical experimental design
  • 24.  Types of Experimental Design[17] • Completely Randomized Design • Randomized Block Design • Factorial Design • Response Surface Design • Three level full factorial design Full Factorial Design Fractional Factorial Design Central Composite Design Box-Behnken Design
  • 25. Sl. No. Author, Year and Publication Experimental Finding Ref. 1. Mertens., Talcott, et. al. (2003), Journal of Nutrition The interaction of ellagic acid and quercetin demonstrated an enhanced anticarcinogenic potential of polyphenol combinations. 18 2. Shan, B., E., et al., (2009) Cancer Investigation Effects of quercetin on the growth of the colon carcinoma cell line , effect of quercetin on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway for innovative treatment strategies of colorectal cancer. 19 3. Chou, C., C., et al. (2010), Arch Pharm Res Effect of quercetin on the induction of the apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells(Michigan Cancer Foundation-7). 20 4. Sun, M. et. al. (2010) , J Biomed Nanotechnol Enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of quercetin and quercetin loaded nanosuspension (QT-NS) was fabricated by a tandem of nanoprecipitation (NP) and high pressure homogenization (HPH) method. 21 LITERATURE SURVEY : Nanoformulation
  • 26. 5. Zhao, L. et. al. (2011) , J Biomed Nanotech Quercetin loaded polymeric micelles composed of pluronic P123 and D-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate were prepared and evaluated for in-vitro. 22 6. Sivasudha, T. et. al. (2013) , Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces Quercetin nanostuctured lipid carriers (QT-NLC), was prepared and detected their physicochemical properties 24 7. Farooqi, A., A. et. al. (2014) , Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Cancerous cells were targeted with Nano-Bullets: Curcumin, EGCG, Resveratrol and Quercetin on Flying Carpets 25 8. Hamed, H. et. al. (2014), Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces Enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of quercetin and quercetin loaded nanosuspension (QT-NS) was fabricated by a tandem of nanoprecipitation (NP) and high pressure homogenization (HPH) method. 26
  • 27. 9. Shu, W. et. al. (2014) , Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces Synthesized biocompatible and biodegradable Quercetin- nanostructured lipid carriers (Q-NLC) using a novel phase inversion-based process method , Q-NLC enhanced the anti-cancer activities of Quercetin (Q). 27 10. Thomas, D., D. et. al. (2015), Acta Biomaterialia Synthesized nanogels using a novel but simple single phase reaction–precipitation system with control over the size and the quercetin nanogel systems (QNGs) when compared with other nanocarriers showed the highest reported quercetin drug loading 28 11. Sergio, M. et. al. (2015) , Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces Formulated cubosomes stabilized by a dansyl-conjugated blockcopolymer for possible nanomedicine applications. 29 12. Divyashree, R., et. al. (2015) , Scientific World Journal Anticancer and antitumor potential of fucoidan and fucoxanthin, two main metabolites isolated from brown algae was reported. 30
  • 28. 13 Du, H., et al. (2015) , J Colloid Interface Sci. Justified the effect Glycyrrhetinic acid decorated polymer (GA-CMCA) and used to deliver quercetin (QC) which showed enhanced cell cytotoxicity and higher cell apoptosis rate in vitro, 31 14. Hadrich, G., et al. (2016) , Drug Dev Ind Pharm Synthesized 12-HAPGC(12-hydroxystearic acid–polyethylene glycol copolymer), lecithin and castor oil was used to encapsulate quercetin and a lipid-based nanocarrier with a reduced size of 20nm showing morphology of a nanocapsule. 32 15. Qing, W. et. al. (2016) , Journal of Micro encapsulation Evaluated a new solid non-aqueous self-double emulsifying drug-delivery system for topical application of quercetin 33 16. Shruti,S., et. al. (2016) , Int J Biol Macromol Effects of molecular weight and hydrolysis conditions on anticancer activity of fucoidans from sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida 34
  • 29. 17. Se, G., L. et. al. (2016), Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces Antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of quercetin- loaded silica nanoparticles . 35 18. Kaisar, R. et. al. (2016) , . International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Quercetin-loaded nano lipidic carriers (NLCs) employing biocompatible components like phospholipids and tocopherol acetate for enhanced brain delivery 36 19. Chabita, S. et. al. (2016), PLOS ONE Synthesised and characterised the nano formulations (NFs) from Quercetin loaded PLGA (poly lactic-co-glycolic acid) nano particles (NPs) by surface modification for cancer therapy. 37 20. Zhou, J., et al. (2017), PLOS ONE Investigated the anti-cancer effect of quercetin on HepG2 cells in vivo. 38 21. Antonio, A., L., P. et. al. (2017) , Int. Jour. Of Pharmaceutics Silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNs) were capable of adsorbing and releasing quercetin (Q) and how its integrity was highly preserved, as confirmed by antioxidant activity assays 39
  • 30. 22 Qing, C., Y. et. al. (2017), Biomed. & Pharmacotherapy VCR (Vincristine) and QU (Quercetin) dual- loaded lipid- polymeric nanocarriers (LPNs) (VCR/QU LPNs) were prepared and investigated their antitumor efficacy in vitro cell culture models and a tumor xenograft mouse model. 40 23 Shengtang, H. et. al. (2017) , . Journal of Colloid and Interface Science Nanosized near-infrared triggered co-delivery system of Doxurubicin (DOX), Quercetin (QUR) ,Biotin-PEG-SH gold (Au) nanocages (BPQD-AuNC) by using photothermal gold nanocages were prepared to maximize anti-tumor effect on MCF-7/ADR cells. 41 24 Swarupa, G. et. al. (2017) , Nanomedicine Synthesised and characterised the nano formulations (NFs) from Quercetin loaded PLGA (poly lactic-co-glycolic acid) nano particles (NPs) by surface modification for cancer therapy. 42 25 Hanaa, H., A. et. al. (2017) , CS-PEG decorated PLGA nano-prototype for delivery of bioactive compounds which was used as a novel approach for induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cell line. 43
  • 31. 27. Kaili, H. et. al. (2017) , ACS Nano.2017 Prepared targeted lipid/ calcium/phosphate nanoparticle formulation consisting of a prodrug of quercetin, i.e., quercetin phosphate which improved therapeutic treatment for desmoplastic tumors 44 28. Rogaie, R. S. et. al. (2017) , Quercetin encapsulated liposomes was prepared and intracellular ROS protection efficiency ,free radical scavenging activity of quercetin was investigated. 45
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  • 39. FFor any query or suggestion please contact: sabbyphd007@gmail.com