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Preserving Your Station Legacy with the American Archive of Public Broadcasting


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AAPB staff presents to interested stations on how they can contribute their content to the AAPB, what to look for when beginning to preserve content, and what steps should be taken when planning a digitization project.

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Preserving Your Station Legacy with the American Archive of Public Broadcasting

  1. 1. Getting Started and Planning for Digitization July 18, 2018, 2pm (ET) Casey Davis-Kaufman, WGBH Media Library and Archives Associate Director / AAPB Project Manager Rebecca Fraimow, WGBH Media Library and Archives / AAPB Digital Ingest Manager Ryn Marchese, AAPB Engagement and Use Manager Preserving Your Station Legacy with the
  2. 2. AAPB BACKGROUND Ryn Marchese, AAPB Engagement and Use Manager
  3. 3. a collaboration between the Library of Congress and WGBH The AAPB coordinates a national effort to preserve at-risk public media before its content is lost to posterity and provides a central web portal for access to the unique programming that public stations have aired over the past 70+ years. Mission
  4. 4. Background 2011 - CPB Inventory project - identified more than 3 million items kept at 120 stations, archives, producers, university collections across the country dating back to the 1950s 2012 - CPB Digitization Project - 40,000 hours of digital material initially from more than 100 stations 2013 – WGBH and LOC were selected as the “Permanent Home”
  5. 5. AAPB Collaboration Shared Responsibilities • Overall governance • Policy • Collection development • Ingest • Rights decisions Preservation Access & Outreach
  6. 6. Packard Campus for Audio Visual Conservation
  7. 7. Goals Coordinate a national effort to preserve and make accessible as much significant public broadcasting materials as possible Become a focal point for discoverability Provide standards and best practices for storing, processing, preserving, and making accessible historical content Facilitate the use of archival content by scholars, educators, students, journalists, media producers, researchers, and the public Increase public awareness of the significance of historical public media and the need to preserve it and make it accessible
  8. 8. More than 50,000 hours of digitized and born digital material from over 100 public broadcasting stations and organizations Website launched October 2015 >34,000 streaming video and audio files in an Online Reading Room (38% of full collection) Public access to the full collection of video and audio on-site at WGBH and the Library of Congress >2.5 million inventory records from 120 stations, in addition to the digitized items, are available for research The AAPB Collection
  9. 9. A Centralized Web Portal for Discovery All AAPB digitized content discoverable through single searches Direct links to public media on other sites (KUHT, Louisiana Public Broadcasting, Minnesota Public Radio, WNYC) One-stop shopping Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) as a model Helps solve the separate silos syndrome for search and discovery
  10. 10. Online Reading Room (ORR) ORR totals more than 34,000 programs available to anyone in the United States Online access in accordance with the copyright law of the United States, including the legal doctrine of fair use Access for research, educational, and informational purposes only Inclusion in the ORR determined by analysis of types of programs and examination of individual series and programs
  11. 11. Archival Management System • Participating organizations have access to the Archival Management System (AMS) where station administrators can: • Search and access their metadata records • Export their records • Import additional records • Edit their records • Watch/listen to their low-res proxy files • Download their low-res proxy files • WGBH is currently working with AVP and Indiana University to develop a new and improved AMS, which will launch in late 2018.
  12. 12. Commitment to Growth The Library and WGBH are committed to growing the AAPB collection by up to 25,000 hours of digitized, or “born digital” content per year This year, we have targeted outreach to stations in states, regions and communities currently underrepresented in the AAPB. We are currently lacking any content in the archive from 12 states and the territories (excluding Guam) We are providing grant writing assistance to organizations submitting applications for digitization grant programs We have created a grant proposal document package for organizations that want to collaborate with us on proposals
  13. 13. Deed of Gift - Transfer of Ownership Subject to the terms of this Deed of Gift, (“Donor”) hereby irrevocably donates and conveys to the WGBH Educational Foundation and the Library of Congress on behalf of the American Archive of Public Broadcasting ("AAPB") (this Deed of Gift refers individually to the Donor and the AAPB collaborators each as “a Party” and collectively as “the Parties”) the materials described in Exhibit A to this Deed of Gift (the "Donated Materials"), all rights, title, and interest that Donor possesses therein and in all metadata related to the Donated Materials (the “Metadata”).
  14. 14. Deed of Gift – Copyright Ownership To the best of Donor’s knowledge (check one): ☐ a. Donor controls all copyrights in the Donated Materials (i.e., Donor created or acquired the copyrights in all Donated Materials). ☐ b. Donor controls some of the copyrights in the Donated Materials (i.e., Donor created or acquired the copyrights in some of the Donated Materials, but other individuals or organizations control some copyrights). ☐ c. Donor controls none of the copyrights in the Donated Materials. Donor shall include any information it may have on the ownership or control of the copyrights in the Donated Materials on Exhibit A.
  15. 15. Deed of Gift – Assignment of Permissions Assignment of rights (check one): ☐ a. Donor irrevocably assigns to AAPB any and all rights, including copyrights, that Donor controls in the Donated Materials. ☐ b. Donor makes the Donated Materials available for use subject to the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal License (“no rights reserved”). ☐ c. Donor grants AAPB an irrevocable, non-exclusive, royalty-free worldwide perpetual license for AAPB’s discretionary uses of the Donated Materials, in addition to all uses permitted by law. Such discretionary uses may include but are not limited to cataloging, preservation, copying and migration for preservation and access purposes, exhibition, display, and making works available for non-commercial public access (including online), in accordance with AAPB policy and with applicable law.
  16. 16. Deed of Gift- Use by Patrons Re-use of Donated Materials by patrons ☐ I. Donor further authorizes AAPB to make the Donated Materials available for re-use by patrons subject to the Creative Commons Attribution license or such other license as is indicated below, if any: ___________________________________________ ☐ II. Donor does not authorize AAPB to make the Donated Materials available for re-use by patrons. Metadata Donor makes the Metadata accessible under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal License.
  17. 17. Imperative Need The 2012 National Recording Preservation Plan stated that: “many endangered analog formats must be digitized within the next 15 or 20 years before further degradation makes preservation efforts all but impossible.” As this report was years in the making, we may now have no more than 10 to 15 years to preserve this material Moreover, “audiovisual materials are the fastest-growing segment of our nation’s archives and special collections,” as reported by the Library of Congress The audiovisual records of the 20th century are increasingly at risk
  18. 18. DIGITIZATION → PRESERVATION Rebecca Fraimow, AAPB Digital Ingest Manager
  19. 19. Risks to audiovisual collections • Environmental and storage inadequacies • Certain formats are deteriorating quickly – Video: 2 inch, ½ inch, 1 inch, ¾ inch (Umatic), D1, D3 – Audio: Cylinders, Lacquer & aluminum disks, open reel audio (1/4 inch), DAT • Playback and recording equipment are becoming obsolete • People with expertise in analog media and equipment are getting older
  20. 20. Film Video
  21. 21. Rules for Handling and Storage Avoid touching the magnetic tape Store tape vertically inside its case Rewind or fast-forward cassettes to the beginning or end for storage Keep cool and dry, but not frozen (40°-65° F, 25%-50% RH, no fluctuation) Inert plastic containers are best Engage record protection mechanisms
  22. 22. Record Protection
  23. 23. Inventorying – knowing what you have… So that your producers can reuse content So that you can accurately provide collection information to vendors, to obtain quotes for digitization For insurance purposes So that you can provide researchers with access to your archival collection as a historic record of your community So that you can potentially license and build revenue from your archival content
  24. 24. What do I need to record? The more information, the better – Format – Duration (of the tape and the content, if known) The duration of the tape says something about the fragility of the medium (the thinner the tape, the longer it is) – Generation – Location (box, shelf, room) – Title (series, episode, episode number) – Date recorded – Who was on the recording? – Any other identifying information written on the tape label – Identifier of duplicates (if any) – Condition/deterioration notes – Tape label ID – if you don’t already have identifiers on the tapes, assign unique identifiers or barcodes to every single tape. This ID can eventually become the identifier of the digital files if the tapes are digitized.
  25. 25. Format & Duration - Identifying Information
  26. 26. Generation Keywords to Look For Camera Original Master Edit Master Original Footage Viewing Copy Rough Cut Dub
  27. 27. Condition/Deterioration - Warning Signs
  28. 28. Invisible Damage Sticky shed syndrome Dropout Tape scratches Binder loss Other Invisible Factors Recording standard LP mode/SP mode Playback environment
  29. 29. The Question of Playback
  30. 30. Preservation Quality Digitization (Audio) PRESERVATION FILE codec: PCM .bwf(broadcast WAV) sample rate: 96 kHz bit depth: 24-bit ACCESS FILE codec: .mp3 sample rate: 44.1 kHz bit depth: 16-bit
  31. 31. Preservation Quality Digitization (Video) PRESERVATION FILE codecs: 10-bit uncompressed v210, JPEG2000, FFV1 color space: YUV chromasubsampling: 4:2:2 aspect ratio: preserve original (for video, usually 4:3) wrappers: .mov, .avi audio: 48 kHz/24-bit PCM MEZZANINE FILE/PRODUCTION MASTERS most useful in production environments codecs: ProRes, DV50, high-quality H.264 ACCESS FILE should be suitable for web playback, streaming, or institutional viewing can be digital or physical (DVD) codecs: low-quality H.264, MPEG-2
  32. 32. Normalizing Formats for Preservation Why do it? It’s easier for to work with a smaller subset of common file types Unusual, complex, or highly proprietary formats are difficult to preserve Raw video is costly in terms of storage space and processing time Why not do it? Video is complex, and it requires a lot of planning and technical expertise to make sure all important characteristics are being preserved It’s not always possible to restore the original from a transcoded version Every technological process provides an opportunity for error or corruption
  33. 33. PLANNING FOR A DIGITIZATION PROJECT Casey Davis-Kaufman, AAPB Project Manager
  34. 34. Identify Your Resources • Funding for digitization • Storage (for files once digitized) • People – Project management – Quality control – Ongoing management of digital files • Skills
  35. 35. Create Policies • What descriptive, technical and preservation metadata is important to create and manage after you’ve digitized your collection? • What are your target digital formats? • How will you store your digital files? • What are your plans for quality control? • How will you ensure security and integrity of the files? • Who is responsible for decision making? Who else in the organization will be involved in archiving and “digital preservation”? • What are your plans for continued professional development of staff? • How will you provide access to your collection? • What is your plan for evaluation and updating of your policies?
  36. 36. National Digital Stewardship Alliance’ Levels of Preservation Preservation isn’t all or nothing. Aim to make small steps. You can use the NDSA Levels of Preservation as a guide. http://www.digitalpreservation.g ov/documents/NDSA_Levels_Arc hiving_2013.pdf
  37. 37. Select what to preserve Obsolescence Historical Value
  38. 38. Format-based Triage Highest priority • older formats • obsolete formats • small formats (fragile tape) • master material • production chain: ¾”, Betacam or DV masters VHS or DVD access copies
  39. 39. Content-based prioritization • Recommended order or prioritization: – Master programs – Raw interviews – B-roll • Other considerations: – Is it unique? – Is it created and/or owned by your station? – Does the content document events, topics, places, persons, opinions, or attitudes of historical, cultural, political, sociological, anthropological, scientific, educational, technological, or aesthetic significance? – Does the content reflect significant international, national, regional, state, or local culture, politics, or society; or presents the viewpoints of indigenous communities, subcultures, societal groups, or population segments ? – Does the content document unique aspects of the style and practice of radio and television journalism? – Did the content have a significant impact when first broadcast and/or receive awards? – Does it contain raw footage, including interviews, that are unique and represent significant historic events, or some unique aspect of the local community?
  40. 40. Identify your Partners – The Value of AAPB Participation Copies preserved long-term at the Library of Congress Orgs don’t have to manage their own access platform and media servers Orgs will have access to the AAPB’s Archival Management System (metadata repository) where you can search, manage, update, and access your records and media Org’s collection becomes part of a national initiative and has broader reach AAPB archivists provide guidance and project management support during digitization projects Collection could be included in AAPB initiatives such as transcript creation, crowdsourcing, automated metadata creation
  41. 41. Digitizing with a trusted vendor Why do it? • Unlike paper/photo digitization, video digitization requires extensive expertise and training, especially for older formats • Challenging and expensive to equip and staff a high-quality digitization station from scratch • Vendors maintain equipment that can clean, repair, and play back a variety of rare, complex, and obsolete formats, increasing the odds of a successful transfer
  42. 42. Digitizing In- House Why do it? • You control the process from beginning to end • Can be less costly to invest in equipment for common formats than to pay a vendor • No transit risks for the original materials • Build institutional capacity to understand and handle physical and digital a/v
  43. 43. What does the vendor need to know to provide a quote? • Format and duration are the drivers of the cost of digitization. • Vendors need to know: – How many tapes you have per format – Estimated duration of the tapes per format • Digitization happens in real time, so a 90 minute tape will take 90 minutes to digitize. – Any known damage/deterioration
  44. 44. Requests for Proposals (RFP) - Components • Naming conventions • Closed captioning • Technical and preservation metadata requirements • Required storage media and delivery • File package organization • Checksum requirements • Physical storage conditions • Care and handling • Proposed schedule • Review windows • Replacement policy • Reporting requirements • Budget for extraordinary intervention • Other costs to include or exclude • Explanation and goals of the project • Detailed breakdown of what will be digitized • Staffing expectations • Workspace and technical requirements • Scheduling protocols • Expected quality control procedures • Shipping expectations • Inspection and cleaning protocols • Target digital formats *AAPB can provide you with our template RFP
  45. 45. Additional AAPB Grant Proposal Support • AAPB can provide support to you and your station in preparing for digitization projects and for submission to the AAPB archive. • Most digitization grant programs require that you include extensive documentation regarding your preservation and discoverability plans, project plans, and technical plans. We can provide you with: – AAPB’s Model Deed of Gift Agreement – AAPB One-Pager and additional language for inclusion – AAPB Digital Preservation Plan – AAPB Discoverability Plan – Digitization RFP – A sample archivist/project manager job description – Sample project plan and corresponding timeline – AAPB Technical Plan – A letter of support – Narrative review and edit
  46. 46. Grant programs • Council on Library and Information Resources’ Recordings at Risk program • Council on Library and Information Resources’ Digitizing Hidden Collections program • National Endowment for the Humanities’ Humanities Collections and Reference Resources program • National Historical Records and Publications Commission’s Access to Historical Records program • Grammy Foundation • National Film Preservation Foundation • National Recording Preservation Foundation • Local community funders
  47. 47. Additional Resources • Association of Moving Image Archivists – • AMIA Education Committee – • International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives – • ARSC Guide to Audio Preservation – • NEDCC Preservation Leaflets – leaflets/overview • NDSA Levels of Digital Preservation – • Bay Area Video Coalition’s AV Artifact Atlas – artifact-atlas • University of Illinois’ Preservation Self-Assessment Program – Collection ID Guide for Audiovisual Media –
  48. 48. @amarchivepub @amarchivepub