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Ryan Pelon
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Running head: MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 1
The Effects of Music On Running Distances
Ryan Pelon
Central Michigan University
Author Note
Ryan Pelon, Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ryan Pelon,
Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859. E-mail:
Pelon1rp@cmich.edu.
MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 2
Abstract
There are all kinds of ways people use to get fit and try to drive themselves to go further or go
longer, this research is to address an idea that music can contribute to the ability of the
participant doing the workout. The goal of this research is to determine what music is the best to
listen to base on the participants favorite music and how it affects their ability to run. The
possible results of this experiment can indicate that if a participant listens to their favorite type of
music while running it can cause them to go an increased amount of distance rather not listening
to their favorite or not listening to any music in general.
MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 3
The Effects of Music on Running Distances
Music is something that individuals listen to while they work out(slobada,2010). Music is
used in a variety of ways some being therapeutic(Ansdell, 1995) and its relaxation
qualities(Erkkilla,2008). Something that we as a society come into contact everyday has to have
some sort of influence on our emotions (Slobada,2010). This is why music must be further
studied on its effects on the individual listening to the music.
The variable I intend to focus on is music, the individual’s preference and its effect on the
person in terms of their ability to work out. Whether it contributes to a better performance of the
individual or if it hinders them. I expect to find that depending on the individual’s preference to a
certain kind of music can contribute to a better performance in running, based off the information
gathered from Huang in his writing of Effects of background Music and the concentration of
workers. The individuals who end up listening to their favorite kind of music should have a
higher distance traveled than those who don’t end up listening to their favorite kind of music.
MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 4
Method
Participants
The participants that will be sampled are going to based off of the Sona Psych pool.
Participants will be able to sign up for a specific time they wish to participate in the study, any
type of individual will be able to sign up as long as they are registered in the psych pool. The
population is going to be the college student population. Approximately 200 participants will be
chosen so as to fill 50 spots in the certain music categories being studied (Rap,Rock,Country,
Jazz). The restrictions of this sample is its limited to those who are registered and have access to
the psych pool and the ages are going to college kids which can range from 18 to late twenties.
Apparatus and/or Materials (only include what is relevant to YOUR study)
The materials that will be used in this experiment will include a self-report of the
individual. The self-report will contain the following questions, Age, Height, Weight, how many
days the individual exercises (any period over 1 hour) in a week ranging from never to 7 days.
The participant will also indicate their favorite type of music they listen to. To get a correct
height and weight a scale and height bar will be on site to correctly measure these variables. This
questionnaire is just to get a base level of the individuals participating in the experiment. The
other materials required for this experiment would include a pedometer so distance can be
accurately measured, along with a stop watch so accurate time can be kept. And a whistle to
inform the participant to start or stop. An area where running can occur that is outlined like a
indoor track used in this study. A ipod for the participant to listen to while they run, along with
the 4 created playlists containing their specific music ie. Country songs only in the country
playlist, Rap songs are in the rap playlist, rock songs are in the rock playlist and jazz songs are
contained in the jazz playlist.
MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 5
Procedure
The participants will first arrive at the gym and begin to fill out the self-report mentioned
above in the materials section, a scale and a height bar will be on site to correctly measure the
height and weight of the individual participating. This information will then be recorded in the
self-report. Once the self-report is finished and handed back to the researcher the individual will
be equipped with a pedometer. Then starting at the start line of the track a whistle will be blown
to indicate to the participant to start running, then after ten minutes the whistle will be blown
again to indicate to the participant that they must stop running and hand in their pedometer to the
researcher so their base running distance without music can be measured and recorded. Then a
week will pass and the same participant will come back in and this time will be handed a ipod
and a pedometer. The iPods headphones will be placed in the participants ears so the music can
be heard during the ten minute running period, the playlist will be determined by what group that
particular individual was randomly placed in. So if they were in the country music the researcher
would hand them the iPod and select the country music playlist. The music will then start
playing in the participant’s ears, the whistle will then be blown and once ten minutes has been
shown on the stop watch blown again to indicate that the test was over. The subject again will
hand back their pedometer and the iPod where the distance will then be recorded and measured
to compare from their base week and this week. After the second measurement you then thank
the participant for their involvement in the experiment. Then as the researcher take the
information gathered by the participants and compare the base rates, the new with music distance
and whether it was their favorite type of music they were put in or not.
Results
Results will be based off of an anova test taken using the data from the participants based
MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 6
data against their new data while they were listening to music. These distances will be compared
to each other section so country will be compared against jazz, rock, rap the same is to be said
with the other categories like jazz, rock and rap. The findings based on previous findings in the
literature review Effects of Background Noise on Concentration of Workers(Huangt,2011) show
that if a individual is listening to music they are less likely to focus on their problem or work at
hand. Meaning that the participants listening to their favorite music should go further due to the
fact that they are not concentrating on their feeling of being tired or sore from running.
Assuming this information to be true and constant then the hypothesis of which music is the best
to listen to while working out should be based on the persons personal preference but should be
their favorite music in order to achieve max results.

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Research Proposal

  • 1. Running head: MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 1 The Effects of Music On Running Distances Ryan Pelon Central Michigan University Author Note Ryan Pelon, Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ryan Pelon, Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859. E-mail: Pelon1rp@cmich.edu.
  • 2. MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 2 Abstract There are all kinds of ways people use to get fit and try to drive themselves to go further or go longer, this research is to address an idea that music can contribute to the ability of the participant doing the workout. The goal of this research is to determine what music is the best to listen to base on the participants favorite music and how it affects their ability to run. The possible results of this experiment can indicate that if a participant listens to their favorite type of music while running it can cause them to go an increased amount of distance rather not listening to their favorite or not listening to any music in general.
  • 3. MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 3 The Effects of Music on Running Distances Music is something that individuals listen to while they work out(slobada,2010). Music is used in a variety of ways some being therapeutic(Ansdell, 1995) and its relaxation qualities(Erkkilla,2008). Something that we as a society come into contact everyday has to have some sort of influence on our emotions (Slobada,2010). This is why music must be further studied on its effects on the individual listening to the music. The variable I intend to focus on is music, the individual’s preference and its effect on the person in terms of their ability to work out. Whether it contributes to a better performance of the individual or if it hinders them. I expect to find that depending on the individual’s preference to a certain kind of music can contribute to a better performance in running, based off the information gathered from Huang in his writing of Effects of background Music and the concentration of workers. The individuals who end up listening to their favorite kind of music should have a higher distance traveled than those who don’t end up listening to their favorite kind of music.
  • 4. MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 4 Method Participants The participants that will be sampled are going to based off of the Sona Psych pool. Participants will be able to sign up for a specific time they wish to participate in the study, any type of individual will be able to sign up as long as they are registered in the psych pool. The population is going to be the college student population. Approximately 200 participants will be chosen so as to fill 50 spots in the certain music categories being studied (Rap,Rock,Country, Jazz). The restrictions of this sample is its limited to those who are registered and have access to the psych pool and the ages are going to college kids which can range from 18 to late twenties. Apparatus and/or Materials (only include what is relevant to YOUR study) The materials that will be used in this experiment will include a self-report of the individual. The self-report will contain the following questions, Age, Height, Weight, how many days the individual exercises (any period over 1 hour) in a week ranging from never to 7 days. The participant will also indicate their favorite type of music they listen to. To get a correct height and weight a scale and height bar will be on site to correctly measure these variables. This questionnaire is just to get a base level of the individuals participating in the experiment. The other materials required for this experiment would include a pedometer so distance can be accurately measured, along with a stop watch so accurate time can be kept. And a whistle to inform the participant to start or stop. An area where running can occur that is outlined like a indoor track used in this study. A ipod for the participant to listen to while they run, along with the 4 created playlists containing their specific music ie. Country songs only in the country playlist, Rap songs are in the rap playlist, rock songs are in the rock playlist and jazz songs are contained in the jazz playlist.
  • 5. MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 5 Procedure The participants will first arrive at the gym and begin to fill out the self-report mentioned above in the materials section, a scale and a height bar will be on site to correctly measure the height and weight of the individual participating. This information will then be recorded in the self-report. Once the self-report is finished and handed back to the researcher the individual will be equipped with a pedometer. Then starting at the start line of the track a whistle will be blown to indicate to the participant to start running, then after ten minutes the whistle will be blown again to indicate to the participant that they must stop running and hand in their pedometer to the researcher so their base running distance without music can be measured and recorded. Then a week will pass and the same participant will come back in and this time will be handed a ipod and a pedometer. The iPods headphones will be placed in the participants ears so the music can be heard during the ten minute running period, the playlist will be determined by what group that particular individual was randomly placed in. So if they were in the country music the researcher would hand them the iPod and select the country music playlist. The music will then start playing in the participant’s ears, the whistle will then be blown and once ten minutes has been shown on the stop watch blown again to indicate that the test was over. The subject again will hand back their pedometer and the iPod where the distance will then be recorded and measured to compare from their base week and this week. After the second measurement you then thank the participant for their involvement in the experiment. Then as the researcher take the information gathered by the participants and compare the base rates, the new with music distance and whether it was their favorite type of music they were put in or not. Results Results will be based off of an anova test taken using the data from the participants based
  • 6. MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 6 data against their new data while they were listening to music. These distances will be compared to each other section so country will be compared against jazz, rock, rap the same is to be said with the other categories like jazz, rock and rap. The findings based on previous findings in the literature review Effects of Background Noise on Concentration of Workers(Huangt,2011) show that if a individual is listening to music they are less likely to focus on their problem or work at hand. Meaning that the participants listening to their favorite music should go further due to the fact that they are not concentrating on their feeling of being tired or sore from running. Assuming this information to be true and constant then the hypothesis of which music is the best to listen to while working out should be based on the persons personal preference but should be their favorite music in order to achieve max results.
  • 7. MUSICS EFFECT ON RUNNING 7 References Ansdell, G. (1995). Music for life: Aspects of creative music therapy with adult clients Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London. Retrieved from http://0- search.proquest.com.catalog.lib.cmich.edu/docview/618780947?accountid=10181 Erkkilä, J. (2008). Music and relaxation - more topical than never before?: A commentary on smith's 2008 article. Australian Journal of Music Therapy, 19, 67-69. Retrieved from http://0search.proquest.com.catalog.lib.cmich.edu/docview/622114029?accountid=10181 Huang, R., & Shih, Y. (2011). Effects of background music on concentration of workers. Work: Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, 38(4), 383-387. Retrieved from http://0search.proquest.com.catalog.lib.cmich.edu/docview/883435163?accountid=10181 Sloboda, J. A. (2010). Music in everyday life: The role of emotions Oxford University Press, New York, NY. Retrieved from http://0- search.proquest.com.catalog.lib.cmich.edu/docview/622180686?accountid=10181Hoff, T. (2004). The study of people’s behavior. Clinical and Counseling Psychology Journal, 22, 18-33.