Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
PSYCO 241 Social Psychology     Chapter 3: The Social Self (2)     Takahiko Masuda, Ph.D    Department of Psychology      ...
Today’s Plan  PSYCO 241, Masuda   2
Today’s Plan• Culture & Self-Concept                  PSYCO 241, Masuda   2
Today’s Plan• Culture & Self-Concept• Self-Knowledge  • Self Schema  • Self-Bias                    PSYCO 241, Masuda   2
Today’s Plan• Culture & Self-Concept• Self-Knowledge  • Self Schema  • Self-Bias• Self-Evaluation  • Self-Esteem  • Cultur...
Culture and the Self-ConceptMarkus & Kitayama• People in different cultures have  strikingly different construals of  the ...
Independent vs. Interdependent View              of the Self• Independent View of the Self     – The self as detached from...
Stranger                                   OUT-GROUP                                         Stranger                     ...
Twenty Statement TestsI am ____________I am ____________I am …………………North Americans defined themselves primarily in  terms...
Insults in Independent vs. Interdependent                 CultureOct 14, 2008    PSYCO 241, Masuda      7
Self-KnowledgePersonal Beliefs - beliefs about our personality   traits, our unique abilities and attributes,   and our id...
1. The Organizational Function of         Self-Knowledgea. Memory and the self-reference effect    self-reference effect -...
Self-Reference Effect      PSYCO 241, Masuda   10
2. The Motivational Function of         Self-KnowledgeSelf-Discrepancy Theory:A theory that appropriate    behaviour is mo...
Self-Discrepancy TheoryActual self - the self we truly believe ourselves   to beIdeal self - embodies the wishes and   asp...
3. The Self As A Standard in Social            PerceptionHow do we use our self-knowledge to judge other  people?Self-Imag...
Cultural Variation in Reference               Points                                    1.5Amount of Third-person imageryi...
4. Illusions and Biases About the                 SelfOptimism: The sense that the future offers the promise of happiness ...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   16
Cultural Variations in Self-Bias &             Well BeingThe cultural evidence suggests that self-Illusions  do not automa...
Self-Evaluation1. Trait and State Self-Esteem2. Contingencies of Self-   Worth3. Social Acceptance and   Self-Esteem4. Mot...
1. Trait and State Self-EsteemSelf-esteem - positive or negative overallevaluations you have of yourself*Trait self-esteem...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   20
2. Contingencies of Self-WorthAn account of self-esteem that says that self-esteem is contingent on successes and failures...
3. Social Acceptance and Self-               EsteemSociometer hypothesis: Self-esteem is an internal,subjective index or m...
4. Motives of Self-Evaluation                 Abraham Tessera. The Motive to Elevate Self-Esteem   self-evaluation mainten...
PSYCO 241, Masuda   24
5. Culture and Self-Esteem• North Americans  – High Self-Esteem  – Self-Enhancement (focus on success    information)  – E...
What is the basis of intelligence?North Americans are more likely than Japanese to think thatour intelligence is innately ...
Positive vs. Negative feedback &             PerseveranceThe Canadians worked longer on the task if they  had succeeded on...
6. Culture Change and Self-Esteem             PSYCO 241, Masuda   28
Taka’s Thoughts• Having an illusory positive view towards one  self, and having high self-esteem is positively  correlate ...
Summary of Today’s Lecture• There are several different foundations of the  self-concept.• The self is profoundly shaped b...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Psyco241 ch3(2)social self2012wclass

1,205 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Psyco241 ch3(2)social self2012wclass

  1. 1. PSYCO 241 Social Psychology Chapter 3: The Social Self (2) Takahiko Masuda, Ph.D Department of Psychology University of Alberta PSYCO 241, Masuda 1
  2. 2. Today’s Plan PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
  3. 3. Today’s Plan• Culture & Self-Concept PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
  4. 4. Today’s Plan• Culture & Self-Concept• Self-Knowledge • Self Schema • Self-Bias PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
  5. 5. Today’s Plan• Culture & Self-Concept• Self-Knowledge • Self Schema • Self-Bias• Self-Evaluation • Self-Esteem • Cultural & Self-Esteem PSYCO 241, Masuda 2
  6. 6. Culture and the Self-ConceptMarkus & Kitayama• People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self…These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivationOct 14, 2008 PSYCO 241, Masuda 3
  7. 7. Independent vs. Interdependent View of the Self• Independent View of the Self – The self as detached from others and independently consisting of unique attributes – Dominant in North America and Western Europe• Interdependent View of Self – The self as connected with others and interdependently shaped in combination with social contexts – Dominant in Asia, Africa, South AmericaOct 14, 2008 PSYCO 241, Masuda 4
  8. 8. Stranger OUT-GROUP Stranger OUT-GROUPOct 14, 2008 PSYCO 241, Masuda 5
  9. 9. Twenty Statement TestsI am ____________I am ____________I am …………………North Americans defined themselves primarily in terms of personal attributesThe Japanese were three times more likely than North Americans to define themselves in terms of social roles, consisted with an interdependent self-construal. PSYCO 241, Masuda 6
  10. 10. Insults in Independent vs. Interdependent CultureOct 14, 2008 PSYCO 241, Masuda 7
  11. 11. Self-KnowledgePersonal Beliefs - beliefs about our personality traits, our unique abilities and attributes, and our idiosyncratic preferences, tastes and talentsSocial Beliefs - beliefs about the roles, duties, and obligations we assume in groupsRelational Self-Beliefs - beliefs about our identities in specific relationshipsCollective Self-Beliefs - our identity and beliefs as they relate to the social categories to which we belong PSYCO 241, Masuda 8
  12. 12. 1. The Organizational Function of Self-Knowledgea. Memory and the self-reference effect self-reference effect - tendency to elaborate upon and recall information that is integrated into our self - knowledgeb. Self-schemas and self-understanding self-schemas - knowledge-based summaries of our feelings, actions, and others’ views about the selfc. Culture and Self-Beliefs PSYCO 241, Masuda 9
  13. 13. Self-Reference Effect PSYCO 241, Masuda 10
  14. 14. 2. The Motivational Function of Self-KnowledgeSelf-Discrepancy Theory:A theory that appropriate behaviour is motivated by cultural and moral standards regarding the ideal self and the ought self.Violations of these standards produce emotions like guilt and shame when they are not adhered to. Tory Higgins PSYCO 241, Masuda 11
  15. 15. Self-Discrepancy TheoryActual self - the self we truly believe ourselves to beIdeal self - embodies the wishes and aspirations we and other people maintain about ourselves(promotion focus: approach motivation)Ought self - concerned with the duties, obligations, and external demands we feel we’re compelled to honor(prevention focus: avoidance motivation) PSYCO 241, Masuda 12
  16. 16. 3. The Self As A Standard in Social PerceptionHow do we use our self-knowledge to judge other people?Self-Image Bias: The tendency to judge other’s personalities according to their similarity or dissimilarity to our own personalitySelf-Image Bias & Culture: Canadians were more likely than Asians to reproduce the scene from their original point of view, looking outward from their own perspective. PSYCO 241, Masuda 13
  17. 17. Cultural Variation in Reference Points 1.5Amount of Third-person imageryin “Self at Center of Attention” 1.1 0.8 0.4 0 -0.4 1 European- Asian-Canadians Canadians & Asians PSYCO 241, Masuda 14
  18. 18. 4. Illusions and Biases About the SelfOptimism: The sense that the future offers the promise of happiness and success—it works to maintain one’s well-being.Blimpy Burger in Ann Arbor, MI1. Type of buns2. Number of meat patties3. Types of Cheese4. Mushrooms: Grilled or not5. Onions: Grilled or not6. Bacon: How much?7. Toppings: Pickles, Tomato, Lettuce, and so on….8. Sauce9. Side Dishes PSYCO 241, Masuda 15
  19. 19. PSYCO 241, Masuda 16
  20. 20. Cultural Variations in Self-Bias & Well BeingThe cultural evidence suggests that self-Illusions do not automatically promote elevated well- being.• Japanese are less likely to assume they are better than average than Americans• Japanese are less likely to show evidence of unrealistic optimism than Canadians• People in Western societies are likely to have a stronger sense of personal control and freedom of choice than Asians. PSYCO 241, Masuda 17
  21. 21. Self-Evaluation1. Trait and State Self-Esteem2. Contingencies of Self- Worth3. Social Acceptance and Self-Esteem4. Motives of Self-Evaluation5. Culture & Self-Esteem6. Culture Change PSYCO 241, Masuda 18
  22. 22. 1. Trait and State Self-EsteemSelf-esteem - positive or negative overallevaluations you have of yourself*Trait self-esteem - enduring level of confidenceand affection that people have for their definingabilities and characteristics across time*State self-esteem - dynamic, changeable selfevaluations that are experienced as momentaryfeelings about the self PSYCO 241, Masuda 19
  23. 23. PSYCO 241, Masuda 20
  24. 24. 2. Contingencies of Self-WorthAn account of self-esteem that says that self-esteem is contingent on successes and failures indomains upon which a person has based his orher self-worth1. Approval, 2. Appearance, 3. God’s love,4.Family Support, 5. School Competence,6. Competition, 7. Virtue PSYCO 241, Masuda 21
  25. 25. 3. Social Acceptance and Self- EsteemSociometer hypothesis: Self-esteem is an internal,subjective index or marker of the extent to which weare included or excluded by othersSocial animals including human beings thrive whenwe are in healthy social relationshipsGroup Inclusion  Elevated Self-EsteemGroup Exclusion Depressed Self-Esteem PSYCO 241, Masuda 22
  26. 26. 4. Motives of Self-Evaluation Abraham Tessera. The Motive to Elevate Self-Esteem self-evaluation maintenance model - states that we are motivated to view ourselves in a favourable light, and that we do so through two processes: reflection and social comparisonb. The Motive to Find Out the Truth about the Self self-verification theory - states that we strive for stable, accurate beliefs about the self because such beliefs give us a sense of coherence. PSYCO 241, Masuda 23
  27. 27. PSYCO 241, Masuda 24
  28. 28. 5. Culture and Self-Esteem• North Americans – High Self-Esteem – Self-Enhancement (focus on success information) – Entity Theorists (Your ability & talents are stable)• East Asians – Low Self-Esteem but High Empathy Steven Heine – Self-Critical (focus on failure information) – Incremental Theories (Your ability & talents are changeable) PSYCO 241, Masuda 25
  29. 29. What is the basis of intelligence?North Americans are more likely than Japanese to think thatour intelligence is innately fixed. Innate Abilities Innate Abilities Efforts Efforts North Americans JapaneseThe Japanese are more likely than North Americans to thinkthat our intelligence is shaped by our efforts. PSYCO 241, Masuda 26
  30. 30. Positive vs. Negative feedback & PerseveranceThe Canadians worked longer on the task if they had succeeded on it.= The Canadians avoided being reminded of failureThe Japanese worked longer on the task if they had failed.= The Japanese used the occasion to improve PSYCO 241, Masuda 27
  31. 31. 6. Culture Change and Self-Esteem PSYCO 241, Masuda 28
  32. 32. Taka’s Thoughts• Having an illusory positive view towards one self, and having high self-esteem is positively correlate with one’s well-being.• It doesn’t mean that educators should spoil students, and let them have illusory self- esteem• There are perils of high self-esteem, and studies suggest the link between anti-social behaviors and narcissistic levels of self-esteem PSYCO 241, Masuda 29
  33. 33. Summary of Today’s Lecture• There are several different foundations of the self-concept.• The self is profoundly shaped by whether people live in independent or interdependent cultures• Self-Esteem is more important and elevated in Western cultures than in East Asian cultures PSYCO 241, Masuda 30

×