Interview F22 Raptor


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Interview F22 Raptor

  1. 1. Avionics T h e J o u r n a l o f G l o b a l A i r s p a c e Avionics® Magazine Inside:  Lethal Mix: Stealth, Speed & Agility  What Sensor Fusion Delivers  Raptor: The Pilot’s Perspective  Program Suppliers State-by-State  F-22 Program Milestones  Importance of Air Dominance [ Special Report ] Air Dominance With The F-22 Raptor
  2. 2. T he first U.S. stealth aircraft able to defend itself against enemy fighters and to attack highly defended targets in the daytime. The first U.S. aircraft to cruise at Mach 1.5 and faster without afterburner. And the first U.S. fighter to use vectored thrust, which adds to its unmatched agility. These are among the unique capabilities of the U. S. Air Force’s F-22 Raptor air domi- nance fighter. But even more revolu- tionary is the F-22’s advanced inte- grated avionics suite, which fuses data from multiple sensors to pro- vide the pilot unparalleled situation- al awareness and a clear advantage over adversaries (see story on page 6). A potent force multiplier, this advanced avionics package brings to the table changes as sweeping as the transition from piston engine aircraft to jets. It expedites the pilot’s ability to make tactical deci- sions. Pilots can track, identify and shoot down an enemy before the enemy is aware of their existence. Destined to become the dominant fighter aircraft of the 21st century when it becomes operational with the Air Force in 2005, the F-22 is being Holding Four Aces Speed, Stealth, Agility and Revolutionary Avionics Holding Four Aces Speed, Stealth, Agility and Revolutionary Avionics ]With capabilities shared by no other combat aircraft, the F-22 gives the U.S. Air Force a first-look, first-shot, first-kill advantage.[ With capabilities shared by no other combat aircraft, the F-22 gives the U.S. Air Force a first-look, first-shot, first-kill advantage. Avionics Magazine 3
  3. 3. produced by a Lockheed Martin-led team that includes Boeing and key avionics suppliers Northrop Grum- man, Raytheon, BAE Systems and TRW. Pratt & Whitney produces the F- 22’s engines. To date, 10 F-22s have been produced and another 31 air- craft are on order. The Bush adminis- tration has requested another 23 air- craft in the fiscal year 2003 budget. In all, the Air Force plans on a fleet of 339 Raptors to replace the venerable F-15 Eagle and keep the skies clear for U.S. and allied forces in the years to come. The F-22’s two F119 engines allow supersonic cruise at military power (maximum power without afterburn- er) settings. A large wing area and internal tanks for fuel storage give the F-22 deep penetration range. Using its stealth capabilities to maximum advantage, the Raptor can conduct a first strike, defend itself against air- borne or ground threats, and return to base to fight again. No other aircraft can do that, says Mark Hodge, director of F-22 pro- grams for Lockheed Martin’s Wash- ington office. Because current stealth aircraft cannot defend themselves against enemy fighters, they must attack targets at night or use a mix of fighter aircraft to provide air cover, as well as to suppress enemy radar- directed threats. However, the F-22 was designed to go and get other airplanes. “So when you add to that its capability to pene- trate hard-to-get targets and drop pre- cision weapons on them, you bring capabilities to the war fighters no air force has today: a self-supporting, all- weather, all-day/night stealth fighter,” Hodge, a former fighter pilot, says. Stealth Of the F-22’s key capabilities, stealth is the least discussed (for security rea- sons) and may be the least under- stood. It has less to do with the air- craft’s physical size than with its design, materials and manufacturing. Stealth technology, which Lock- heed Martin pioneered in the SR-71 strategic reconnaissance aircraft and F-117 Nighthawk, and which Northrop Grumman advanced in the B-2 Spirit, is a key enabler of the “first-look, first-shot” capability. Internally stored weapons (the first for a U.S. air-to-air fighter since the F-106) are essential in preserving the Raptor’s stealth capabilities, in addi- tion to reducing aerodynamic drag. With the F-22’s stealth capability, “we see the guy before he closes the range to see us,” says Hodge. “This enables us to use our avionics to get a detection and an identification, and to get the shot off before he sees us with any of his sensors.” Stealth is an equally important factor in the multimission F-22’s air- to-ground role. It allows a new set of tactics against surface-to-air mis- 4 Avionics Magazine No advanced weapon system, no matter how lethal, is effective if it doesn’t show up for business. Designed and built with reliabili- ty and maintainability in mind, the F-22 Raptor offers the capa- bility to fly and fight from Day One. Billed as twice as reliable and capable as its predecessors, the F-22 will allow the U.S. Air Force to get to the fight faster, stay longer and fly more missions than any conventional fighter aircraft. The F-22 is proving itself through a rigorous flight test program conducted by the CombinedTest Force at Edwards AFB, Calif.Test pilots on the F-22 contractor team have put the Raptor through more than 2,000 flight test hours to date,more than 500 hours test- ing the new avionics system. Aircraft, engines and avionics will be thoroughly tested before the F-22 enters operational service, and before that, during initial operational test and evaluation (IOT&E), beginning in Q2/Q3 2003.That is when Air Force test pilots will fly the aircraft as if they were in an operational squadron. Ready from the Get-Go Two of the F-22 Raptor’s three unique performance capabili- ties—speed and agility—are made possible by the breakthrough technology afforded by the aircraft’s twin 35,000-pound-thrust Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 engines, the most powerful fight- er engines in production. With the F119 engine (and the F135 derivative for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter),stealth is also integrated with the engine.While previous stealth technology has relied on “burying” the engine through advanced geometry and coating, today’s F119 is mounted in a conventional manner to provide maximum performance and ease of maintenance. At the same time, use of advanced materials and design make the system difficult to detect by enemy radar.The end result, says team member Pratt & Whitney, is a more reliable engine and more hours in the air to support the mission. Raptor’s “supercruise” speed and long range also allow the pilot to quickly enter and exit the mission site while evading enemy fire. In addition, thrust vectoring—the ability to control the engine exhaust’s direction through use of a deflecting nozzle— provides unprecedented maneuverability. It minimizes drag through reduced use of aerodynamic flight controls and is fully integrated into the aircraft’s flight control system. Pratt & Whitney has developed the engine for ease of mainte- nance by minimizing the number of tools needed to perform repairs, reducing the number of parts by 40 percent, optimizing the location of line-replaceable items on the engine, and making all critical engine features accessible to technicians. Pratt &Whit- ney expects these efforts to reduce operating cost by 50 percent from current technology, and increase time between maintenance by 225 percent. When fielded, the engine systems will use advanced diagnostics that can immediately discover operational problems and identify them by specific part number. The F-22 communicates this data via satellite back to the operating base, so a fix will be available when the aircraft lands. Plenty of Power, Reduced Costs
  4. 4. siles (SAMs) and an adversary’s inte- grated air defense system (IADS), which combines SAMs with advanced fighter aircraft. “To no sur- prise, the best combination against this threat is a stealthy fighter that flies very fast. We can get in and out of [the enemy’s] range of coverage before he has a chance to engage us,” Hodge points out. The F-22 is slated to be a prime element of the initial strike force—referred to by Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. John Jumper as the “kick down the door” force— against heavily defended areas. Supercruise The F-22’s ability to conduct deep penetration missions against heavily defended air or ground targets is greatly enhanced by its ability to “supercruise”—to fly at supersonic speeds without the use of its after- burners. (The term “supercruise” was invented by the Air Force to define a capability that did not exist in a pro- duction aircraft prior to the F-22.) This breakthrough results from the Raptor’s efficient aerodynamic design, combined with its two power- ful Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 engines. Pratt &Whitney won the F-22 engine competition when the Lock- heed Martin-led team won the air- frame competition in the program’s demonstration-validation (dem-val) phase. And since 1998, the P&W- equipped F-22 has been demonstrat- ing that it can fly at military power at speeds in excess of Mach 1.5 without afterburner. This capability delivers two advantages. It enhances the fighter’s stealth characteristics by eliminat- ing the infrared signature that is emitted by an afterburner. And it greatly extends the F-22’s range by allowing supersonic cruise flight without the need to use the fuel- guzzling afterburners. Afterburners still will play an important role in the F-22’s mission by providing added thrust and speed during an intercept or in a dogfight, but they will not have to be used for extended periods in cruise. “We wanted the benefits of speed with- out the penalty of the afterburner, so we invented supercruise—and it works,” Hodge says. The Raptor’s range is classified, but insiders say that in conventional or military power, it has “twice the range of our best current air-to-air fighter.” Agility Despite the obvious breakthroughs afforded by its stealth and super- cruise capabilities, the Air Force chose not to have a fast, high-flying fighter that couldn’t maneuver. “We learned in Vietnam that all you have to do is get a small maneuvering fighter inside the ‘fast flyer’s’ turn circle, and it will eat him up,” says Hodge. Lockheed Martin already had established a reputation of building fast, highly maneuverable fighters— the F-16 Fighting Falcon is arguably the most maneuverable of modern day fighters—and the company wanted to continue the tradition. To enhance the maneuverability of the F-22, a large fighter with near- ly the same dimensions as the F-15, the Raptor team turned to thrust vectoring. “Basically, we take the exhaust from the aircraft and vector it up or down, plus or minus 20 degrees,” Hodge explains. Thrust vectoring “makes for phe- nomenal maneuverability,” particu- larly at low speeds and at high angles of attack, he adds. Maneuverability in a modern fighter is measured by how slow it can fly, and by how much angle of attack it can sustain and still turn. “If you define the most maneu- verable fighter as capable of a 26- degree angle of attack, we are better than twice that,” says Hodge, adding that the F-22 has demonstrated 60 degrees angle of attack. “Nobody can outmaneuver it; nobody can out- range it,” he adds. A pilot who has flown the Raptor in tests, confirms its capabilities. “The F-22 has demonstrated agility and maneuverability to absolutely dominate the close-in air battle,” says Chuck Killberg, test pilot for F-22 team member Boeing. He adds, however, that “the goal is to be miles away [for the kill], so we’re depend- ing on the avionics.” Hodge agrees. “The real strength in all the F-22’s capabilities is the avionics suite that encompasses sensor fusion and multisensor inte- gration.” Still, Raptor pilots will wel- come the added advantages of stealth, speed and agility.  Avionics Magazine 5 The F-22 Raptor can stow various combinations of weapons for engaging enemies in the air and on the ground. Air-to Air The F-22 will carry six AIM-120 Advanced, Medium-Range, Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAMs) in the main weapons bay and two AIM- 9 Sidewinders in the side bays. It also carries an internally mounted M61A2Vulcan 20mm cannon with 480 rounds. Air-to-Ground The Raptor will carry internally stored 1,000-pound GBU-32 joint direct attack muni- tions (JDAMs) for precision all-weather attack, in place of four AMRAAMs. (A larger version of the GBU-32 has been credited with destroying caves in Afghanistan.) Other The F-22 also has four external hardpoints for weapons/fuel carriage when stealth is not critical. The Raptor’s Arsenal
  5. 5. 6 Avionics Magazine A blue-ribbon team of suppliers has developed the F-22’s electronics suite, including integrated processing to produce a comprehensive, blended view of the mission environment. A Complete Picture of Who’s Out There [ ] A Complete Picture of Who’s Out There
  6. 6. Avionics Magazine 7 T hree sensor platforms— radar; electronic warfare (EW); and communica- tions, navigation and iden- tification (CNI)—combine to form part of the advanced inte- grated avionics suite that provides the F-22 Raptor pilot with unprece- dented capabilities. They do so through the computing power of two Common Integrated Processors (CIPs) in each aircraft. A clear advantage over previous generation aircraft is the F-22’s abil- ity to gather information from mul- tiple sensors, both onboard and off- board the aircraft, and fuse it to pre- sent a comprehensive view of the mission environment. “In the F-22, we supply the pilot with a single view of the world,” says Ron Shue, Lockheed Martin’s avionics inte- grated product team (IPT) leader. The CIP makes “the correlation, enabling the pilot to command the actions,” he adds. The avionics suite comprises hardware and software produced by the F-22 team members: Lockheed Martin, Boeing Military Aircraft & Missile Systems, Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Raytheon, BAE Systems andTRW. Lockheed Martin is primarily responsible for the develop- ment and initial testing of the air- craft’s integrated avionics suite at both its Marietta, Ga., and Fort Worth, Texas, facilities. Team partner Boeing is responsible for final integration testing and software delivery for the F-22’s advanced avionics. The first flight of an F-22 equipped with a combat-ready avionics suite took place in January 2001. This significant milestone was required for U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) approval to start the aircraft’s low-rate initial production. The avionics suite incorporated Block 3.0 software components to support radar processing, sensor fusion, EW and countermeasures, CNI, and a pilot-vehicle interface. Last February, the industry team delivered the latest integrated software pack- age, Block 3.1, to the Combined Test Force at Edwards AFB, Calif., for flight testing. The new software package was successfully flown for the first time on April 25 in Raptor 4006. The Block 3.1 package supplies more than 90 percent of the total functionality planned for the F-22. It offers increased radar, EW and CNI capabilities, plus the addition of GPS navigation. Eventually, all F-22s will receive the avionics updates. “The release of Block 3.1 integrat- ed software is a significant enhancement to the warfighting capabilities already demonstrated by the Raptor,” says Bob Rearden, Lockheed Martin F-22 vice president and general manager. Prior to deliv- ery, subsystem hardware and soft- ware had been rigorously tested at Boeing’s Avionics Integration Lab (AIL) in Seattle. And since 1999, air- borne testing has been conducted on the Boeing 757 Flying Test Bed (FTB) aircraft. Use of the FTB reduces avionics system risk and limits development costs. It enables exten- sive evaluation and troubleshooting before full avionics systems are installed on the F-22. To date, more than 98 percent of system anom- alies have been found prior to deliv- ery to the Raptor. AESA Radar The joint venture team of Northrop Grumman and Raytheon provides the AN/APG-77 multimode active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar. This system can rapidly track multiple targets at long range, allow- ing simultaneous use of search and track modes. It also has advanced electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) capability. The AESA line-replaceable unit (LRU) includes thousands of transmit and receive modules, which are assembled onto “subarrays” that are inserted into the antenna.The anten- na then sends the radio frequency (RF) signals to a receiver, and they are processed in the radar support elec- tronics LRU. The AN/APG-77 radar interfaces with the F-22’s CIP, the computing heart of the F-22’s mission system, where the sensor informa- tion is fused with other information and displayed to the pilot. “The key element in the radar system is the active aperture anten- na, which enables the outstanding radar system performance being reported by F-22 test pilots,” says Jerry Dunnigan, Northrop Grum- man director of F-22 radar pro- grams. The radar’s electronic scan- ning capability allows the beam to be moved much more rapidly than with previous systems, permitting enhanced radar searching and mul- tiple tracking capabilities. And because of the active aperture array’s reliability, its LRU can be sealed in the nose of the aircraft and left alone, he maintains. The AN/APG-77 system has sig- nificant growth capability that could support such advancements as syn- thetic aperture radar, automatic tar- get cueing and ground moving target indication. The upgraded radar would enhance the F-22’s air-to- ground capabilities by adding pro- cessing capacity, allowing the F-22 to target and deliver GPS-guided weapons even more accurately. Northrop Grumman, leading the radar system design, provides the software, active aperture antenna, RF receiver, radar support electron- ics and system integration. Its part- ner, Raytheon, has responsibility for the transmit and receive module design, the array power supply and driver, and the power conditioner. Northrop Grumman’s work is per- formed at its Electronics Division, near Baltimore, where it has 10,000 employees, and at other locations. Raytheon’s facilities, with 2,500 employees, are in McKinney,Texas. Program Status The radar program is transitioning to production, following the engi- neering and manufacturing develop- ment (EMD) phase, which ran from 1991 to 2002. During that period Northrop Grumman and Raytheon built 11 radar systems, which have undergone more than 12,000 hours of testing in a laboratory, on the FTB aircraft and on F-22s at Edwards AFB. In addition, the radar team is pro- ducing eight systems for the pro- gram’s production-readiness test vehicle (PRTV) stage. They are being installed on F-22s at Lockheed Mar- tin’s facility in Marietta. First deliver- ies of radar systems for 10 Lot 1 pro- duction aircraft are scheduled to begin in the second quarter of 2002. Northrop Grumman and Raytheon also are under contract for the sec- ond production lot of 13 aircraft. Deliveries are to begin in 2003, and
  7. 7. 8 Avionics Magazine Development, integration and testing of the F-22 Raptor’s avionics system have played a key role in the fighter aircraft program’s success. The advanced inte- grated systems flying on F-22 test air- craft today are displaying impressive per- formance, meeting or exceeding require- ments, says Ron Shue, Lockheed Martin’s avionics integrated product team (IPT) leader. And the missile launches have been successful. The F-22 team’s projected flight test schedule reflects the integration and test- ing program’s effectiveness. It calls for 1,700 hours of avionics flight testing,com- pared to the 4,000 to 6,000 hours histori- cally required for a new fighter aircraft. The avionics laboratories, located throughout the United States and operat- ed by Lockheed Martin and its team members, are the prime contributors to this cost-saving schedule. These include the Avionics Integration Lab (AIL) at Boeing in Seattle; Lockheed Martin’s Tactical Aircraft System Integration Lab (TASIL) in Fort Worth;TRW’s San Diego Avionics Integration Lab (SAIL), where the communication, navigation and identi- fication (CNI) system is tested; and the Cockpit Avionics Integration Lab (CAIL) in Marietta, Ga. In addition, Boeing’s 757 Flying Test Bed (FTB) aircraft has accumulated more than 1,000 flight hours, testing the subsystems and integrated system in an airborne environment, and more test hours lie ahead. It was used in early 2002 to test the CNI system at Lockheed Mar- tin’s Fort Worth facility. More than 19,000 test and integra- tion hours have been recorded in the AIL. That includes testing the F-22’s latest software, Block 3.1.1 (subversion of Block 3.1), in the spring of 2002. The avionics labs and Flying Test Bed ensure that hardware and software compo- nents and subsystems match design. They also help reduce avionics risks and limit development costs by enabling extensive evaluation and troubleshooting before the full avionics system is installed on the F-22. The F-22 systems testing largely fol- lows a set sequence. Development, inte- gration and testing begins with digital simulation and models. Subsystem testing follows, using subsystem labs and the inte- gration laboratory. Then the subsystems are brought together, and an integrated system and upgrades are tested in the AIL and FTB simultaneously. The integrated system is then delivered for installation on the F-22. Using the CNI system as an example, the F-22 team had electronic integration take place inTRW’s SAIL before delivery to Lockheed Martin’s TASIL, in Fort Worth. There the CNI system, including its antennas, was tested on a full-size air- craft model. From Fort Worth, the CNI system went to the AIL, where all of the vehicle system’s hardware and software came together.Then it was off to the FTB for testing in an aircraft environment, and finally to the F-22 aircraft. The electronic warfare (EW) system followed a similar path although the tech- nique differed since enemy threats are simulated best in a laboratory. The first radio frequency (RF) system hardware and prototype software (for Block 2) EW test- ing were delivered to Boeing’s AIL in Feb- ruary 1999.The countermeasures and mis- sile launch detectors were sent the follow- ing month. From there the full EW system went to the FTB for evaluation in the“real world” and then to the F-22, where it was part of Block 3.0, the complete integrated avionics suite. The system was first flown on Raptor 4005, the fifth test aircraft, in January 2001. Cockpit and display integration takes place at the CAIL, where the full system, like that at the AIL, is tested. Kaiser Electronics, now part of Rockwell Collins, provides the head-down displays, and BAE Systems (formerly Marconi) builds the head-up display. Test, Test and Test Again the team anticipates Lot 3 and 4 buys, with deliveries extending beyond 2005. The Northrop Grumman- Raytheon team has been active in supporting Air Force’s “war-on- cost” initiatives. It has delivered all radar systems on time and within cost, and has received several “out- standing team” awards from its prime contractors, as well as a Gold Supplier “F-22 War-on-Cost Award” from the U.S. government. The team employed several inno- vations to win the cost war.A subarray interconnect improvement program reduced by 33 percent the labor required for assembly by employing a ribbon bonding process that makes all connections between the transmit modules, the receive modules, the cir- culators and the manifolds. Also, a transmit and receive module product improvement program (PIP), involving thousands of modules in the array, resulted in significant cost reductions. The F-22 radar has weathered a challenging development and test program. In 1998, the FTB was taken to Baltimore for the radar’s stand- alone subsystem testing. Northrop Grumman further verified the radar system software in its laboratory prior to delivering it to the AIL. In December 1998, Block 2 software was delivered, providing additional mode functions and marking the start of sensor integration. Delivery of the third radar software block enabled testing of the avionics full sensor fusion capabilities, and Block 3.0 integrated software testing began on the FTB in September 2000. Electronic Warfare The Raptor’s EW system serves not only as a defensive mechanism that warns the pilot of radar-directed threats, but also as an offensive asset. “It’s the first EW system to be used to enhance lethality, not just survivabil- ity,” says Lockheed Martin’s Shue. It can identify targets and provide pas- sive search and tracking. F-22 pilots can detect and track targets without revealing their locations by using the target aircraft’s radar returns rather than their own. The F-22 EW system was designed as an integral part of the aircraft. This represents a marked improvement over the previous method of develop- ing the aircraft and then equipping it with EW. “Then we would have to make compromises,” says Jim Bang- hart, BAE Systems deputy general manager for F-22. “With the F-22, all development was done in parallel, allowing installation and functional tradeoffs to be made to optimize the overall weapons system rather than any one element of the design.” Developed and produced by BAE Systems in conjunction with Lock- heed Martin, the EW system pro-
  8. 8. 10 Avionics Magazine vides beyond-visual-range identifi- cation of RF emitters, as well as radar warning, missile launch detection and countermeasures. By using such state-of-the-art compo- nents as surface-mounted devices, application-specific integrated cir- cuits and monolithic microwave integrated circuits, BAE Systems was able to package the 266 modules into a total weight of just 365 pounds. Its 156 antenna elements are located in four embedded aper- tures and are treated to preserve the Raptor’s stealth features. A major contributor to the pilot’s situational awareness, EW provides the location of radar emitters that are trying to detect or track him well before the Raptor becomes visible to the threat’s radar. With full 360- degree EW coverage, the system detects and identifies RF emitters on the ground and in the air. The F-22 pilot receives data necessary to determine whether to engage or avoid the threat. The system identi- fies the type of radar “painting” the F-22 by measuring characteristics of the received signals (frequency, pulse width, interval between puls- es, etc.) and comparing them with data loaded during pre-flight plan- ning. The measured characteristics can indicate even radar modes and warn the pilot that a missile is about to be launched. EW antennas embedded in the aircraft’s surface help preserve the F- 22’s stealth attributes. BAE Systems provides the apertures, treats them for radar cross section (RCS), and ships them to Marietta, where Lock- heed Martin performs final milling and antenna calibrations. Another EW function—precision direction finding (PDF)—“accurately locates the emissions in both the horizontal and vertical planes,” says Banghart. “In the Raptor, the PDF function allows detected signals to be correlated with other sensors, so if you see a blip on the radar screen, EW can identify the source by ana- lyzing emissions coming from that blip. It tells who is looking at us.” The F-22’s radar warning and PDF capability provide high resolution for tracking and identification and the type of accuracy normally asso- ciated with ELINT (electronic intelli- gence) gathering systems, but on a tactical aircraft. The EW system’s high-speed processing is divided equally—half performed in the CIP and half performed in the system’s dedicated front-end processors. BAE Systems credits another EW function with making passive track- ing possible. The system’s narrow- beam, interleaved search-and-track (NBILST) capability provides beyond- visual-range identification—another first for fighter aircraft, according to Banghart. By using high-gain, nar- row-beam antenna patterns, special receivers and signal processing, this function becomes thousands of times more sensitive than most standard radar warning receivers. “If the F-22’s avionics suite sees an emitter or a target using any of its sensors, it can ask this [NBILST] function to take a high-sensitivity look in that direction and make an identification based on emissions from the target,” Banghart explains. The F-22’s EW suite also went through intensive lab testing, using a $25-million, 20-foot-long, advanced dynamic RF simulator (ADARS) and the FTB aircraft. And BAE Systems is working on 16 cost-reduction efforts to achieve better than a 12-times payback on the cost of the EW sys- tem’s implementation. For example, the company will replace the three receiver types with a digital receiver. The largest cost-reduction initiative, this broadband receiver uses com- mercial off-the-shelf (COTS) compo- nents and will save the Air Force an estimated $500 million over the life of the program. Infrared Subsystem While BAE Systems accounts for the RF subsystem of the F-22’s EW suite, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control, in Orlando, Fla., is responsi- ble for the missile launch detector (MLD). It provides passive detection of missiles launched at the F-22 from ground-based or airborne threats. There are six MLDs: two mounted behind the cockpit, two underneath and one on each side of the aircraft, providing full 360-degree coverage. Windows in front of each sensor are contoured into the aircraft’s surface to maintain stealth performance. The MLDs look for heat energy from missile plumes or rocket boost- ers.They also can detect aerodynamic heat gain from approaching missiles, warning the pilot that his aircraft has been targeted. When the system detects a missile, the pilot would nor- mally eject flares to counter it. If the missile is coming from the same direction as that of identitified RF sig- nals, it suggests chaff would be the preferred countermeasure. Release of countermeasures can be automatical- ly or manually directed.The MLD also can monitor correct ignition and release of the flare. CNI Once considered a fairly routine sys- tem that pilots still refer to simply as “com-nav,” communication, naviga- tion and identification has evolved to play an essential role in the Raptor’s advanced integrated avionics suite. The F-22 CNI, managed by Lockheed Martin team member TRW in San Diego, is key to sending and receiving information but also to detecting and tracking targets. It includes a secure data link with other ground and air- borne sources, which inform the F-22 pilot of target locations and the pre- cise position of other members of his The Flying Test Bed, a much-modified Boeing 757, is used to test the F-22’s subsystems and integrated avioncs suite.
  9. 9. Avionics Magazine 11 formation. The CNI system allows the F-22 pilot to operate in controlled or hos- tile airspace. It integrates traditional functions such as UHF/VHF radios, tactical air navigation system, instru- ment landing system and air combat maneuvering instrumentation with new functions, such as advanced data links and a high-accuracy elec- tronically scanned interrogator. Some 52 percent of the total avionics sensor software resides in the CNI subsystem, accounting for 350,000 lines of code, according to Joe Gerard, TRW Radio Systems’ director of business development-military programs. The CNI system was developed by a 10-company team headed by Lockheed Martin, which provides system engineering and integration and some of the CNI soft- ware. A supplier team headed by TRW includes these companies:  Rockwell Collins provides the UHF and VHF communications;  BAE Systems furnishes all the apertures for the F-22’s CNI sys- tem, the specialized intra-flight data link (IFDL) system and the joint tactical information distribu- tion system (JTIDS) hardware and software; and  ITT provides transponder systems. CNI radio systems have full spec- trum capability, from 100 to 5,000 MHz, including VOR, DME, JTIDS, IFF (identification friend or foe) Mode S transponder/interrogator (for updat- ed air traffic control), and a traffic alert collision avoidance system (TCAS). GPS navigational capability has been added in the 3.1 software update for the F-22, combining this system with the inertial navigation system (INS). Northrop Grumman provides the combined GPS-INS sys- tem for primary navigation. Other growth functions support- ed by F-22’s CNI system include a microwave landing system (MLS) and satellite communications (SAT- COM), which supports “constant source” real-time intelligence. By going to “an integrated avionics strategy—using common signal processors, data processors and dis- plays—TRW has been able to reduce size, weight and power requirements for the F-22’s CNI system by one third,” says Gerard. The system, which weighs 260 pounds and draws 2,800 watts of power, is housed in two integrated avion- ics racks with external LRUs, including anten- na interfaces and audio control panels. “The glue that makes all these sig- nals operate simulta- neously is contained in the computer soft- ware modules, com- prising about 400,000 lines of code,” says Gerard. “They make the whole integrated avionics for the CNI work.” The CNI system’s maintainability has been improved through integrat- ed diagnostics, and the use of com- mon modules reduces supportability costs. Gerard cites module reliability examples as high as 16,000 hours predicted mean time between fail- ures (MTBF) for a preprocessor and 18,500 hours for a single L-band receiver. CNI upgrades will migrate toward open architecture and COTS hard- ware, Gerard says, and go from mili- tary standard CIPs to commercial PC-based processors. And while much of the CNI processing is done in the core computers, “in CNI-2, it will reside in the CNI racks,” he adds. CNI testing followed the pattern used with the radar and EW sys- tems. Block 2/3 testing added CNI and EW to the package, and Block 3 testing, which began in 2000, tested the avionics system’s full fusion sen- sor capabilities. CIP Two Common Integrated Proces- sors provide the computing power for the F-22’s sensor fusion. Raytheon, working with Lockheed Martin, heads the team that is developing and producing this crit- ical subsystem. Raytheon, in El Segundo, Calif., is the CIP integra- tor and supplies CIP software and the common line replaceable mod- ules (LRMs). Lockheed Martin Aero- nautics, in Marietta, manages development of the core processor and also writes key portions of the software that runs the CIP. Other suppliers for the CIP include:  Harris Corp., Melbourne, Fla., pro- vides the fiber optic network inter- face unit, which lets the CIP com- municate with the F-22 systems.  Smiths Aerospace, in the UK, fur- nishes the digital memory video recorder;  General Dynamics Decision Sys- tems, Scottsdale, Ariz., makes the crypto (KOV-5) LRM;  Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control, in Orlando, supplies the non-RF (or IR) signal processor;  BAE Systems, Nashua, N.H., sup- plies the graphics processor.  Boeing developed the power supply; and  TRW, in San Diego, furnishes the low-latency signal processor. Flight Controls/Stores Lockheed Martin in Fort Worth is responsible for designing the archi- tecture, software and algorithms for the F-22’s fly-by-wire flight control system. Other companies supplying systems for the Raptor’s flight control and stores include:  Raytheon, which supplies the flight control processor;  BAE Systems, the interface mod- ules;  Parker Aerospace, the actuators;  Rosemont Aerospace, the air data system computers and sensors;  ITT, the air combat maneuvering instrumentation (ACMI) system, which will be used in F-22 pilot training; and  Lockheed Martin Aeronautics pro- vides all software and integration for the F-22’s stores management system, which controls all weaponry and launch sequences for advanced air-to-air and air-to- surface weapons. The company also conducts fit checks for the AIM-9M (and soon AIM-9X) and AIM-120C AMRAAM missiles.  Internal weapons storage helps give the F-22 stealth performance.
  10. 10. 12 Avionics Magazine View from the Cockp View from the Cockp Bret Luedke, Lockheed Martin F-22 chief test pilot
  11. 11. Avionics Magazine 13 P ilots who have flown the F-22 Raptor agree that one feature stands foremost among the technolo- gy breakthroughs that separate the air dominance fighter from other aircraft today: its com- puter-managed advanced avionics suite. This feature enables the pilot to operate in battle conditions with- out the burden of managing individ- ual sensors. “The big difference is the integrat- ed avionics in the F-22,” says Bret Luedke, Lockheed Martin’s F-22 chief test pilot. “With other airplanes, information is displayed on three or four different displays, forcing the pilot to do comparison and analysis, and decide whether a target on the radar display is the same target he sees on the radar warning display. “In the F-22, we let the computers on the airplane do that for us,” he adds. “The main benefit is the increase in the pilot’s situational awareness and the decrease in the workload.” Raptor pilots, therefore, are tacti- cians and not sensor managers. “We get a single display that is integrat- ed,” says Luedke. “All information is put into one picture for us, a 360- degree view around the airplane.” Luedke, assigned to the F-22 Combined Test Force at Edwards AFB, Calif., has more than 4,000 hours of flight test time in 40 differ- ent aircraft, including the F-16, F-4 and T-37. Since making his first Rap- tor test flight in June 2000, he has logged more than 120 hours in the F- 22. Luedke was the first pilot to fly Raptor 4004, the first F-22 equipped with the integrated avionics suite. Sensors In its primary role of detecting, iden- tifying and destroying enemy tar- gets, the F-22 has the unique capa- bility to process and fuse informa- tion from offboard as well as onboard sensors. This capability helps confirm targets, telling who they are and where they are going. But while the Raptor can gather valuable target and threat informa- tion from satellites, ground sources and airborne sources, such as the Airborne Warning and Control Sys- tem (AWACS), the fighter also has considerable standalone capability. Indeed, Luedke believes that “when the Air Force starts flying the air- planes operationally, the F-22 itself will eventually play a significant part in feeding the [mission data acquisi- tion] system.” Unlike F-15 and F-16 pilots, who rely primarily on radar, F-22 pilots get data from various onboard sys- tems (some passive) to secure track- ing and targeting information. “The electronic warfare [EW] and com- munication, navigation and identi- fication [CNI] system sensors col- lect information, and if we need to use radar to acquire more accurate range, velocity or rate-of-closure data, then [the computers] will cue the radar to do that,” Luedke says, describing the EW system’s automation. Four F-22s, fully equipped with the integrated avionics, have been test flown at Edwards AFB. This activity is part of the preparation for Air Force initial operational testing, scheduled to begin in the spring of 2003. No one has flown, or flown in, an F-22 other than qualified Air Force and contractor test pilots, however. This is because—like several previ- ous jet fighters, including the first stealth fighter, the F-117 Nighthawk—no two-seat version was built. A two-seat F-22 was con- sidered an unnecessary expense, since ease of handling makes transi- tion from the simulator to the sin- gle-seat fighter relatively easy, according to pilots who have flown the Raptor. In addition to the flying quality simulators used by test pilots, Lock- heed Martin maintains two cockpit demonstrators, to show cockpit lay- out and design and depict the Rap- tor’s integrated avionics system. The demonstrator’s flight control soft- ware almost mirrors that in the real airplane—though, obviously, classi- fied information is not displayed. In the Driver’s Seat Avionics Magazine was invited to “fly” an air-to-air mission in the F-22 demonstrator. Climbing into the Raptor cockpit, one first notices the large, full-color multifunction dis- plays, made by Kaiser Electronics. In the center, horizontally, is the prima- ry tactical display, providing real- time situational awareness (aircraft position, speed, altitude, etc.) and threat location. By applying pressure to the cursor control button on the throttle quad- rant (much like using a mouse on a computer), the pilot can move a cur- sor onto the target symbols in the display. He thus gains, through sen- sor fusion, the target’s speed, alti- tude and identification. Upon being identified, the targets appear on the display in colors: green for friendly, yellow for uniden- tified, and red for hostile. A wing- man, should there be one, would appear on the display in blue. This information, along with basic flight data—airspeed, angle of attack, g- force and weapons state—also appears on the F-22 pilot’s head-up display (HUD), with enemy targets depicted as triangles. To the right of the tactical display is the offensive display, from which the pilot can determine when the missiles are ready to fire, and in what The F-22 Raptor is a complex fighter aircraft. Yet, with its ease of handling and ability to fuse data from multiple sensors to provide complete situational awareness, pilots find it easier to fly than older airplanes. [ ] pitpit
  12. 12. 14 Avionics Magazine sequence. The screen provides a ver- tical display of the mission-area situ- ation, showing the altitudes of threats, friendly aircraft and the pilot’s own aircraft in relation to the terrain. Defensive Display The screen to the left of the prima- ry tactical display is the defensive display, showing the air and ground-based threats. It approxi- mates the radar warning receiver (RWR) on other fighters, in addi- tion to pinpointing the location of the radar that “sees” you. It even tells what type of radar it is and its range. Red rings on the display represent enemy surface-to-air missile (SAM) sites and their detection ranges. The weapons display below the primary tactical display shows how many of the F-22’s missiles remain aboard and how many rounds are in the aircraft’s 20-mm cannon, as well as the availability of chaff and flares. A smaller display (upper right) presents the F-22’s altitude and airspeed. And on the left is the caution and warning system, which displays malfunctions and corre- sponding corrective actions. “What distinguishes the F-22’s displays from those in legacy aircraft is the source of the data being pre- sented, which is the Common Inte- grated Processor [CIP],” says Steve Callaghan, Lockheed Martin F-22 program representative. “In the past, we might have an RWR over here that is getting info from its own sen- sors, a radar display that relies on its own information from a data link,” he adds, pointing to various areas of the cockpit panel. “But it is not necessarily fused or corre- lated. In fact, it was the pilot’s brain that acted as the data fusion comput- er. Now that fusion takes place inside the CIP.” The various sources of infor- mation—from onboard and off- board sensors— assure data accuracy in the F-22 cockpit. The pilot is certain that, say, four separate targets on a display are not “one guy showing up four times, or worse, four guys showing up as one contact,” Callaghan explains. He adds that the CIP provides two valu- able bits of data: “where everybody is, and who they are.” The F-22, like the F-16, is flown with a sidestick controller. Also incorporating a red fire control but- ton, the sidestick is positioned on the cockpit’s right side. The twin throttles are on the left. Only slight pressure on the side- stick is required to control the F-22 in flight.The flight control computer does the complex job of managing the F-22’s fly-by-wire flight control system, engines and thrust vector- ing. The computer determines prop- er movement of control surfaces and deflection of the engine exhaust nozzles “to get you there in the most efficient and expeditious way,” Callaghan says. After the Bad Guys On a simulated mission, we could see on the tactical display our loca- tion from geographical reference points. We also could detect that at about 100 miles range, we had a flight of four aircraft in formation coming directly toward us. At the same time, a flight of two aircraft appeared 10 degrees to our left, about 70 miles away. Using the button on the throttle quadrant, we placed the cursor on the two aircraft and discover that these are “friendlies,” two F-16s. But when the four ships in formation were within identification range, they turned red on the display. Using information from a large onboard database, the display told us that they were Su-27 Flankers at 40,000 feet, traveling at 0.8 Mach and right off our nose at 65 miles. Because we saw the four “ban- dits” perfectly, did this mean they were being “painted” by our radar? “Not necessarily,” says Callaghan. “You’re getting this information from a variety of sources. The com- puter fuses it, correlates it and spits it out to the onboard displays.” The velocity vectors (lines that extend from the front of the target symbols) indicated the airspeed of the now-identified targets. On the offensive display, a fan-like symbol on the velocity vector showed (when it touched the display’s aircraft sym- bol) how far away the enemy plane can see you, theoretically, on its radar. With the F-22’s stealth capa- bilities, the enemy aircraft can be detected at a greater distance, allow- ing a first-look, first-shoot and first- kill capability. Options for Attack We then got ready to “whack” the enemy. Pushing the cursor button highlighted, or “designated,” the red targets. With multiple targets, the computer can be preloaded (after a preflight briefing) to automatically select the first target and the sequence of missile firings after that. Or we had the option of select- ing our own order of targets. Also, with a wingman on our left, we could opt to take out two bandits and have the other pilot take out the other two. When the aircraft was in firing range and we maneuvered the F-22 within proper firing parameters, the computer flashed a “shoot” sign on the tactical display and on the HUD. Pressing the red button on the side- stick opened the weapons doors and the missile exited and fired. By pressing the “select” switch again, we highlighted the second bandit and, again, received the shoot signal. The same process was repeated for bandits 3 and 4. The simulator even emitted a noise and showed a plume of smoke resulting from the missile firing. We had four kills. Mission accom- plished, we flew back to base.  The cockpit demonstrator mirrors the F-22 cockpit.
  13. 13. Avionics Magazine 15 [R]ecent conflicts have affirmed the value of a comprehensive air offen- sive. Aerial campaigns have neutral- ized enemy threats, paving the way for successful ground operations. They have shown that air superiori- ty is essential in providing a rapid response to threats or incursions against U.S. interests. With rapid advances in informa- tion processing and display, and particularly in avionics systems aboard aircraft, enemies and poten- tial foes have access to advanced aircraft that U.S. forces may encounter at any time, threatening their ability to wage battle. With a fleet of air superiority fighters near- ing 30 years old, even with upgrades, the United States may fall behind its adversaries. The F-22 Raptor is this new breed of fighter designed to maintain U.S. dominance of the skies during the 21st century. Using many technologi- cal advances to achieve stealth, supersonic cruise, agility and advanced integrated avionics, the F- 22 is set to dominate the skies over any future battlefield and bring unequaled capability into the hands of U.S.Air Force fighter pilots. The Raptor is scheduled to become operational in 2005.Air Force plans call for a fleet of 339 Raptors by the end of 2013. By the time it becomes the United States’ air domi- nance fighter, the average age of its predecessor (the venerable F-15) will be 35 years, and its design nearly 50 years old. Why do we need the F-22? “With potential adversaries continuing to evolve designs and produce new jet fighters, they have caught up with us,” says Mark Hodge, director of F-22 programs for Lockheed Martin’s Washington office. “Other forces have access to fighter aircraft [pro- duced in Russia and elsewhere], which match the performance, range and missile and avionics capabilities of our best current fighters. The potential enemy matches our best current jet. “Do we want for the first time to send our airmen into combat with inferior equipment?” Hodge asks. “We’ve never done that before.” With the collapse of the Soviet Union, U.S. pilots have been able to fly a number of former Soviet and East German fighters to see how those airplanes match up with U.S. aircraft. There was a chilling conclusion. “Our pilots in their airplanes beat our pilots in our airplanes 100 per- cent of the time,” according to USAF Chief of Staff Gen. John Jumper. That will change dramatically when the F- 22 comes along.  Why Air Superiority Is Essential “Do we want for the first time to send our airmen into combat with inferior equipment?”[ ] The F-22 Raptor is shown here firing an AIM-120 advanced, medium-range, air- to-air missile, or AMRAAM.
  14. 14. [1990] Jan. 13: Assembly of first YF-22 prototype begins Sept. 29: First flight of the first YF- 22 prototype; pilot: Dave Ferguson Oct. 30: First flight of the second YF-22 prototype; pilot: Tom Morgenfeld Nov. 28: First live missile firing, ATF program; Jon Beesley fires an AIM-9 Dec. 11: YF-22s fly in formation for first time Dec. 31: Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics submits F-22 proposal to U.S. Air Force [1991] Jan.: F-22 program begins relo- cation to Marietta, Ga.; Gulf War begins April 23: Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics F-22 team wins ATF contract Aug. 2: Engineering and manu- facturing development (EMD) contract awarded [1993] March 1: Lockheed purchases Gen- eral Dynamics’ Fort Worth Division [1994] Feb 10: F-22 procurement reduced from 648 to 422 [1995] March 15: Lockheed and Martin Marietta merge June 2: Assembly of first F-22 mid-body begins Oct. 4: Assembly of first F-22 aft section and wings begins Nov. 2: Assembly of first F-22 integrated forebody begins [1996] Jan. 17: Boeing begins assembly of first shipset of wings Oct. 8: First two flight test F119 engines delivered Oct. 16: Fuselage mate started on first F-22 Nov. 9: Wings for first F-22 arrive at Marietta from Boeing Dec.: Electrical power applied to F-22 for first time [1997] April 9: F-22 Raptor rollout cere- mony held at Marietta Aug. 16: Low-speed taxi test com- pleted Sept. 5: High-speed taxi test com- pleted Sept. 7: First flight of F-22 Raptor; pilot: Paul Metz [1998] Feb. 5: F-22 transported to Edwards AFB for flight test March 31: YF-22 placed in the Air Force Museum May 17: Formal flight testing at Edwards AFB begins June 29: First flight of second F-22 (Aircraft 4002) at Marietta July 30: First in-flight refueling of Aircraft 4001 Aug. 26: Aircraft 4002 flies nonstop to Edwards AFB: pilot: Lt. Col. Steve Rainey Oct. 10: First flight at supersonic speed of Aircraft 4001 Nov. 23: First Block 1 integrated production software released to Flying Test Bed (FTB) 16 Avionics Magazine F-22 Raptor Milestones The first in-flight refueling of an F-22 Raptor occurred on July 30, 1998.
  15. 15. Nov. 23: Lockheed Martin achieves Congressionally mandat- ed 183-flight-hour mark [1999] March 11: Boeing begins testing first avionics package on FTB April 29: Raptor 4002 flies first time with both main and side weapons bay doors open May 4: Raptor 4002 records pro- gram’s 100th flight-test sortie July 21: Raptor 4001 demonstrates supercruise for first time (Mach 1.5, approximately 1,100 mph, for 3 minutes) Aug. 25: Raptor 4002 conducts 60- degree high angle of attack Nov. 23: F-22, KC-10 refueling quali- fication testing completed Dec. 21: 500th flight-test hour accomplished [2000] March 6: First flight of Aircraft 4003; pilot: Chuck Killberg March 15: Aircraft 4003 flies nonstop to Edwards AFB; pilot: Lt. Col. Bill Craig July 25: First AIM-9 launch from Aircraft 4002; pilot: Chuck Killberg Oct. 24: First Advanced Medium- Range Air-to-Air Missile launch from Aircraft 4002; pilot: Lt. Col. “Doc” Nelson Oct. 31: Pratt & Whitney com- pletes 2, 150 TAC cycles, 1/2 full hot section life Nov. 2: Raptor 4001 ferried from Edwards AFB to Wright- Patterson AFB, Ohio, for live-fire testing Nov. 15: First flight of Aircraft 4004, the first avionics Raptor; pilot: Bret Luedke [2001] Jan. 5: First flight of Raptor 4005; pilot: Randy Neville Jan. 30: Raptor 4004 ferried to Edwards AFB Feb. 5: First flight of Raptor 4006; pilot: Al Norman March 11: Raptor 4005 ferried to Edwards AFB April 17: F-22 launched an AIM-9 missile while rolling at 60 degrees per second April 18: F-22 program reached 1,000th flight-test hour May 17: Raptor 4003 successfully flew at maximum Mach May 18: Raptor 4006 ferried to Edwards AFB; full after- burners were used for the first time on takeoff June 13: F-22 becomes first tactical fighter to successfully launch an AIM-9 missile while rolling at 100 degrees per second Aug. 15: Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) unanimously rec- ommended proceeding with F-22 low-rate initial production Aug. 22: Live fire test on Raptor 4001 was conducted at Wright-Patterson AFB Sep 14: F-22 program is approved to enter into low-rate ini- tial production Sep 21: The F-22 Raptor launched the first guided AIM-120 missile Oct. 15: First flight of Raptor 4007 Oct 18: DAB authorizes Lot 2 con- tract for a 13 aircraft buy. [2002] Jan. 5: Aircraft 4007 ferried from Marietta to Edwards AFB. Jan. 15: The Air Force announced its decision to base the first operational wing of F- 22 Raptors at Langley Air Force Base,Va. Feb. 8: Aircraft 4008 completed first flight May 15: Ground-based, full-scale static testing completed Avionics Magazine 17 Wings are attached to the F-22 Raptor fuselage during the aircraft’s final assembly.
  16. 16. 18 Avionics Magazine Advanced S y s t e ms Te c h no l o g ie s ■ American Precision Products ■ Barnhart & Rigging ■ Campbell Engineering Co. ■ Coating Technologies ate ■ General Products LLC ■ GKN Westland Aerospace Inc. ■ Infinity Technology Inc. ■ Southland sion ■ Wyle Laboratories ■ General Dynamics Decision Systems ■ Honeywell International-Engine & Systems ■ conductor Corp. ■ Phoenix Logistics Inc. ■ Raytheon Missiles Systems Co. ■ Sargent Controls & Aerospace ■ 3 Inc. ■ Universal Propulsion Co. ■ Chem-Fab Corp. ■ Aerojet General Corp. ■ Aerospace Dynamics Inc. ■ (Rohr) ■ BAE Systems Inc. ■ Certified Fabrications Inc. ■ Composites Horizons Inc. ■ Dasco Engineering ■ Eaton-St Inc. ■ GKN Aerospace Chem-Tronics Inc. ■ Hexcel Corp. ■ Honeywell International ■ Kaiser Electronics ■ Lockheed Marti Raytheon Co. ■ Schlosser Forge Co. ■ Shultz Steel Co. ■ TRW Inc. ■ ITT Industries Inc. Systems Div. ■ Reyco Precision Technologies LLC ■ GKN Westland ■ Gros-Ite Industries ■ Hamilton Sundstrand Corp. (UTC) ■ HTD Aerospace Inc. ■ Jar Pratt & Whitney ■ United Technologies ■ Whitcraft LLC ■ Dupont Co. ■ Atlantic Precision ■ Baker Hill Industries Inc. ■ Corp. ■ Invensys Sensor Systems ■ KAM Specialties Inc. ■ Lockheed Martin Aerostructures ■ Lockheed Martin—Missiles Devices Inc. ■ Unison Industries ■ Aeroquip Corp. ■ Aero-Tech Tooling Services Inc. ■ Damascus Road Systems Inc. ■ D Aerospace Machining ■ McClier Inc. ■ Pratt & Whitney ■ Phoenix Software ■ Quarterwave Corp. ■ Tucker Data Services ■ ■ Derlan Precision ■ Hamilton Sunstrand Corp. ■ L-3 Communications ■ Honeywell Aircraft Landing ■ Honeywell Intern Rolls-Royce Corp. ■ Spencer Industries ■ Tri-Industries ■ Litton Systems Inc. ■ Brittain Machine Inc. ■ Manufacturing nifin Corp. ■ ECI Systems & Engineering ■ Pratt & Whitney ■ Fairchild Defense Division ■ Kaydon Ring & Seal Inc. ■ PerkinElmer Fluid Sciences ■ Advance Manufacturing Co. Inc. ■ Burke Industries, Silicon Prods ■ Kidde Technology ■ Pa Gage Co. Inc. ■ Wyman Gordon Co. ■ Aeroquip Corp. ■ Aerospace Group ■ Dynalog Inc. ■ Eaton Aeroquip Corp. ■ Glob ponents ■ Jedco Inc. ■ Metro Machine Works Inc. ■ Models & Tools Inc. ■ Moeller Manufacturing ■ Pratt & Whitn Visioneering Inc. ■ Woodward Inc. ■ LAI Midwest Inc. ■ Par Systems Inc. ■ Remmele Engineering Inc. ■ Rosemount May Tool & Mold Inc. ■ Sever Industries Inc. ■ Tradco Inc. ■ Summit Design & Manufacturing ■ Viking Metallurgical tems North America ■ Hitchiner Manufacturing Co. Inc. ■ New Hampshire Ball Bearings ■ Honeywell Internation Smiths Industries ■ Sandia National Laboratories ■ Alken Industries Inc. ■ EDO Corp. ■ Federal Systems-Oweg als Inc. ■ Hughes Treitler Manufacturing Corp. Lockheed Martin Systems Integration ■ Lourdes Industries I Fastene ■ Curtiss Wright Flight Systems ■ Kidde Aerospace Inc. ■ Aluminum Co. of America ■ Argo-Tech C ■ Parker Hannifin Corp. ■ PCC Airfoils Inc. ■ PCC Precision Castparts Corp. ■ RMI Titanium Co. ■ Turbine ■ Engine Components Textron ■ United Aircraft Products Inc. ■ Hanard Machine ■ Casting Co. ■ Selmet Inc. ■ Wah Chang Albany Corp. ■ Hexcel Corp. ■ SPS Technologies craft Center ■ Michelin Aircraft Tire Corp. ■ Micro Craft Inc. ■ Schm tries Inc. ■ L-3 Communications ■ Raytheon Co. ■ Savage Hannifin ■ Wyman Gordon Forgings Inc. ■ Metalcraft Tec ■ ■ Howmet Structural Casting ■ CNC Diversified Manufact ing Co. ■ Fatigue Technology Inc. ■ General Dynamics Tactical Systems ■ Hytek ■ JL Manufacturing Co. Products Inc. ■ tical Sys- “The hard work and dedication of these Team Raptor suppliers has been a major contributor to the excellence of the aircraft design and performance.” [ ] F-22 Raptor: A Nationwide EndeavorMore than 1,000 first-tier companies have joined together to develop and manufacture the F-22 Raptor. Scattered throughout the United States, these subcontractors work on a team lead by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co. and including Pratt &Whitney, Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, BAE Systems,TRW and Boeing Military Aircraft & Missile Systems. Space prohibits listing all F-22 subcontractors; we therefore list the following companies, which provide $50 million or more in production for the F-22 Raptor.
  17. 17. Avionics Magazine 19 T eamwork, a sage once said, is the joining of diverse special- ties for a common purpose in order to accomplish more. The suc- cess of the F-22 Raptor in meeting or exceeding key performance require- ments is a direct result of the com- bined specialties, and efforts, of a dedicated and talented team of sup- pliers throughout the United States and overseas. Major partners Boeing and Pratt & Whitney are part of a team of 2,500 suppliers in 46 states, which enable prime con- tractor Lockheed Mar- tin to build the world’s most a d v a n c e d fighter. Lockheed Martin jokes that it “buys” the plane from its subcontrac- tors, because approximately 60 per- cent of the work in building and equipping the F-22 is performed by suppliers. Without these team mem- bers, the aircraft could never have been designed or built, the prime contractor maintains. These suppliers range from indus- try g iants like Northrop Grum- man, BAE Sys- tems, TRW and Raytheon to small “mom and pop” tool and dye shops that contribute important parts. For some compa- nies, the Raptor represents their only aerospace business. “It is unrealistic to expect that even large cor- porations like Lockheed Mar- tin-with its spectrum of tech- nology and aerospace experience- could build the airplane by our- selves,” says Robert Rearden, general manager of the F-22 program. “Over the years, we have assembled a top-notch blue- ribbon collec- tion of subcontractors and sup- pliers. “The hard work and dedi- cation of these Team Raptor suppliers has been a major contributor to the excellence of the aircraft design and performance,” he adds. There is a good reason for the far- flung network of suppliers through- out the United States and in Europe. “There aren’t many people who can build quality parts for an aircraft like the F-22. And even those who can sometimes are simply not interested in being involved in a program like this,” says Rearden. “The work is where it is because that is where the people who want to do the work reside.” The three companies who supply the sensor platforms that combine to form the Raptor’s advanced inte- grated avionics suite are convinced of the significance of their contribu- tions to the F-22 program. “The APG- 77 radar, being flown today on the Raptor, ushers in a new era of com- bat capability. It represents the next generation in technology and pro- vides a new standard against which everything that follows will be mea- sured,” says Northrop Grumman‚s Jerry Dunnigan, director of F-22 radar programs. “It’s the first time EW has been used to enhance lethality, not just survivability,” says Jim Banghart, commenting on the Raptor’s elec- tronic warfare suite. Banghart is BAE Systems’ F-22 systems director and deputy general manager for F-22. “Some 52 percent of the total avionics sensor software resides in the CNI [communications, navigation and identification] subsystem, man- aged by TRW,” adds Joe Gerard, TRW Radio Systems’ director of business development, military programs. “But by going to an integrated avionics strategy, we have been able to reduce size, weight and power requirements for the system by one third.” Reduced size and weight, greater capability and new generation of technology-these are among the benefits the F-22 Raptor program has gained from joining diverse special- ties, i.e., teamwork.  Crane Associ- P r e c i - Microsemi- Systems BFGoodrich terer (Vickers Inc.) ■ Forrest Machining in Aeronautics Co. ■ Park- er Hannifin Corp. ■ ■ Beacon Industries Inc. ■ Dynamic Gunver rvis Airfoil Inc. ■ Kaman Instrumentation Corp. ■ ■ Eaton Corp. ■ Florida Eagle Industries Inc. ■ Harris & Fire Control ■ Aeropower C o r p . ■ S h a w Ae ro elta Sigma Co. ■ EMS Tech- nologies Inc. ■ McCann ■ Tucker Technology ■ Arrow Gear Co. ■ Aurora Bearing Co. national ■ Howmet Corp. ■ Reeder & Kline Machine Co. Inc. ■ Development Inc. ■ McGinty Machine Co. Inc. ■ Parker Han- ■ Northrop Grumman Electronic Sensors & Systems Sector ■ arker Hannifin Corp. ■ Titeflex Corp. ■ TW Metals ■ Westfield bal Tooling Systems ■ Howmet Corp. ■ Howmet Turbine Com- ney Autoair Composites ■ Rolled Alloys ■ Roush Crucam ■ Aerospace Inc. ■ Advance Tool & Die Co. ■ GKN Aerospace ■ l Corp. ■ Albany International ■ BAE Systems Inc. ■ BAE Sys- nal ■ Howmet Corp. ■ Kulite Semiconductor Products Inc. ■ go ■ Hicksville Machine Works Corp. ■ Homogeneous Met- Inc. ■ Moog ■ MRC Bearings Inc. ■ Peerless Aerospace Corp. ■ Dupont Tribon Composites ■ Goodrich Corp. ■ Sermatech Lehr ■ Slabe Machine Products Co. ■ PCC Precision Castparts Corp. ■ PCC Schlosser Inc. ■ Stein Seal Co. ■ Lockheed Martin Air- miede Machine & Tool Corp. ■ Beacon Indus- e Precision Fabrication ■ Stratoflex/Parker ■ Fairchild Aerospace ■ Howmet Structurals turing Inc. ■ Exot- ic Met- als Form- s Ord- nance & F i n - i s h e s ■ Wilson ATK Tac- tems Co. Joining Diverse Specialties