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PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 1
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303]
PROJECT 2 - INTEGRATION PROJECT
COMMUNITY LIBRARY
AN URBAN INFILL PROJECT
TUTOR: MR AR. EDWIN CHAN
RYAN KERRY JEE JIN YIING
0318715
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 2
Table of Content
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Objectives
1.2 Project Introduction
1.3 Floor Plans
2.0 Lighting Analysis
2.1 Daylight Factor Analysis
2.1.1 Makerspace and Collaborative Workshop
2.2 Artificial Lighting Analysis
2.2.1 R&D Conference Room
3.0 References
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 3
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Objectives
The objectives ofthis projectis to integrate the lighting analysis and design into our community library
which is located along Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman (Jalan T.A.R). The site selected is east-westfacing
where daylighting is a critical issue to be taken consideration into. We are required to bring in and utilize
as much natural lighting as possibleforthe designofthe community library to reduce the usage ofartificial
lighting. As natural lighting provides a better lighting condition and produce more comfortable spatial
qualities.However,the intelligentintegration and placementofartificial lightings is also another important
factor to ensure a suitable and sufficient luminance in the reading spaces.
1.2 Project Introduction
The proposed community library is located along Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, whereby the main idea,
conceptand approach this proposed library will take on is to create a communal place which guarantees
social interaction between 2 user groups through the implementation ofgreen spaces. Greens will soften
the boundaries between space realms and enhance social interaction amongsteach other, bridging its
differences along its way.
The utilization ofnatural lighting through building openings and skylightto enhance the spatial quality by
not disrupting the original spatial values with extensive usage ofartificial lighting. In this project, we are
required to have a well cooperation between daylighting and also artificial lighting to create good quality
interior ambiance while providing sufficient luminance to the interior spaces in order to maintain a
comfortable lighting condition for the users.
The above sunpath diagram illustrates the sunpath orientation indicating the building orientation where
the main façade faces the eastand the rear faces the west.
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 4
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 5
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 6
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 7
THIRD FLOOR PLAN
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 8
FOURTH FLOOR PLAN
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 9
2.0 Lighting Analysis
2.1 Daylight Factor Analysis
Daylight factor is defined as the ratio ofinterior illuminance, Ei to available outdoor illuminance, Eo which
is the unobstructed horizontal exterior illuminance.
𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝐷𝐹 =
𝑊
𝐴
×
𝑇𝜃
(1−𝑅)
Whereby,
W = Area ofthe windows (m2)
A = The total area of the internal surfaces (m2)
T = The glass transmittance corrected for dirt
Θ = The visible sky angle in degrees from the centre ofthe window
R = The average reflectance ofarea A
Zone DF (%) Distribution
Very bright > 6 Large (including thermal and glare problem)
Bright 3-6 Good
Average 1-3 Fair
Dark 0-1 Poor
Figure above shows the daylight factors and distribution (Department of Standards Malaysia, 2007
The daylightfactor conceptis applicable only when the sky illuminance distribution is known or can
reasonably be estimated. In this case study, the average outdoor illuminance in Malaysia is assumed
according to the standard which is 20000 lux (refer to the table above).
Luminance level
(lux)
Example
120,000 Brightest sunlight
110,000 Bright sunlight
20,000 Shade illuminated by entire clear blue sky, midday
1000-2000 Typical overcast day, midday
400 Sunrise/sunset on clear day (ambient illumination)
<200 Extreme of darkest storm clouds, midday
40 Fully overcast, sunrise/sunset
<1 Extreme of darkest storm cloud, sunrise/sunset
Figure above shows the daylight intensity at different condition.
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 10
Second floor plan, Makerspace andcollaborative workshop
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 11
The natural daylightpenetrates into the makerspace collaborative workshop from the fenestrations from
the south side.
Natural daylightentersfromthe
southside.
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 12
Floor area (m2) 41.82
Area of window exposed to light(m2) 31.25
Visible sky angle, θ 72°
Glass transmittance (double glazed window), T 0.4
Average reflectance ofarea (white concrete), R 0.35
Internal surface area, m2 [(2x3.4x4.0)+(2x12.3x4.0)+(2x41.8)
=27.2+98.4+83.6
=209.4
Average DaylightFactor 𝐷𝐹 =
𝑊
𝐴
×
𝑇𝜃
1−𝑅
=
31.25
209 .4
×
0.4(72)
1−0.35
= 0.15 × 44.31
6.65%
Natural illuminance, Ei 𝐷𝐹 =
𝐸𝑖
𝐸𝑜
× 100
Ei = 6.65 x 200
= 1329 lux
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 13
According to MS1525, the makerspace
collaborative workshop is considered very bright.
Daylight contour
Original daylightdistribution within the makerspace collaborative workshop.
From the daylight contour analysis, it can be identified that the light can reach upon approximately half
of the makerspace collaborative workshop from the side fenestration of the north side. The natural light
received atthe end of the makerspace collaborative workshop is the dimmestand comparatively lower
than the region exposed nearer to the fenestration at the north side.
Analysis
Due to the fact that the calculated daylight factor and natural illuminance had already exceeded the
optimal value quoted by MS1525 which is between the range of 300-500 lux, hence it can be concluded
that the makerspace collaborative space is considered to be very brightto an extentthat it causes glare.
The selected space which is a makerspace collaborative workshop has a daylightfactor of 6.65% which
is consideredas arelatively high distribution oflightdue to the directorientation and exposure that allows
the pernetration ofsunlight towards the workshop space.Besides,the indoor illuminance is at 1329 lux,
which is slightly higher than MS1525 standard for workspace which ranges from 300-500 lux.
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 14
PSALI Implementation and Solutions
This issue can be resolved through the implementation ofblinds, operable louvres and also lightshelves
in order to reduce. These shading devices can be added directly nextto the south side of the building
where the fenestrations are. Through the implementations of light shelves and operable louvres, the
amount of natural lighting entering the interior spaces ofthe makerspace collaborative workshop can be
controlled.
A light shelfcan solve several problems atonce. Ifit extends pastthe face ofthe building itcan serves a
external active shading elements that helps shield the glazing surface from the directdiscomfortsun glare.
The light shelves can help to prevent light from penetrating deep within the collaborative space by
shielding the sunlight away from reaching the space within. Besides, it can also help to reflect natural
lighting off of its top surface to the ceiling ofthe interior space, which will eventually equally distribute it
throughout the interior space fthe room rather than a strong concentration oflight glare surrounding only
around the fenestrations.
This diagram above illustrates the basic working principle and mechanism of a typical light shelf
implementation onto a building’s face. The sunpath are redirected via reflection in order to equally
distribute the natural daylightthroughoutthe interior space rather than a directtransmittance towards the
space interiorly.
Light contour diagram analysis after the application of light shelves and external active shading
elements
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 15
The lightcontourdiagram above shows the results ofnatural daylightdistribution after the implementation
of PSALI through the usages of external active shading elements in an effort to lower the amount of
natural illuminance and daylightfactor.
Through the light contour diagram, it is obvious that the light distribution and glare are now only mostly
concentrated surrounding the fenestrations rather than reaching deeper towards the interior of the
makerspace collaborative workshop.
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 16
2.2 Artificial Lighting Analysis
Lumen Method
Lumen method is used to calculate the light level in a room. It is a series ofcalculation that uses
horizontal luminance criteria to establish a uniform layoutin a space. Itcan be calculated by dividing
the total number oflumens available in a space by the area of the space. The formulae used for the
calculation is ofas below
𝐸 =
𝑛 × 𝑁 × 𝐹 × 𝑈𝐹 × 𝐿𝐿𝐹
𝐴
Whereby,
E = Average illuminance to cover the space
n = Number oflamps of each luminaire
N = Number ofilluminance
F = Lighting design lumens per lamp, i.e. initial bare lamp luminous
UF = Utilization factor for the horizontal working plane
LLF = Light loss factor
A =Area of the horizontal working plane
Lumen method can be also calculated and used to determine the number oflights should be installe d
on the site. To know the number of lamps, calculation oftotal luminance of the space need to be done
based on the number offixtures and examine the sufficiency of lightfixtures on that particular space.
𝑁 =
𝐸 × 𝐴
𝐹 × 𝑈𝐹 × 𝑀𝐹
Whereby,
N =Number of lamps required
E =Illuminance level required (Lux)
A =Area at working plane height(m2)
F =Average luminous flux from each lamp (lm)
UF =Utilization factor, an allowance for lightdistribution of the luminaire and the room surfaces
MF =Maintenance factor, an allowance for reduced lightoutputbecause ofdeterioration and dirt
Room Index
Room index, RI, is the ratio of room plan area to half wall area between the working and luminaire
planes, which can be calculated by:
𝑅𝐼 =
𝐿 × 𝑊
𝐻𝑚 × (𝐿 + 𝑊)
Whereby,
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 17
L = Length of room
W = Width ofroom
Hm = Mounting height, the vertical distance between the working plane and the luminaire.
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 18
Fourth floor plan,R&Dconferenceroom
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 19
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 20
The plans and blown up sections illustrates the R&D conference room that allows users to carry out
research and development.
Light Contour Diagram Analysis
The lightcontour diagram and section diagram above illustrates the illuminance level and natural lighting
distribution within the interior space ifthe R&D conference room. From the diagram, itis observable that
there is minimal amount oflightentering from the fenestration ofthe eastern wall. The natural lightdo not
penetrate the deep within the interior of the R&D Conference Room space as the light gradually wears
off and it gradually gets darker as it nears the other end ofthe room.
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 21
Details of luminaire implemented
Type of fixture Vintage LED filament bulb
Image of fixture
Product dimension (mm) 148 x 64 (dia.)
Types of luminous Warm white
Luminous flux (lm) 1500
Power (W) 10
Color Temperature (K) 2700
Color rendering index 80
Average life rate (hours) 15000
Dimension of room (m) L = 8.875 W = 5.0
Total floor area (m2) 44.38
Height of ceiling (m) 4.0
Type of light fixture Vintage LED filament bulb
Luminous flux of lighting, F (lm) 1500
Height of luminaires (m) 3.8
Height of working plane (m) 0.75
Mounting height (Hm) 4.0 - 0.2 - 0.75 = 3.05
Standard illumination, E
required according to MS1525
150
Reflectance factor Ceiling (white plastered ceiling) = 0.7
Wall (White painted wal) = 0.5
Working plane (wooden decking) = 0.1
Room index, Ri (K)
𝑅𝐼 =
𝐿 × 𝑊
𝐻𝑚 × (𝐿 + 𝑊)
RI = 44.38 / [3.05 x (8.875 + 5)
RI = 1.04
Utilization factor, UF 0.46
Maintenance factor, MF 0.8 (standard)
Number of fittings required, N
𝑁 =
𝐸 × 𝐴
𝐹 × 𝑈𝐹 × 𝑀𝐹
N = (150 × 44.38) / (1500 ×0.46 × 0.8)
N = 12
= 12 bulbs
S max, maximum horizontal
spacing between fittings (m)
Filament light - S max = 1.0 x Hm
= 3.05
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 22
Fitting layout Fitting required along 5m wall,
5/3.05 (m) = 1.64
~ 2 rows
Number of lamps in each row,
12/2 = 6 bulbs
Spacing required for 5m wall,
5/2 = 2.5m
Spacing required for 8.875m wall,
8.875/6 = 1.48m
~ 1.5m
First spacing for the 5m wall will be half of the S, 2.5/2 = 1.25m
First spacing for the 8.875m wall will be half ofthe S, 1.5/2 = 0.75m
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 23
Lighting fittings spacing diagram
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 24
Light Contour Diagram
The artificial light contour diagram shows the condition oflightdistribution within the interior space ofthe
room after implementing artificial lighting. The artificial lighting contour diagram also illustrates the well
distributed artificial light towards every corner of the room. Vintage LED filament bulb lightings are
recommended in conference and meeting spaces as the luminous level is optimum to maintain and
ensure the comfort level of the users which will ensure the avoidance of discomfortglare to the users
while balancing and complimenting the amount ofnatural lighting presentwithin the interior ofthe room.
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 25
The section diagram above illustrates the equal amount distribution on artificial lighting implemented in
order to balance and complimentthe lack ofamount ofnatural lighting entering the space from the
fenestration of the eastern wall as illustrated left side ofthe R&D Conference Room.
PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT
BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 26
3.0 References
Lighting Materials for Simulation. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2016, from
http://lightingmaterials.com/
Lighting | Eco solutions | Business | Panasonic Global. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29,
2016, from http://panasonic.net/ecosolutions/lighting/
MS1525
Philips. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2016, from
http://www.lighting.philips.com/main/home
Augustesen, C. (2006). Lighting design (1sted.). [Munich] : Edition Detail.

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Building Science 2 - Integration Project - Community Library

  • 1. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 1 BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PROJECT 2 - INTEGRATION PROJECT COMMUNITY LIBRARY AN URBAN INFILL PROJECT TUTOR: MR AR. EDWIN CHAN RYAN KERRY JEE JIN YIING 0318715
  • 2. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 2 Table of Content 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Objectives 1.2 Project Introduction 1.3 Floor Plans 2.0 Lighting Analysis 2.1 Daylight Factor Analysis 2.1.1 Makerspace and Collaborative Workshop 2.2 Artificial Lighting Analysis 2.2.1 R&D Conference Room 3.0 References
  • 3. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 3 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Objectives The objectives ofthis projectis to integrate the lighting analysis and design into our community library which is located along Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman (Jalan T.A.R). The site selected is east-westfacing where daylighting is a critical issue to be taken consideration into. We are required to bring in and utilize as much natural lighting as possibleforthe designofthe community library to reduce the usage ofartificial lighting. As natural lighting provides a better lighting condition and produce more comfortable spatial qualities.However,the intelligentintegration and placementofartificial lightings is also another important factor to ensure a suitable and sufficient luminance in the reading spaces. 1.2 Project Introduction The proposed community library is located along Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, whereby the main idea, conceptand approach this proposed library will take on is to create a communal place which guarantees social interaction between 2 user groups through the implementation ofgreen spaces. Greens will soften the boundaries between space realms and enhance social interaction amongsteach other, bridging its differences along its way. The utilization ofnatural lighting through building openings and skylightto enhance the spatial quality by not disrupting the original spatial values with extensive usage ofartificial lighting. In this project, we are required to have a well cooperation between daylighting and also artificial lighting to create good quality interior ambiance while providing sufficient luminance to the interior spaces in order to maintain a comfortable lighting condition for the users. The above sunpath diagram illustrates the sunpath orientation indicating the building orientation where the main façade faces the eastand the rear faces the west.
  • 4. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 4 GROUND FLOOR PLAN
  • 5. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 5 FIRST FLOOR PLAN
  • 6. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 6 SECOND FLOOR PLAN
  • 7. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 7 THIRD FLOOR PLAN
  • 8. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 8 FOURTH FLOOR PLAN
  • 9. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 9 2.0 Lighting Analysis 2.1 Daylight Factor Analysis Daylight factor is defined as the ratio ofinterior illuminance, Ei to available outdoor illuminance, Eo which is the unobstructed horizontal exterior illuminance. 𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝐷𝐹 = 𝑊 𝐴 × 𝑇𝜃 (1−𝑅) Whereby, W = Area ofthe windows (m2) A = The total area of the internal surfaces (m2) T = The glass transmittance corrected for dirt Θ = The visible sky angle in degrees from the centre ofthe window R = The average reflectance ofarea A Zone DF (%) Distribution Very bright > 6 Large (including thermal and glare problem) Bright 3-6 Good Average 1-3 Fair Dark 0-1 Poor Figure above shows the daylight factors and distribution (Department of Standards Malaysia, 2007 The daylightfactor conceptis applicable only when the sky illuminance distribution is known or can reasonably be estimated. In this case study, the average outdoor illuminance in Malaysia is assumed according to the standard which is 20000 lux (refer to the table above). Luminance level (lux) Example 120,000 Brightest sunlight 110,000 Bright sunlight 20,000 Shade illuminated by entire clear blue sky, midday 1000-2000 Typical overcast day, midday 400 Sunrise/sunset on clear day (ambient illumination) <200 Extreme of darkest storm clouds, midday 40 Fully overcast, sunrise/sunset <1 Extreme of darkest storm cloud, sunrise/sunset Figure above shows the daylight intensity at different condition.
  • 10. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 10 Second floor plan, Makerspace andcollaborative workshop
  • 11. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 11 The natural daylightpenetrates into the makerspace collaborative workshop from the fenestrations from the south side. Natural daylightentersfromthe southside.
  • 12. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 12 Floor area (m2) 41.82 Area of window exposed to light(m2) 31.25 Visible sky angle, θ 72° Glass transmittance (double glazed window), T 0.4 Average reflectance ofarea (white concrete), R 0.35 Internal surface area, m2 [(2x3.4x4.0)+(2x12.3x4.0)+(2x41.8) =27.2+98.4+83.6 =209.4 Average DaylightFactor 𝐷𝐹 = 𝑊 𝐴 × 𝑇𝜃 1−𝑅 = 31.25 209 .4 × 0.4(72) 1−0.35 = 0.15 × 44.31 6.65% Natural illuminance, Ei 𝐷𝐹 = 𝐸𝑖 𝐸𝑜 × 100 Ei = 6.65 x 200 = 1329 lux
  • 13. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 13 According to MS1525, the makerspace collaborative workshop is considered very bright. Daylight contour Original daylightdistribution within the makerspace collaborative workshop. From the daylight contour analysis, it can be identified that the light can reach upon approximately half of the makerspace collaborative workshop from the side fenestration of the north side. The natural light received atthe end of the makerspace collaborative workshop is the dimmestand comparatively lower than the region exposed nearer to the fenestration at the north side. Analysis Due to the fact that the calculated daylight factor and natural illuminance had already exceeded the optimal value quoted by MS1525 which is between the range of 300-500 lux, hence it can be concluded that the makerspace collaborative space is considered to be very brightto an extentthat it causes glare. The selected space which is a makerspace collaborative workshop has a daylightfactor of 6.65% which is consideredas arelatively high distribution oflightdue to the directorientation and exposure that allows the pernetration ofsunlight towards the workshop space.Besides,the indoor illuminance is at 1329 lux, which is slightly higher than MS1525 standard for workspace which ranges from 300-500 lux.
  • 14. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 14 PSALI Implementation and Solutions This issue can be resolved through the implementation ofblinds, operable louvres and also lightshelves in order to reduce. These shading devices can be added directly nextto the south side of the building where the fenestrations are. Through the implementations of light shelves and operable louvres, the amount of natural lighting entering the interior spaces ofthe makerspace collaborative workshop can be controlled. A light shelfcan solve several problems atonce. Ifit extends pastthe face ofthe building itcan serves a external active shading elements that helps shield the glazing surface from the directdiscomfortsun glare. The light shelves can help to prevent light from penetrating deep within the collaborative space by shielding the sunlight away from reaching the space within. Besides, it can also help to reflect natural lighting off of its top surface to the ceiling ofthe interior space, which will eventually equally distribute it throughout the interior space fthe room rather than a strong concentration oflight glare surrounding only around the fenestrations. This diagram above illustrates the basic working principle and mechanism of a typical light shelf implementation onto a building’s face. The sunpath are redirected via reflection in order to equally distribute the natural daylightthroughoutthe interior space rather than a directtransmittance towards the space interiorly. Light contour diagram analysis after the application of light shelves and external active shading elements
  • 15. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 15 The lightcontourdiagram above shows the results ofnatural daylightdistribution after the implementation of PSALI through the usages of external active shading elements in an effort to lower the amount of natural illuminance and daylightfactor. Through the light contour diagram, it is obvious that the light distribution and glare are now only mostly concentrated surrounding the fenestrations rather than reaching deeper towards the interior of the makerspace collaborative workshop.
  • 16. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 16 2.2 Artificial Lighting Analysis Lumen Method Lumen method is used to calculate the light level in a room. It is a series ofcalculation that uses horizontal luminance criteria to establish a uniform layoutin a space. Itcan be calculated by dividing the total number oflumens available in a space by the area of the space. The formulae used for the calculation is ofas below 𝐸 = 𝑛 × 𝑁 × 𝐹 × 𝑈𝐹 × 𝐿𝐿𝐹 𝐴 Whereby, E = Average illuminance to cover the space n = Number oflamps of each luminaire N = Number ofilluminance F = Lighting design lumens per lamp, i.e. initial bare lamp luminous UF = Utilization factor for the horizontal working plane LLF = Light loss factor A =Area of the horizontal working plane Lumen method can be also calculated and used to determine the number oflights should be installe d on the site. To know the number of lamps, calculation oftotal luminance of the space need to be done based on the number offixtures and examine the sufficiency of lightfixtures on that particular space. 𝑁 = 𝐸 × 𝐴 𝐹 × 𝑈𝐹 × 𝑀𝐹 Whereby, N =Number of lamps required E =Illuminance level required (Lux) A =Area at working plane height(m2) F =Average luminous flux from each lamp (lm) UF =Utilization factor, an allowance for lightdistribution of the luminaire and the room surfaces MF =Maintenance factor, an allowance for reduced lightoutputbecause ofdeterioration and dirt Room Index Room index, RI, is the ratio of room plan area to half wall area between the working and luminaire planes, which can be calculated by: 𝑅𝐼 = 𝐿 × 𝑊 𝐻𝑚 × (𝐿 + 𝑊) Whereby,
  • 17. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 17 L = Length of room W = Width ofroom Hm = Mounting height, the vertical distance between the working plane and the luminaire.
  • 18. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 18 Fourth floor plan,R&Dconferenceroom
  • 19. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 19
  • 20. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 20 The plans and blown up sections illustrates the R&D conference room that allows users to carry out research and development. Light Contour Diagram Analysis The lightcontour diagram and section diagram above illustrates the illuminance level and natural lighting distribution within the interior space ifthe R&D conference room. From the diagram, itis observable that there is minimal amount oflightentering from the fenestration ofthe eastern wall. The natural lightdo not penetrate the deep within the interior of the R&D Conference Room space as the light gradually wears off and it gradually gets darker as it nears the other end ofthe room.
  • 21. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 21 Details of luminaire implemented Type of fixture Vintage LED filament bulb Image of fixture Product dimension (mm) 148 x 64 (dia.) Types of luminous Warm white Luminous flux (lm) 1500 Power (W) 10 Color Temperature (K) 2700 Color rendering index 80 Average life rate (hours) 15000 Dimension of room (m) L = 8.875 W = 5.0 Total floor area (m2) 44.38 Height of ceiling (m) 4.0 Type of light fixture Vintage LED filament bulb Luminous flux of lighting, F (lm) 1500 Height of luminaires (m) 3.8 Height of working plane (m) 0.75 Mounting height (Hm) 4.0 - 0.2 - 0.75 = 3.05 Standard illumination, E required according to MS1525 150 Reflectance factor Ceiling (white plastered ceiling) = 0.7 Wall (White painted wal) = 0.5 Working plane (wooden decking) = 0.1 Room index, Ri (K) 𝑅𝐼 = 𝐿 × 𝑊 𝐻𝑚 × (𝐿 + 𝑊) RI = 44.38 / [3.05 x (8.875 + 5) RI = 1.04 Utilization factor, UF 0.46 Maintenance factor, MF 0.8 (standard) Number of fittings required, N 𝑁 = 𝐸 × 𝐴 𝐹 × 𝑈𝐹 × 𝑀𝐹 N = (150 × 44.38) / (1500 ×0.46 × 0.8) N = 12 = 12 bulbs S max, maximum horizontal spacing between fittings (m) Filament light - S max = 1.0 x Hm = 3.05
  • 22. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 22 Fitting layout Fitting required along 5m wall, 5/3.05 (m) = 1.64 ~ 2 rows Number of lamps in each row, 12/2 = 6 bulbs Spacing required for 5m wall, 5/2 = 2.5m Spacing required for 8.875m wall, 8.875/6 = 1.48m ~ 1.5m First spacing for the 5m wall will be half of the S, 2.5/2 = 1.25m First spacing for the 8.875m wall will be half ofthe S, 1.5/2 = 0.75m
  • 23. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 23 Lighting fittings spacing diagram
  • 24. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 24 Light Contour Diagram The artificial light contour diagram shows the condition oflightdistribution within the interior space ofthe room after implementing artificial lighting. The artificial lighting contour diagram also illustrates the well distributed artificial light towards every corner of the room. Vintage LED filament bulb lightings are recommended in conference and meeting spaces as the luminous level is optimum to maintain and ensure the comfort level of the users which will ensure the avoidance of discomfortglare to the users while balancing and complimenting the amount ofnatural lighting presentwithin the interior ofthe room.
  • 25. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 25 The section diagram above illustrates the equal amount distribution on artificial lighting implemented in order to balance and complimentthe lack ofamount ofnatural lighting entering the space from the fenestration of the eastern wall as illustrated left side ofthe R&D Conference Room.
  • 26. PROJECT II - INTEGRATION OF STUDIO V COMMUNITY LIBRARY PROJECT BUILDING SCIENCE II [BLD 61303] PAGE | 26 3.0 References Lighting Materials for Simulation. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2016, from http://lightingmaterials.com/ Lighting | Eco solutions | Business | Panasonic Global. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2016, from http://panasonic.net/ecosolutions/lighting/ MS1525 Philips. (n.d.). Retrieved November 29, 2016, from http://www.lighting.philips.com/main/home Augustesen, C. (2006). Lighting design (1sted.). [Munich] : Edition Detail.