Straw Bale gardening at Fair Oaks Horticultural Center

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Straw Bale gardening at Fair Oaks Horticultural Center

  1. 1. From Mulch to your Mouth! Edible Landscaping Concepts and Principles in a Water-Wise Garden Bill Krycia Bill Krycia
  2. 2.  Formal style: knot garden  Herbs as borders  Lettuce and other vegetables  High maintenance
  3. 3. Whoa! Let’s slow down a bit and get into the basics…
  4. 4. Edible Landscaping Concepts and Principles in a Water-Wise Garden • Gardening basics • Water • Planning & Selection • Brief Intermission • Veggies and Herbs • Berries and Grapes • Fruit Trees • Q&A
  5. 5. Garden Basics • Sunlight! • Fruiting plants need 6 to 8 hours a day • More is better for many fruiting plants • Vegetative plants can get by with less • But not much… • Possible increase in disease with low light • “leggy” growth • Prevent sunburn! • Shade cloth • Trunk paint • Shade patterns
  6. 6. Garden Basics • Sunlight! • South facing • Walls as heat sinks • Keep some space for maintenance • Set taller plants on north side • Planting trees on north side close to house sub optimal • Optimal planting direction • Rows running north-south • Low profile, doesn’t matter so much
  7. 7. Garden Basics • Soil • Working with existing plantings, compost helps, as does mulching • Don’t necessarily want to create “pockets” of amended soil. • Will your plan disrupt existing root systems? • You don’t have the option of turning over larger areas
  8. 8. Garden Basics • Fertilization • Similar needs • Compost • Containers have different needs • Over fertilization results in lush growth, and just maybe few or no fruit
  9. 9. Garden Basics • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • Recognition • Evaluation • Control • Cultural practice, resistance • Natural control • Non-toxic or least toxic
  10. 10. Other thoughts • Frost protection • Security • Post harvest storage • Vector control • Soil compaction
  11. 11. Water • Drainage • Good drainage = happy plants • Evaluate drainage • Poor drainage • Rip down • Build up • Raised bed • Containers
  12. 12. Water • Plant Needs • Plant itself • New or established • Time in life cycle • Other factors • Weather • Soil characteristics
  13. 13. Water • Hydro zoning • Concept of grouping plants by common water need
  14. 14. Water • Irrigation • Multiple systems • Drip • Micro spray
  15. 15. Water • Mulching • Critical, low cost water conservation • Mulching and drip can save 50% water use • Natural materials • Break down, provide nutrients, organic material • Create environment for good fungi, inhibit bad fungi (phytophthora) • Help to maintain even soil moisture
  16. 16. Planning and Selection • Water Wise Landscape Design Steps • http://www.ext.colostate.edu/mg/garde nnotes/411.html
  17. 17. Food Can Be Grown in Any Garden Interplant edibles with your ornamentals
  18. 18. Planning and Selection • Evaluate existing landscape and resource$ • Softscape • Hardscape • Keep a garden journal • Sun patterns • Pests • Drainage • Other issues, preferences
  19. 19. Planning and Selection • What do you want? • Bananas? • Edible groundcover? • Alpine strawberries? • Resist the temptation to fill every square inch. • Things will grow!
  20. 20. Planning and Selection • List what you want • Think about the use of the entire space throughout the year. • Think color • Think texture • Think layering (scale) • Think flavor!
  21. 21. Planning • Hydrozone Bubble Drawings
  22. 22. Planning • Areas of routine irrigation – watered every 2 to 4 days. • Areas of reduced irrigation – watered every 4 to 14 days. • Areas of limited irrigation – watered during dry spells once plants are established. • Nonirrigated areas
  23. 23. From: Water Wise Landscape Design Steps, Colorado State University Extension Figure 17. Examples of styles for a backyard with patio (gray) flower beds (pink) and vegetable garden (yellow). Left: Rectilinear design, Center: Curvilinear design, Right: Angular design.
  24. 24. Photo: Rosalind Creasy
  25. 25. Best of both worlds: edible and ornamental Inter-planting reduces pests New textures, forms, colors Grow what you like best Fun for everyone Great conversation piece
  26. 26. Choosing Varieties That Best Suit your Needs Some plants have varieties/cultivars that are better suited in your landscape Drought tolerance Salt tolerance Disease resistance Pest resistance Striking or more profound colors Dwarfing or “bush” type
  27. 27. Planting Your Edible Landscape Warm season crops grow best when average daytime temperatures are between 65-950F Cool season crops grow best when average daytime temperatures are between 55-750F Some cool season crops must be planted during the end of the warm season to allow for adequate growth before cooler weather; or in the case of seeds to allow for germination.
  28. 28. Planting Your Edible Landscape Plants can be direct seeded, transplants, or self seeding  Use direct seeding for large seeded plants: corn, melons, squash, beans and peas; and for root crops: carrots, radish, beets, turnips, and parsnips  Use transplants for crops that you want to get an early start by growing them in the house, a cold frame or greenhouse  Sacramento Vegetable Planting Schedule (EHN 11)
  29. 29. From Mulch to your Mouth! • Brief Intermission
  30. 30. Incorporating Vegetables into your Landscape… Make a list of edibles you like and that grow well in your climate Identify the cultural needs of each Sun vs. shade Soil pH Water requirements Nutrient requirements http://ucanr.edu/sites/gardenweb/Vegetables/ http://ucanr.org/freepubs/docs/8059.pdf
  31. 31. Incorporating Vegetables into your Landscape… Realize that some plants may not be compatible with certain areas or existing plants Be aware of overall form Size, shape, color, flowers, fruit Identify any pests/diseases that are common
  32. 32. Vegetable crops perform best when well irrigated and receive at least 6-8 hours of sunlight Vegetables can be used as  Ground covers  Annual low border bedding plants  Visual screens  Trellis vines  Hanging baskets/containers Vegetables
  33. 33. Squash Photo: Rosalind Creasy
  34. 34. Many Edibles are Attractive Plants Artichoke Kale Lettuce Mustard Rhubarb Broccoli and cauliflower Beets and chard Jerusalem artichoke Peppers Beans and peas Eggplant Tomatoes
  35. 35. Artichoke Perennial, some thorny, possibly marginal in Sacramento
  36. 36. Kale Cool season, several varieties, does well. Remember crop rotation!
  37. 37. Lettuce Cool season!
  38. 38. Mustard Photo by Nancy J. Ondra
  39. 39. Rhubarb Photo: Rosalind Creasy Several varieties, some with more colorful stalks, remember, the leaves are toxic, only use the stalks
  40. 40. Broccoli and Cauliflower Cool Season
  41. 41. Beets
  42. 42. Eggplant
  43. 43. Beets
  44. 44. Chard
  45. 45. Peas Remember, plants will need support!
  46. 46. Photo: Renee Studebaker
  47. 47. Peppers
  48. 48. Squash Blossoms
  49. 49. Beans
  50. 50. Tomato
  51. 51. Straw Bale gardening at Fair Oaks Horticultural Center
  52. 52. Container veggies at Fair Oaks Horticultural Center
  53. 53. Thoughts on Veggies • Seasonality • Staggered planting • Crop rotation • Weeding • Thinning
  54. 54. Planting calendar From: Year ‘round gardening by Dr. Norris See also: http://ucanr.org/sites/sacmg/files/77734.p df
  55. 55. Herbs • Color • Variegated • Pesto perpetuo basil • Variegated sage • Access
  56. 56. Basil
  57. 57. Basil
  58. 58. Lemongrass Leaves are exceptionally sharp! Grows well in container also
  59. 59. Rosemary Upright varieties, Tuscan Blue Prostrate (creeping) varieties also
  60. 60. Herbs in Containers
  61. 61. Food Can Be Grown in Any Garden Interplant edibles with your ornamentals
  62. 62. + Alpine strawberry Angelica Anise hyssop Artichoke Arugula (perennial) Asparagus Basil Beet Borage Broccoli Cabbage Cantaloupe Celery Chard Chives Collards Corn Cucumber (bush or trellis) Edible flowers Eggplant Endive Kale Lavender Lemongrass Lettuce Lovage Marjoram Mitsuba Mizuna Nasturtium Okra Orach Oregano Parsley Pea Peanut Pepper Poppy (breadseed) Rhubarb Rosemary Safflower Sage Scented geranium Sea kale Shallot Squash (summer) Tarragon Tomato (determinate) Edible Herbaceous (Non-Woody) Borders
  63. 63. + Alpine strawberry Chamomile Cucumber Mint (creeping) Peanut (temporary cover) Rosemary (trailing) Sweet potato (temporary) Sweet woodruff Thyme Wintergreen © Rosalind Creasy Edible Ground Covers
  64. 64. Thyme
  65. 65. © Rosalind Creasy Edible Herbaceous (Non-Woody) Borders
  66. 66. + Anise hyssop Apple Arugula Basil Bee Balm Borage Broccoli Calendula Chamomile Chervil Chicory Chives Chrysanthemum Citrus Okra Passion flower Pineapple guava Redbud Rose Rosemary Sage Scented geranium Squash Sunflower Sweet woodruff Thyme Tulip Violet Edible Flowers Daylily Dianthus Dill Elderberry Hibiscus Hollyhock Johnny-jump-up Lavender Lemon verbena Lilac Marigold Mint Nasturtium
  67. 67. Borage
  68. 68. Calendula
  69. 69. Lavender
  70. 70. Nasturtium
  71. 71. Viola, Pansy, Johnny-jump-up, Violet
  72. 72. Chives
  73. 73. Berries and Grapes • Strawberries • Cane Berries • Blueberries • Grapes
  74. 74. Strawberries • http://ucanr.org/sites/gardenweb/Berrie s/Strawberries/ • Need to be a bit more aware of slugs/snails in edible landscape • Plant so readily accessible • Think everbearers, or day neutral varieties
  75. 75. Alpine Strawberry They are invasive!
  76. 76. Cane Berries (Blackberries and Raspberries) • http://ucanr.org/sites/sacmg/files/11712 8.pdf • Cane berries will need support • Trellis • Pruning • Primocanes • Floricanes • There are thornless varieties
  77. 77. Blueberries • http://ucanr.org/sites/sacmg/files/13806 9.pdf • Select variety for the area • Soil pH needs to be amended to make it more acidic • Better fruit set with multiple varieties • Bird protection
  78. 78. Blueberries in Containers http://ucanr.org/sites/g ardenweb/Berries/Blu eberries/
  79. 79. Grapes • Requirements • Adapted to a wide range of soil types • Sun • 6 to 8 hours a day • Irrigation • Drainage • Support! • Care
  80. 80. Low-Maintenance Fruit Species • Cane berries & blueberries • Citrus (for now) • Figs • Jujubes Persimmons Plums & pluots Pomegranates
  81. 81. Grapes • Care • Staking/trellising • Irrigation • Fertilizing • Pruning/training • Suckering • Leaf thinning • Cluster thinning/tipping • IPM/Spraying/Bird control
  82. 82. Grapes • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • Powdery mildew control • Bunch rot • Grape leaf hoppers
  83. 83. Grapes • Selection • Most grapes are vigorous growers! • Most table grapes on own rootstock, most wine grapes on grafted rootstock • Taste • Seedless or not? • Ripening time • Varieties from mid-July through October
  84. 84. Grapes • Use • Arbors • Trellised along a fence or structure • Specimen planting • California head pruned • Containers From P Allen Smith online
  85. 85. Edible Landscaping, Grapes! • Arbors • Acceptable for either spur or cane pruning • Should be very durable! • Consider access for pruning, spraying, etc http://ucanr.edu/sites/gardenweb/Growing_Grapes_i n_the_California_Garden/
  86. 86. Edible Landscaping, Grapes! • Trellised • Support the plant • Durable • Access
  87. 87. Fruit Trees • 6-8 hours of sun, or more • Space! • Space for the canopy • We can manage that • Space for roots • Tougher to manage
  88. 88. Fruit Trees • Canopy management • Pruning • Dormant season, winter pruning • Summer pruning • “Backyard Orchard” concept • Espalier
  89. 89. Fruit Trees • Root management • Selecting a rootstock • Dwarfing • 8 to 12’ • Semi-dwarfing • 12 to 18’ • Standard • 18 to 25’ • Still have to winter prune
  90. 90. Fruit Trees • Backyard orchard • Manage canopy by summer pruning • Minor pruning during winter • Other concepts • Shortened planting distances, hedges • Multiple plantings • IPM • Many fruit trees will require some management
  91. 91. Citrus
  92. 92. Fruit Trees • Backyard Orchard • http://ucanr.edu/sites/sacmg/Fruit_and_nu ts/
  93. 93. Seedless Kishu Mandarin in Container at FOHC
  94. 94. Espaliered Pomegranate at FOHC
  95. 95. • Sac MG Edible Landscaping: • http://ucanr.edu/sites/sacmg/Edible_Lands caping/
  96. 96. Credits & Acknowledgements • Gail Pothour • Sacramento County Master Gardeners • UCANR Cooperative Extension
  97. 97. Questions/Discussion

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