1. Tactics are used to retain and enhance
the loyalty of the members and to increase
their numbers and members. They aim ta
mobilizing the entire reservoir of support.
2. Tactics are used to persuade those who
are not sympathetic to the movements’
goals to change their attitudes. The
movement may adopt disruptive tactics
aimed at forcing change.
Defined as the use of violence against
civilian targets for the purpose of intimidation to
achieve political ends (Robertson, 1987).
1. State Terrorism
Used by authoritarian & totalitarian
forms of government to spread terror
against their own people as an
instrument to further their political &
social control (Grantham, 1984).
2. Revolutionary Terrorism
Used by some radical social movements
which resort to violence to achieve their
It is the early stage of a social
movement’s life course. Members of the
new movement are too idealistic to stir
up public opinion in favor of their view
points. In most cases, their efforts were
unsuccessful and the would-be movement
It is the second stage of a social
movement’s life course and happens
when agitation is successful. The
movement gains support for the
furtherance of the group’s objectives
and becomes respectable. It now
possesses a legal personality to make
valid & legitimate representations.
It is the third stage of a social movement’s life
course. The social movement’s organization
grows steadily, becomes more bureaucratized
and tends to become more engrossed in day-
to-day administrative tasks. There is
tendency to neglect and overload the
problems the members originally set up to
resolve. Failure to solve problems would
mean abolition of the organization.
The members now become discontented with
how the movement is managed. They begin to
question the relevance of the policies,
programs and the organization itself. Due to
discontentment among members, the original
members may regroup and renew their
campaigns to the uninvolved members. Thus,
the cycle begins again (Robertson, 1987).