The use of visual andaural language across television advertising...
For	  his	  continued	  support	  and	  laughter	  throughout.	               My	  sincere	  thanks	  to	  Jonathon	  O’Ke...
CONTENTS1.01 INTRODUCTION                                             41.02   The aim of this study                       ...
CHAPTER 1         INTRODUCTION1.01 INTRODUCTION            “For once you have tasted flight you will walk the earth with y...
Figure 1: Rolling year passenger traffic at UK airports, 1994 - 2007According to information from the Civil Aviation Autho...
1.02 THE AIM OF THIS STUDY    The aim of this study is to analyse a selection of television advertisements    from two maj...
1.04 STUDY STRUCTURE    This    research      study     shall    take      the    following     structure:    Chapter 1 – ...
Chapter 6 – What do people expect from airline advertising? – Resultsfrom a mass online survey for key terms and expectati...
CHAPTER 2        LITERATURE REVIEW2.01 INTRODUCTION    At time of writing this study, there is an apparent shortage of aca...
meaning’s with the work of J. Biner, L. Crew and E. Biggs as well as anexample regarding Tobacco advertising in New Zealan...
They continue to say that because we do not actively think of the colours andideas they remind us of, the effect colours h...
2.03 THE ROLE OF MUSIC WITHIN ADVERTISING    ‘Music can induce emotions and feelings in line with product meaning, leading...
Gorn instead relied on a more theoretical approach of ‘classical conditioning’.This theory suggests that ‘pairing a neutra...
showing that music had potentially influenced the original choice by thegroups.Other research through the ‘ELM model’ util...
2.04 SEMIOTICS & ADVERTISING    ‘Every book and picture tells a story’. Semiotics is one of the most known    analytical t...
However, even though airline spending fell to $678million [£437million] in 2003from $2.4billion [£1.54billion] in 2000. In...
Elsewhere in the aviation industry, Virgin Atlantic was awarded the ‘PassengerChoice Awards 2011’ at the annual Airline Pa...
These statistics coupled with the data from the British Airways and Virgin    Atlantic aforementioned marketing and advert...
Carey also suggests that ad consumption is more of a consumption-orientatedmindset that makes brand names a ‘source of sta...
CHAPTER 3        METHODOLOGY3.01 INTRODUCTION    The aim of this study is to analyse a selection of television advertiseme...
Through content analysis I shall be able to focus on the frequency with which    concepts occur in the advertisements; thi...
representative sample and can therefore be generalizable to a population.(Kelly, K.; Clark, B; Brown V., Sitzia, J, 2003)I...
We would then therefore be able to produce a table of results based on ‘key   words and/ or phrases’ being utilized by res...
4. Provide alternative primary research methods.   5. To provide essential necessary background information – and historic...
areas of academic texts include: Research Methodologies, Advertising &    Marketing and Aviation business.    Internet    ...
where they may be a secondary meaning or implied meanings of a sign or textand produce a further in-depth analysis. (Barth...
CHAPTER 4         HISTORICAL TV ADVERTISING: ANALYSIS4.01 HISTORICAL TV ADVERTISING    For the aim of this study and to pr...
From Virgin Atlantic:    ‘Virgin Atlantic: 25 Years, still red hot’4.02 A CONTENT ANALYSIS: BRITISH AIRWAYS    A content a...
Research conducted in 2009 into Gender in management which included    sexism in the UK airline industry examined the cult...
Ad agency Y&R in London were behind this advertisement for Virgin Atlanticcelebrating the airline’s 25th anniversary. Crit...
Tropicana for example) and movies from the era – in that regard, works. Eventhe clunky dialogue at the conclusion fits the...
This would indicate a more positive view and ‘reminiscence’ of the decade’sgone by albeit with their various faults and co...
CHAPTER 5        2011 TV ADVERTISING: ANALYSIS5.01 2011 TV ADVERTISING: ANALYSIS    With British Airways now being ranked ...
On the other side of the market, Branson’s Virgin Atlantic was awarded the    ‘Passenger Choice Awards 2011’ and launched ...
In addition to the voice chosen for the narration (or voice-over if you wouldlike) of the advertisement, the linguistics a...
In addition to the use of linguistics and Jack Davenport, the airline    commissioned music by Helen Jane Long with her tr...
popular rock/pop act Muse – suggests, it’s all about the ‘feel good’ factor for    the Virgin brand.    The campaign is th...
As explained in previously, lighter and darker versions of each colour causestimuli in the consumer; for example that ligh...
CHAPTER 6           WHAT DO PEOPLE EXPECT FROM AIRLINE                    ADVERTISING?6.01 WHAT DO PEOPLE EXPECT FROM AIRL...
6.03 VIRGIN: THE RESULTS.    For this report, a survey was posted on the Virgin Atlantic Facebook page,    reaching a pote...
88% of Respondents believed the ad was ‘just fine’ in duration in its present    long form at a duration of 1’30”. 66% of ...
Table 4: British Airways Survey: Results        *Use Appendix 4 along with this table as a reference to results*Question  ...
6.05 CONCLUSION OF PUBLIC OPINION    So through this mass online survey we have discovered that both airlines’    advertis...
CHAPTER 7         CONCLUSION & REFLECTION7.01 CONCLUSION & REFLECTION    As discussed repeatedly in this report, there is ...
British Airways and Virgin Atlantic have on their side is quite simply their‘dream’.This ‘dream’ which British Airways ech...
7.03 EMOTION AND MOODS CAN BE ALTERED    Moods, emotions and attitudes can and always will be open to alteration    toward...
8.00 APPENDIXES                  47
8.01: HISTORICAL ADVERTISING: VIDEO CONTENT1.01 BRITISH AIRWAYS ADVERTISEMENTS    ‘British Airways Fly The Flag Commercial...
8.02:      2011 ADVERTISING: VIDEO CONTENT2.01 BRITISH AIRWAYS ADVERTISEMENT    ‘British Airways Aviators’    http://www.y...
8.03:        MASS SURVEY     Virgin Atlantic Ad - 2011Q:   WHAT COLOUR BEST REPRESENTS VIRGIN?     Red – Black – WhiteQ:  ...
8.04:        MASS SURVEY     British Airways ‘Aviator’ ad 2011 Survey1:   WHAT DO YOU THINK OF WHEN YOU THINK OF BA?     H...
BIBLIOGRAPHY   Ries, A. & Trout, J. (2001) Positioning: The Battle For Your Mind. New   York: McGraw-Hill Professional   S...
Williams, E. (2009) Virgin: Still Sexist?, CreativeReview,[online], Available at:http://www.creativereview.co.uk/cr-blog/2...
Taylor, I. (2011) BA launches ‘To Fly, To Serve’ campaign with 90-secondTV ad, Travel Weekly, [online], Available at:http:...
Park, C. Whan & S. Mark Young (1986) Consumer Responses toTelevision Commercials: The Impact of Involvement and Background...
McDaniel, C. & Gates, R. (2000) Marketing Research Essentials, ThomsonHigher Education [online], Available at:http://swlea...
Dennis, Nigel P.S. (2004) “Can the European low-cost airline boomcontinue?: Implications for regional airports”, European ...
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The use of visual and aural language across television advertising by British Airlines.

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The use of visual and aural language across television advertising by British Airlines.
Including 2011 Television Advertising by
British Airways & Virgin Atlantic.

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The use of visual and aural language across television advertising by British Airlines.

  1. 1.     The use of visual andaural language across television advertising by British Airlines.   Including 2011 Television Advertising by   British Airways & Virgin Atlantic.   Ryan Dunlop   BA (Hons)   University of the West Of Scotland   2012   1
  2. 2. For  his  continued  support  and  laughter  throughout.   My  sincere  thanks  to  Jonathon  O’Keefe.     Extended  thanks  and  best  wishes  to  everybody   At  the  University  Of  The  West  Of  Scotland  including  But  not  limited  to  Dr  Marcus  Bowman  for  his  assistance,     Paul  Tucker,  Lynn  Sinclair,  Stuart  Hepburn,     Dr  Kathryn  Burnett,  Maggie  Sweeney     and  everyone  else  –  there  are  too  many  to  list…                                           2
  3. 3. CONTENTS1.01 INTRODUCTION 41.02 The aim of this study 61.03 Methodology 61.04 Study structure 72.01 LITERATURE REVIEW 92.02 The role of colour within Advertising 92.03 The role of music within Advertising 122.04 Semiotics and Advertising 152.05 Aviation Industry Health & Advertising 152.06 Brands & Marketing 183.01 Methodology 203.02 Textual Analysis/ Content Analysis 203.03 Mass Survey 213.04 Secondary Research 233.05 Semiotic Methodology 254.01 Historical TV Advertising: Analysis 274.02 A Content Analysis: British Airways 284.03 A Content Analysis: Virgin Atlantic Airways 295.01 2011 TV Advertising: Analysis 335.02 ‘Aviators’ by British Airways 335.03 British Airways: An Analysis 345.04 Virgin: ‘Your Airline’s either got it or it hasn’t’ 365.05 Virgin: An Analysis 376.01 What Do People Expect from Airline Advertising? 396.02 Mass Survey 396.03 Virgin: The Results 406.04 British Airways: National Pride? 416.05 Conclusion of Public Opinion? 437.01 Conclusion & Reflection 447.02 Bringing back ‘Magic’ and the ‘Dream’ are Crucial 447.03 Emotion & Moods can be altered 468.00 Appendixes: 478.01 Historical Advertising: Video Content 488.02 Appendix 02: 2011 Advertising: Video Content 498.03 Appendix 03: Mass Survey: Virgin Atlantic 508.04 Appendix 04: Mass Survey: British Airways 51Bibliography 52 3
  4. 4. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1.01 INTRODUCTION “For once you have tasted flight you will walk the earth with your eyes turned skywards, for there you have been and there you will long to return” [Leonardo da Vinci] Aviation is one of the most lucrative business ventures in the world and in 2010 over 2.1 MILLION flights passed through British skies transporting a staggering 200 MILLION passengers to destinations across the world. (Nats, 2011) This can be illustrated simply in a graph with statistics from the Civil Aviation Authority in Figure 1 (CAA, 2008), where you can see a steady increase (or growth) in passenger numbers year on year at UK Airports. It should, however, be noted that there are some instances where slight ‘blips’ appear due to events such as September 11th Terrorist Attacks in the United States, the SARS outbreak and the second gulf war. 4
  5. 5. Figure 1: Rolling year passenger traffic at UK airports, 1994 - 2007According to information from the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA, 2011), bycapacity British Airways is Britain’s largest airline, followed by Virgin AtlanticAirways and thereafter Easyjet - a low fares carrier.The UK airline market is described by some as ‘saturated’ (Dennis, 2004) andpassengers have a substantial amount of choice in which airline they chooseto fly with. An example of this is during the writing of this study, attempting tobook a flight from Glasgow to London offered the choices of flying with BritishAirways, BMI, Easyjet and Flybe (Glasgow Airport, 2011).This aforementioned saturation has lead to increased competition amongstairlines and to attract new customers – as well as retain their current customerbase – airlines have required to invest substantially in marketing andadvertising campaigns in recent years. (Brad, 2011) 5
  6. 6. 1.02 THE AIM OF THIS STUDY The aim of this study is to analyse a selection of television advertisements from two major British airlines from 2011 through content analysis to discover the way they portray their message to audiences and the elements which form the advertisement’s and what they signify and how this may differ historically from their television advertising in the past. A sample of other television advertising by large airlines shall also be used to try and show trends and produce results with reduced error. So to summarise, in this report I shall: 1. Evaluate historically in brief the television advertising utilized by British Airways, Virgin Atlantic Airways. 2. Analyse British Airways & Virgin Atlantic’s current television advertisements from 2011 to critique on their use of visual and aural language. 3. Provide an analysis of television advertisements by other major airlines both in the past and present. 4. Explore similarities between the aforementioned advertisements and differences.1.03 METHODOLOGY The primary methodology to achieve the objective aims for this research study will be that of Content Analysis, this form will be able to collect new and original data on the advertisements. More information on this research method can be found in Chapter 3. 6
  7. 7. 1.04 STUDY STRUCTURE This research study shall take the following structure: Chapter 1 – Introduction – an overall introduction to the aviation market in the U.K. and brief reasoning for airline advertising and marketing. This introduction shall also introduce the reader to the aims of the study and rationale as well as touch briefly upon the methods used. Chapter 2 – Literature Review – This chapter is a review of significant literature relating to aviation, advertising, gender, branding and semiotics. Chapter 3 – Methodology – An introduction and detail to the research methodology used to achieve the aims of the research study as outlined in Chapter 1.02. This chapter also details why the stated methods have been selected and includes reasoning for the decision why other methodology hadn’t been selected and/ or wasn’t appropriate for this study. Chapter 4 – Historical TV Advertising: Analysis – An analysis of historical television advertisements run by British Airways & Virgin Atlantic Airways. This analysis shall take a key content analysis. Chapter 5 – 2011 TV advertising: Analysis – An analysis of the latest television advertisements by British Airways & Virgin Atlantic Airways through their visual language used, narration, music and gender – comparing them to the historical advertisements analysed in Chapter 4. 7
  8. 8. Chapter 6 – What do people expect from airline advertising? – Resultsfrom a mass online survey for key terms and expectations people believe go‘hand in hand’ with airline advertising.Chapter 7 – Conclusion & Reflection – Reflection upon the similarities anddifferences between the advertising of major British airlines in 2011, thechanges from historical campaigns and social impacts.                                         8
  9. 9. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW2.01 INTRODUCTION At time of writing this study, there is an apparent shortage of academic research concerning airline television advertising and it’s affects on people. To overcome the apparent lack of concluding materials, this study has researched into the following areas: 1) The role of colour within advertising. 2) The role of music within advertising. 3) Semiotics & advertising – which will be key to this this study through the methodology of content analysis. 4) Aviation Industry Health & Advertising – background research into the aviation industry and advertising generally. 5) Brands & Marketing2.02 THE ROLE OF COLOUR WITHIN ADVERTISING Since the very first colour television advertisements on British television in 1969 by advertising agency Unilever for ‘Birds Eye peas’, (Unilever, 2011) colour has been essential to the way companies and agencies advertise their products, services and ‘brands’ to consumers and potential customers. Colours are all around us and each and every colour comes with its own apparent ‘meaning’ to people, in this sub-section I intend to explain colour 9
  10. 10. meaning’s with the work of J. Biner, L. Crew and E. Biggs as well as anexample regarding Tobacco advertising in New Zealand.Joseph Binder (1934) proposed a ‘colour wheel’ in which various colourswould signify different meaning and could therefore be used with advertising toportray ‘feelings’ from an advertiser to a consumer.Binder proposed that Red is the colour of ‘fire and blood, so is associated withwar, danger, strength, power, determination as well as passion, desire andlove’, that orange ‘combines the energy of red and the happiness of yellow. Itis associated with joy, sunshine, and the tropics.’His study did not stop there though and was picked up by Ernest Biggs (1956)who proposed that in fact there is more to colour bar the standard colourswhich Binder proposed - red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, white andblack.Instead Biggs wrote that lighter and darker versions of each colour wouldcause stimuli in the consumer; for example that light red would represent “joy,sexuality, passion, sensitivity and love’ where as dark red is associated with‘vigor, willpower, rage, anger, leadership, courage, longing, malice and wrath.”From the website Effective Advertising (2011), their theory is scientific and theway that the physics of the eye and the brain work. They wrote that the waywe register colour is when a ‘light beam enters our eyes, pigments in our eyesdetermine the different colours that will sent out a message to our brains.Thus, colours do effect how we feel and react to certain advertisements’ 10
  11. 11. They continue to say that because we do not actively think of the colours andideas they remind us of, the effect colours have on us could be described assubliminal.Effective Advertising also write that ‘humans have been conditioned to acceptcolours to represent specific ideas such as stereotypical blue for boy and pinkfor girl.’Another study by the University of British Columbia (2009) found that foundthat ‘when the background colour was red, people formed more favourableevaluations of products when its ad featured specific details as opposed toevocative, creative messaging. However, when the background was blue, theopposite pattern of results emerged’.The study also found that ‘people were more receptive to a new, fictionalbrand of toothpaste that focused on negative messages such as “cavityprevention” when the background colour was red, whereas people were morereceptive to aspirational messages such as “tooth whitening” when thebackground colour was rendered in blue.’A relatively recent report in the news regarding colour within advertising isabout New Zealand ‘phasing out of point-of-sale tobacco advertising’. Thearticle (Fraser, T., 1998, pp. 82-84) wrote that ‘the tobacco industry [try] toestablish the colours of the brand over a period of the time. When the codeceases to exist [allowing them to use coloured advertising], the colours will beimprinted in smokers’ minds.’The tobacco industries usage of colours in advertising therefore serves as apractice-based example of the previous aforementioned theories at work. 11
  12. 12. 2.03 THE ROLE OF MUSIC WITHIN ADVERTISING ‘Music can induce emotions and feelings in line with product meaning, leading to an enhanced likelihood of purchase.’ (Alpert, M. et al, 2003) An experiment conducted by Alpert, M. et al in 2003 involved exposing one greeting card advert to seventy-five student volunteers; however background music which accompanied the advertisement varied. With the difference in music choice across the four groups of student’s it provided a reasonable sample to show how music alters people’s opinions in advertising. Two groups viewed the aforementioned advertisement with ‘sad music’, while the other two were shown the exact same advertisement, but with ‘happy [upbeat]’ music. The results concluded that that the ‘distinction in the formal music structure might have substantial influence over the emotions of the consumer audience’. An example is simple: A Christmas card would work better with a more ‘upbeat’ music style to show the ‘happy and good times’ of the year rather than a more down-beat, sad music choice which would be more suited to the likes of funerals. An article from Gorn (1982) which is described as pioneering on the effects of background music in advertising, however also described controversial is of particular interest. 12
  13. 13. Gorn instead relied on a more theoretical approach of ‘classical conditioning’.This theory suggests that ‘pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditionalstimulus will produce a conditioned response’.A study conducted in 1989 which attempted that replicate Gorn’s results founda contradiction and was unable to find any evidence that ‘product preferencescan be conditioned through a single exposure to appealing or unappealingmusic.’ (Kellaris, J. & Cox, A., 1989)Where Gorn’s previous study in 1982 had become massively ‘influential,having been cited in at least 34 refereed journal articles (Social Science Index1982 – 1988)’. It has also been subject to controversy and according to the1989 report by Kellaris & Cox, sever researchers have been unable to findclassical conditioning in similar experiments (Allen & Madden, 1985; Park &Young, 1986).Kellaris & Cox (1989) conducted essentially a replication of Gorn’s 1982 study.Firstly Kellaris & Cox conducted an experiment where they exposed a sampleto slides of a coloured pen, accompanied by either pleasant or unpleasantmusic and then provided the ample group the opportunity to select either thepen colour in the slide or an alternate colour. There were a few slightmodifications/ differences in this experiment compared with Gorn’s in thatKellaris & Cox attempted to ‘hold other music characteristic’s constant’,therefore two recordings were chosen; a Mozart overture and a selection byMilhaud – both similar instrumentation, tempo and modality, but subjectivelyjudged to differ in appeal.Results from this study by Kellaris & Cox shown that of music appeal thechoice of an advertised pen was 89 where a non-advertised pen was only 69; 13
  14. 14. showing that music had potentially influenced the original choice by thegroups.Other research through the ‘ELM model’ utilized by Petty & Cacioppo (1981)and Petty et al (1983) suggested ways in which attitudes can be ‘influenced’rather than the aforementioned theory of favourable and/ or non-favourableassociations. The ELM model research suggested that the attitudes could beinfluenced in a particular way if the ‘individual [consumer] is motivated, andable to process product information.’The research continues to suggest that if the individual is ‘not motivated andtherefore unable to process product information [in an advertisement] thenattitudes are formed through associations, which can be caused by music inan advert.’ (Zander M.F., 2006, pp.466)Another study by Gorn, Goldberg & Basu (1993) investigated the effects ofmood on production evaluation’. In their study a sample of subjects wereasked to ‘evaluate stereo speakers on which they heard music that inducedeither a good or bad mood.’The results from this study suggested that mood caused a bias; a good moodby the subjects meant they favoured the product more compared to a badmood where they were unfavourable to the product. The results from the studyalso suggested that even when a subject was motivated to attend an outsidestimulus and to evaluate it objectively, if in a bad mood the subject would havea limited ability to do so. 14
  15. 15. 2.04 SEMIOTICS & ADVERTISING ‘Every book and picture tells a story’. Semiotics is one of the most known analytical techniques for the study and/ or analysis of advertisements whether on print or in a media form such a broadcast. Semiotics, also sometimes called semiology, is defined as ‘the science (or theory) of signs’. (Anderson, Dewhirst & Ling, 2006) Derrived from structural linguistics and the work of Ferdinand de Saussure (1959), semiotics is a form of qualitiative research for the study or analysis of advertising. Saussure says that where there is a sign, ‘there is a system of meaning which can be separated apart into two key components; the signifier and the signified.’ I have provided a more of in-depth explanation of the methodology of semiotics in Chapter 3.05 Semiotic Methodology.2.05 AVIATION INDUSTRY HEALTH & ADVERTISING British Airways is the world’s 5th largest airline by ‘Scheduled international passengers/ kilometers flown’ and therefore the biggest in the UK. In 2010 the flagship carrier carried 103,095million people across the world. (IATA, 2011) Since September 11 2001, the aviation industry has suffered a continued fallout and coupled with the global economic situation and increasing fuel prices, established airlines are facing ‘unusually intense financial pressures’. (NY Times, 2004) 15
  16. 16. However, even though airline spending fell to $678million [£437million] in 2003from $2.4billion [£1.54billion] in 2000. In the first six months of 2004, it hadreached $375million [£241million] – showing a positive growth.Although these statistics are from 2003/4, they are relevant to this study toshow the growth after such a large aviation downturn due to the traumaticevent’s in New York. In 2011, the national carrier British Airways launched it’sbiggest brand advertising campaign in ‘more than a decade.’ (Taylor, 2011)BA Chief Executive Keith Williams was quoted in Travel Weekly: “The newcampaign represents an opening of a new chapters”“The industry has been through difficult times in the last 10 years, throughperiods of severe disruption, record oil prices and the deepest recession sincethe 1930s. But BA has emerged and returned to profitability.”The advertising campaign which is believed to have cost £20million shows theairline and overall industry strength coupled with resilience. (Sweney, 2011)British Airways have also recently launched their largest pilot recruitmentcampaign in which they intend to hire 800 new pilots by 2016. The airline willalso finance their training, which pilots will repay during their career with BA.(BBC, 2011)BALPA (The pilots union) commented to the BBC saying that “the union hadwarned for some time that a recruitment freeze by the industry since therecession risked leaving airlines short of personnel in coming years.” 16
  17. 17. Elsewhere in the aviation industry, Virgin Atlantic was awarded the ‘PassengerChoice Awards 2011’ at the annual Airline Passenger Experience Awards inSeattle, U.S.A. (Virgin, 2011)The Branson owned airline also launched its first major advertising campaignin the U.S. in 2009/10 costing £6million [$9.3million]. (Smith, 2010)Elsewhere, growth and the scale of the aviation industry is well documentedby the likes of National Air Traffic Services who reported a growth 1.5% in UKflights in June 2011 after handling its ‘millionth flight of the year on 22nd June2011’; last year the millionth flight was on 1st July 2010.’ (Nats, 2011)A more detailed look at air traffic in the UK is detailed in Figure 1, it shows201,116 flights in June 2011 compared with 198,063 in 2010 and overall1,057,838 flights in 2011 from January to June period compared to 997,592 in2010. Figure 2: UK Flight Statistics handled by NATS (June-2011) 17
  18. 18. These statistics coupled with the data from the British Airways and Virgin Atlantic aforementioned marketing and advertising spending shows the industry is in good health; in particular with its advertising and marketing spending overall.2.06 BRANDS & MARKETING Brands and a companies branding is one of the largest foundations and crucial items to any form of marketing and/ or advertising. A brand forms associations, it is colour, slogans, a statement, a logo, a promise – if influences people and essentially creates value; such a value that there is a bond with your customer. Such branding is heavily reliant on the way consumers (customers) digest information in the brain and the way human beings both record information, process it and recall it (sometimes subliminal and without thinking). (Grimaldi, 2003) Carey (200-) argues that the ‘vast majority of advertising is ineffective and inefficient’. Carey uses an interesting example of car manufacturer Hyundai whom use the tag line “Cars That Make Sense” in which he suggests that the tag line has little or no effect either upon ‘our personal lives or even Hyundai’s sales overall.’ Instead, Carey is inclined to say that the advertising by Hyundai – and other companies such as Apple – give a light hearted entertainment rather than serious advert and grant consumers a sort of ‘permission to ignore the long- term consequences of [their] purchasing decisions’. 18
  19. 19. Carey also suggests that ad consumption is more of a consumption-orientatedmindset that makes brand names a ‘source of status and an end inthemselves.’A paper by Beckwith (1972) also writes about branding in regard toadvertising, he wrote that consumers were ‘more likely’ to spend with acompany such as Coca Cola rather than a newer competitor due to the brandand the association of the brand within a ‘consumers daily lifestyle’.A report by Bass et al (2004) shown that the ‘benefits of generic advertisingare conferred to all firms regardless to who contributed’, however that brandadvertising must be ‘properly coordinated’ but provides larger market potentialin the long term. 19
  20. 20. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY3.01 INTRODUCTION The aim of this study is to analyse a selection of television advertisements from two major British airlines from 2011. This chapter explains the research methodologies that will be used within this research study and their rationale. The aims of this chapter are: 6) Identify research methods that exist that are appropriate to this study. 7) Assess the aforementioned research methods in relation to their relevance to this study. 8) Detail the selection of the research methods, which will be utilized in this research study and also to provide an explanation to the reader as to why other research methods were not chosen.3.02 TEXTUAL ANALYSIS/ CONTENT ANLSYSIS Textual Analysis is a methodology of the social sciences and allows critical analysis of communication, whether through text or documents. American Sociologist Earl Babbie (2008, pp.141-145) defines it as “the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.” 20
  21. 21. Through content analysis I shall be able to focus on the frequency with which concepts occur in the advertisements; this will allow for a study of the gender of people within and colours in particular. This type of approach has been used to examine a wide variety of topics including that of conceptual shifts in presedential addresses, (Sullivan, 1973) and cultural changes (Namenwirth and Webber, 1987). In its most basic form, content analysis involves a list of concepts and then a set number of texts/ documents and/ or media and the researcher shall simply count the number of times each concept occurs within the text. The differences or similarities then provide trends and an insight into the content. The sample will include an advertisement from both British Airways and Virgin Atlantic’s 2011 television advertising campaigns, as well as an historical sample. (See Section 4) While there is no current uniform standard regarding sample size (Krippendorf, 1980; Riffe et al., 1998, pp. 81-100), the sample of a historical advertising by British Airways and Virgin Atlantic Airways shall provide a reasonable margin for error and provide an efficient amount of data for accuracy of results. (Neuendorf, 2002)3.03 MASS-SURVEY Surveys are a form of quantitative research and can provide data on real world observations. The breadth of coverage of many people or events means it is more likely that surveys rather than other methodological approaches can obtain such a 21
  22. 22. representative sample and can therefore be generalizable to a population.(Kelly, K.; Clark, B; Brown V., Sitzia, J, 2003)In this research study I intend to conduct a ‘mass-survey’ which will includeboth open and closed questions:Open Questions will allow respondents to be able to ‘speak their mind’although it has been noted that it tends to be slower to administer and can beharder to record responses due multiple answers that could be given.(Dawson, 2009)Closed Questions by comparison tend to be quicker to administer, easy tocode answers due to a limited and ‘controlled’ selection although respondentsmay not be able to raise new issues due to the options provided by the surveyand may become frustrated due to lack of choice. (Dawson, 2009, pp. 90-95)The benefits of producing a mass survey combining both types of questionsand – I believe - therefore far outreaching any limitations. My intention inregard to the open-questions which tend to be more difficult to record would beto create a system where word repetition is recorded throughout the sample,an example is provided in Figure 3. Figure 3: An Open Question (Key Word) Example:Question: What colour do you think of when you think of Virgin?(Please only write one colour)Answer: Red 22
  23. 23. We would then therefore be able to produce a table of results based on ‘key words and/ or phrases’ being utilized by respondents; this would provide a faster results recording process and also provide a greater degree of accuracy from the results gained. (Powel, T.R.; Renner, M, 2003)3.04 SECONDARY RESEARCH Secondary Research is the method in which information or data is gathered and/or collected through literature, published material and media – as well as various other sources. Secondary research in this study shall allow a much deeper understanding into the topic and the results found in this study. This form of research is essential to understand the airline business in general and it’s usage of advertising - in particular with the television medium. Another advantage of secondary research is cost in both monetary and time considerations and that it can disclose data that may have already been fully studied in that particular area or field. McDaniel and Gates (2000) have provided an explanation of various advantages to using secondary research, these include (but are not limited to): 1. Help to clarify or redefine the definition of the problem as part of the explanatory research and study process. 2. Provide a workable solution to a problem which may exist. 3. Alert the researcher to any potential problems or difficulties that may arise. 23
  24. 24. 4. Provide alternative primary research methods. 5. To provide essential necessary background information – and historical data where relevant – and to build grounds for research.Although secondary research is generally of high standard, it must be notedthat in all cases sources shall required to be checked with impartiality toensure of its credibility, accuracy and relevancy.It should be noted there is a particular absense of relevant research at presentinto airline television advertising, although the sources that have been foundfor this study which are of relevance are as follows:Previous ResearchPrevious research into branding and consumers connections with brands isparticularly useful when interrogating data gained and in particularly relevantdue to the recognizable brands within this study.Research into ‘Women in Aviation’ by the University of Pretoria (Wilson, 2005)also provides a better grounding understanding for this study and in particularof genders in aviation generally – therefore allowing a better understanding ofthe use of genders and roles within airline television advertising.News & PressNews and press articles present current and prior views regarding advertising,background and relevant current information and public opinion.Academic TextsAcademic Text & Literature has provided and provided a grounding for thisresearch study with relevant – both current and historical. The key relevant 24
  25. 25. areas of academic texts include: Research Methodologies, Advertising & Marketing and Aviation business. Internet Online sources provides the ‘immediacy’ and most current data and information for study. It must be noted that due diligence and fact-checking has been used for all sources – including internet sources – for this study.3.05 SEMIOTIC METHODOLOGY Derived from the work of Ferdinand de Saussure (1959) and structural linguistics, semiotics is a form of qualitative approach for studying the content of advertisements. I have touched upon semiotics in Chapter 2.04 during the Literature Review and the work of both Saussure and Barthes. During the semiotic analysis process the research must provide due justification and rationale for the advertisements to be analysed and also a period (whether it be minutes or hours or even weeks/ months.) The aforementioned period (or sample) may consist of a particular advertising campaign(s) or a ‘cross-section’. The analysis would then involve the compilation of a denotation (the initial meaning the sign is designed to capture) inventory – accounting for both written copy (i.e. linguistics, size, fonts, typography etc. and images or video. (Dryer, 1982) After creating such a denotation inventory, the study could then pursue more in depth semiotical study into - for example - the connotation (Sebeok, 2001) 25
  26. 26. where they may be a secondary meaning or implied meanings of a sign or textand produce a further in-depth analysis. (Barthes, 1972)From Anderson et al (2006); ‘the analyst observes whether different elementsmay be polysemic, accounting for the fact that signs or texts have multiple,hierarchical meanings with some of them being designated as dominant/preferred.’Semiotics is heavily dependent on the skills, strengths and experience of theresearcher/ analysis and thus a more experienced researcher withconsiderable experience in both semiotics and a particular subject area willwithout doubt produce a more in-depth and comprehensive report.Anderson (2006) also states that ‘it is important that the semiotic analysis beperformed on advertisements that are both representative of a particularadvertising campaign and the brand’s positioning historically, as opposed tohandpicking single advertisements to illustrate expedient points.To summarise; semiotics allows a very in-depth and view of the meaning ofthe advertisement and is incredibly advantageous, however, it does requirethe analyst to have experience in both the methodology and field of chosenstudy to provide a in-depth report with a ‘layer of richness’ to the interpretationof advertising content. (Anderson, 2006) 26
  27. 27. CHAPTER 4 HISTORICAL TV ADVERTISING: ANALYSIS4.01 HISTORICAL TV ADVERTISING For the aim of this study and to provide a grounding and therefore to attempt to show results over a more sustained period of time – in this case a matter of decades - we shall assess ‘historical television advertising’ by major airlines British Airways and Virgin Atlantic Airways. The sample used for this section are television advertisements used by British Airways from 1970 through to 2006 and Virgin Atlantic’s recent campaign in 2009. According to the Oxford Dictionary, the word Historical means ‘in the past’, ‘belonging to the past’ and ‘past events’. For the purpose of this study the following advertisements (i.e. Pre-2011) shall be studied for the two airlines. N.B. Each commercial used is available to freely view online, links are provided in Appendix 1. In the next chapter I shall explore a more in depth analysis of the most recent television campaign(s) by the two major airlines. From British Airways: ‘British Airways Fly The Flag Commercial’ from 1970. ‘British Airways Face Commercial’ from 1989. ‘British Airways Worlds Favourite Airline’ from 1992. ‘British Airways TV Advertising’ from 1997. ‘British Airways Dolphins Campaign’ from 2006. 27
  28. 28. From Virgin Atlantic: ‘Virgin Atlantic: 25 Years, still red hot’4.02 A CONTENT ANALYSIS: BRITISH AIRWAYS A content analysis of the aforementioned British Airways campaigns provided some results and indicated a pattern of various key factors consistent throughout the television advertisements used by the airline from 1970 to 2006. Table 1 (Below) shows the amount of times various key factors arise: Table 1: Content Analysis of BA Advertisements 1970 – 2006 Year of Ad Pilots-Male:Female Cabin Crew- Male:Female 1970 1:0 0:2 1989 1:0 0:1 1992 0:0 0:8 1997 0:0 0:0 2006 0:0 0:1 Table 1 shows a clear trend towards a potentially eccentric and draconian attitude towards male and female roles within the workplace. The data from the campaigns used by British Airways from 1970 show a clear distinction of male ‘pilots’ and female ‘cabin crew’ with a very clear image to audiences – but why is this? 28
  29. 29. Research conducted in 2009 into Gender in management which included sexism in the UK airline industry examined the cultural sexism in this industry through interviews with pilots and cabin crew. (Sarah Neal-Smith et al, 2009) The paper indicated that female pilots face a sort of ‘cultural sexism’ where their male colleagues expect them to be ‘different based upon assumptions’. This would fit in with the findings found in the content analysis of the British Airways 1970-2006 campaigns. The advertisements used by British Airways not only provide an insight to the culture at the airline during this period but also British culture in general.4.03 A CONTENT ANALYSIS: VIRGIN ATLANTIC AIRWAYS But is this just British Airways or can this be seen at another national air carrier, Virgin Atlantic? Well in a brief content analysis of the advertisement from 2009 titled: ‘Virgin Atlantic: 25 Years, still red hot’ it shown to be in line with these findings, see table 2. Table 2: Content Analysis of Virgin Atlantic 2009 advertisement Year of Ad Pilots-Male:Female Cabin Crew- Male:Female 2009 1:0 1:26 Based on these findings in particular from Virgin Atlantic who launched approximately 27 years ago claiming they that they were a ‘refreshing and modern’ approach to aviation, why has the airline then chosen to celebrate this apparent fact/ claim in such an old-fashioned and eccentric viewing advertisement, in every sense of the word? 29
  30. 30. Ad agency Y&R in London were behind this advertisement for Virgin Atlanticcelebrating the airline’s 25th anniversary. Critics for the ad have called it themessage which the ad is portraying ‘more retro than its look’.The add features a group of Virgin cabin crew in ‘red power suits andstilettoes’ and their (mostly) blonde tresses flowing in the breeze. The taglineof the advertisement is ofcourse that Virgin is ‘still red hot’ – so what shouldVirgin’s potential consumers take away from this advertisement?Eliza Williams wrote on blog and review website CreativeReview in 2009asking ‘What are we supposed to take from this? Surely Virgin has somethingmore interesting to say about itself than “fly with us because we’ve got themost shaggable stewardesses?”. (Williams, 2009)Williams continues to comment that Virgin was an ‘attractive’ brand because itsought to leave such ‘retarded nonsense behind’. She makes a goodcomment asking that ‘If you were a female CEO of a major organization,would this ad make you want to give your business to Virgin?’ – Withoutmaking any prejudice comment - I would suspect not.Comments from readers of the website add interesting perspectives:“I think the spot’s pretty awesome. I mean, it wouldn’t have flow in the 90s,when feminism was at its most dour, but thankfully we’ve moved beyond that.” Richard“The ad did a very good job of recreating the feel of the 80s, including theperception of women – reminiscent of countless pop videos (take Club 30
  31. 31. Tropicana for example) and movies from the era – in that regard, works. Eventhe clunky dialogue at the conclusion fits the bill.Nonetheless, I do not feel that it would be my choice to represent mycompany in such a way. As has been noted, it seems to fly in the face ofeverything the brand has stood for, and – irony aside – indicates that they arestuck in the past.” ThePickleBotThe comment from Richard indicates that possibly because ‘times havechanged’ in essence that the advert is now passable and creates a morehumorous tone where as only a decade or two ago would of causedsubstantial offence?‘ThePickleBot’ comment’s the article congratulating the advert of summing upthe particular time period of the 80s with reference to the song ‘ClubTropicana’ and concludes that it does in that essence, work.The commentor continues to state that ‘nonetheless, I do not feel that it wouldbe my choice to represent my company in such a way’ – so really is Virginreally acting sexist here and if so were British Airways in their previousadvertisements we viewed previously in this section?Currently on television is Pan Am, a drama series all about the life of the crewworking at the late Pan American Airways. The BBC television drama‘recreates the days when flying was fun and glamorous’. The Daily Mailcommented on the series stating that ‘Even the blatant sexism is viewed morewith affection than regret.’ (DailyMail, 2011) 31
  32. 32. This would indicate a more positive view and ‘reminiscence’ of the decade’sgone by albeit with their various faults and controversies – people thereforehave a warm emotion and attachment to the brand creating a better ‘feelgood’ factor and therefore resulting in higher business/ sales and an overallgreater brand loyalty. (Gorn, Goldberg & Basu, 1993)   32
  33. 33. CHAPTER 5 2011 TV ADVERTISING: ANALYSIS5.01 2011 TV ADVERTISING: ANALYSIS With British Airways now being ranked as the world’s 5th largest airline by ‘scheduled international passengers/ kilometers flown’ and carrying over 103,095million people round the world. On the other side of the market, Branson’s Virgin Atlantic was awarded the ‘Passenger Choice Awards 2011’ and launched its first major advertising campaign in the United States last year, costing £6million [$9.3million]. (Smith, 2010) Thus at the end of 2011, the industry has seen an increase in the health of airlines after a tough and fierce decade which started with the traumatic events in New York in September 2001. (IATA, 2011) In this chapter shall look at the 2 major advertising campaigns on television by Virgin Atlantic Airways and British Airways in 2011 through their use of visual language through semiotics, the narration, music, gender and shall conduct a comparison to their previous historical campaigns as discussed in the previous chapter.5.02 ‘AVIATORS’ BY BRITISH AIRWAYS. British Airways ‘pay tribute to whose who first too flight – and follow in their footsteps’. The most expensive campaign ever for the British national flag carrying airline recruited the help of experienced ad agency 33
  34. 34. On the other side of the market, Branson’s Virgin Atlantic was awarded the ‘Passenger Choice Awards 2011’ and launched its first major advertising campaign in the United Bartle Bogle Hegarty (BBH) in this £20million campaign. BBH is a long established advertising agency and having launched on 1982 ‘pride themselves in complete engagement and establishing brand ‘effectiveness to make subsequent ideas even bigger.’ (BBH, 2012) The aviators advert by British Airways is all about ‘showing off’ the companies 92-year history and digs into its archives with a rather nostalgic look. In the previous chapter I looked at the historical advertising by British Airways and discovered a potential ‘eccentric and draconian attitude’ towards even the exposure of people appearing in the advert, although this new ‘aviators’ campaign has a nostalgic look – people will be glad to know that BA have taken such draconian and potentially feministic areas of concern onboard and have a more equal mix of staff – all of whom are actual real life British Airways staff. (PlanetContent, 2011)5.03 BRITISH AIRWAYS: AN ANALYSIS BBH and British Airways have performed particularly well when it comes to adding a ‘feel good’ factor to their consumers through this new advertisement. The voice-over which is read aloud by actor Jack Davenport – famously Pirates of The Caribbean – is distinctly British and creates a ‘national sense of pride’ of which could be described as effective use of symbolism and creating a brand attachment through a sense of nationalism of ‘British-ness’. 34
  35. 35. In addition to the voice chosen for the narration (or voice-over if you wouldlike) of the advertisement, the linguistics and choice of key wording stimulatesthe mind and creates a sort of cinematic feel.“Those first young men, the pioneers, the aviators building super highways inan unknown sky.Leaving wives and children in their snug homes, with just a kiss and apromise to return.Roaring into the clouds to battle wind and stars. Their safety systems built ofbrain and heart.They landed where there were no lights.Transforming strange names from tall tales into pictures on postcards home.And those next young men, travelling further, faster, higher than any in historyand the ones who followed them, who skimmed the edge of space, the edgeof heaven, the edge of dreams”The consumer becomes lesser a customer who is parting with some sort offinance or bond for a service or a ticket but more a consumer who is beingentertained through the use if linguistics which could be described more as aHollywood movie rather than an advertisement ‘selling an airline’, insteadBritish Airways are selling a dream, a story – essentially the ‘magic’ of flight.So based on the aforementioned idea and proposal that British Airways areselling a dream rather than a ticket – it would indicate that BBH (the agency)have succeeded with paying ‘tribute to those who first took flight’. (Creativity,2012) 35
  36. 36. In addition to the use of linguistics and Jack Davenport, the airline commissioned music by Helen Jane Long with her track which is aptly titled ‘The Aviators’. As discussed in chapter 2, ‘Music can induce emotions and feelings in line with product meaning, leading to an enhanced likelihood of purchase.’ (Alpert, M. et al, 2003) The track which is used includes a piano accompaniment with orchestral with a rising tempo creating a sense of urgency, this relates to a theoretical approach from Gorn (1982) of ‘classical conditioning’. This theory suggests that ‘pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditional stimulus will produce a conditioned response’. Gorn also believed that ‘product preferences can be conditioned through a single exposure to appealing or unappealing music.’5.04 VIRGIN: ‘YOUR AIRLINE’S EITHER GOT IT OR IT HASN’T’ A £6million global campaign which ‘evokes the lush, racy title sequences of James Bond fillms. (Guardian, 2010) Virgin Atlantic’s advertising campaign is “surreal and glamorous” or so says the company which is taking a completely different approach to British Airways. Instead, Virgin Atlantic are taking viewers on a ‘metophorical flight of fantasy’ – and as the soundtrack being used for the track – Feeling Good by 36
  37. 37. popular rock/pop act Muse – suggests, it’s all about the ‘feel good’ factor for the Virgin brand. The campaign is the largest that the airline has ever undertaken by giant UK creative agency RKCR. In Virgin Atlantic’s own words this is what they hoped to achieve: “The campaign takes the viewer on a metaphorical flight with Virgin Atlantic, guiding them through a surreal and glamorous world of airline iconography and dramatising how it feels to fly with the airline. Our objective in producing this TV ad was to bring to life the ‘it’ that makes Virgin Atlantic such a special and unique airline. We were keen to do that in a highly memorable, eye-catching and amusing way.” Paul Dickinson, Director of Sales and Marketing, Virgin Atlantic (Virgin, 2011)5.05 VIRGIN: AN ANALYSIS The advert itself really is highly memorable and from first viewing the consumer is taken into the ‘Virgin mindset’ and subjected constantly to the colour red with the background, airline uniforms, shoes, finger nails and branding – it is a stimulating experience for the consumer and a colour which has became infamous with the companies brand. However, as explored in Chapter 2 with colours and what they signify, because we do not actively think of the colours and ideas they remind us of, the effect colours have on us could be described as subliminal. Virgin’s use of the colour red is of particular interest: 37
  38. 38. As explained in previously, lighter and darker versions of each colour causestimuli in the consumer; for example that light red would represent “joy,sexuality, passion, sensitivity and love’ where as dark red is associated with‘vigor, willpower, rage, anger, leadership, courage, longing, malice and wrath.”(Biggs, 1956)Virgin’s use of both light and dark colours provides a balance of sex andpassion together with a willpower and longing.The colours aren’t just tied directly with the Virgin brand but as aforementionedcolours and the intensity whether light or dark can produce further stimuli assuggested by Biggs in 1956. The use of the colour red on finger nails ofStewardesses and sexism similar to what we explored in the previous chapterwith Virgin’s advertising historically create a sense of sex, passion and desire.The airline, however is no stranger to such accusations of ‘discriminationagainst flight attendants’ and journalist Mark Sweney wrote in The Guardian in2009 commenting that “The complaints argue that the all-female crewmembers are being promoted as the main reason for choosing the airline, andthat this is insulting to all women, especially those working in the aviationindustry”. (Sweney, 2009)So one could deduce that Virgin haven’t changed their formula for their mostrecent campaign compared to their previous ’25 years and still red hot’advertising on television.I explored this further with Virgin’s brand and what it signifies to people inChapter 6 through a mass online survey on social networking siteFacebook.com. 38
  39. 39. CHAPTER 6 WHAT DO PEOPLE EXPECT FROM AIRLINE ADVERTISING?6.01 WHAT DO PEOPLE EXPECT FROM AIRLINE ADVERTISING? In the previous chapters I have explored both historical advertising and the most recent campaigns by two major airline carriers in the UK whom are also large players on the global scene – in addition to the differences and similarities between the carriers and their historical campaigns, there were also a key number of similarities in their most recent campaigns’ in the past year.6.02 MASS SURVEY Surveys are a form of quantitative research and can provide data on real world observations. The breadth of coverage of many people or events means it is more likely that surveys rather than other methodological approaches can obtain such a representative sample and can therefore be generalizable to a population. (Kelly, K.; Clark, B; Brown V., Sitzia, J, 2003) For this instance it has been decided for the use of closed questions only as by comparison tend to be quicker to administer, easy to code answers due to a limited and ‘controlled’ selection although respondents may not be able to raise new issues due to the options provided by the survey and may become frustrated due to lack of choice. (Dawson, 2009, pp. 90-95) Copies of the example survey’s are available in Appendix 3 & 4 of this report. 39
  40. 40. 6.03 VIRGIN: THE RESULTS. For this report, a survey was posted on the Virgin Atlantic Facebook page, reaching a potential 135,315 people worldwide – this is a substantial potential sample. Of this total reach 781 people took part; providing to a combined 4,686 responses. See table 3 for the results. Table 3: Virgin Atlantic Survey: Results *Use Appendix 3 along with this table as a reference to results* Question Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 1 750 6 27 2 689 90 2 3 203 518 68 4 241 488 52 5 769 10 2 6 590 142 49 The numbers produced through this survey in Table 6.04 provide an interesting reading and at first glance we can see responses in line with the research in the previous chapters 4 and 5. Our results show that 96% of respondents believe red signifies the Virgin brand, whilst the remainder believed black and/or white represented Virgin to them. 40
  41. 41. 88% of Respondents believed the ad was ‘just fine’ in duration in its present long form at a duration of 1’30”. 66% of Respondents felt the Virgin ad signified ‘sexy’ness’ to them where as 25% felt it was ‘powerful’. One response which could cause possible concern relates to who respondents felt the ad was ‘best aimed at’; 62% felt it was aimed at males with 30% believing it was aimed at ‘everyone’ and the remaining 8% believing it was aimed at a female audience. This links in with the analysis on chapter 5 where Journalist Mark Sweney wrote in the Guardian commenting “that this is insulting to all women, especially those working in the aviation industry”. (Sweney, 2009) It should be noted, however, that 75% of respondents answered yes when asked ‘does this encourage you to fly Virgin?’6.04 BRITISH AIRWAYS: NATIONAL PRIDE? Similar to the survey posted for Virgin Atlantic, I also carried out a similar type for British Airways, again using popular social networking website, Facebook. The airlines’ facebook has a reach of over 227,000 people of which 1,045 people took part in this research. At only 3 questions long, the short but large reaching mass survey asked key questions such as ‘what do you think of when you think of BA’ with 3 options for example; high service, low cost, British’ness. See table 4 for the results. 41
  42. 42. Table 4: British Airways Survey: Results *Use Appendix 4 along with this table as a reference to results*Question Option 1 Option 2 Option 31 434 2 6092 790 57 1983 964 22 59What is impressive with the results in table 4 with the British Airways advert ishow distinct the responses are. When asked ‘What do you think of when youthink of BA?’, 58% answered with ‘Sense of British’ness’ and 41% answeredwith ‘High Service’ – both are pro-active to British Airways philosophy asexplored in previous chapters.When respondents were asked how they felt with the ad duration – which isidentical to Virgin Atlantics at 1’30” – they responded with a staggering 75%selecting that it is ‘Just Fine’ and in fact 18% selecting that it is ‘too short’ –are we seeing a return of long form and higher budget television advertisingperhaps? As explored in Chapter 5, this new BA ad is more of anentertainment value to the audience/ consumer rather than just selling aproduct.Finally, when asked ‘Does this encourage you to fly with BA?’, 93% answeredwith ‘Yes’ which without any doubt what so ever shows that the higher budgetand the fact BA have produced with their agency BBH an advert that not onlyentertains but sells the brand - and the dream perhaps too? 42
  43. 43. 6.05 CONCLUSION OF PUBLIC OPINION So through this mass online survey we have discovered that both airlines’ advertising campaigns have been relatively successful in translating their desired message which we investigated in the previous chapter. We have also discovered in addition to each airlines individuality which is obviously always up for discussion, that the particular length of the advertisements has proven well based on our results. In general according to website PlanetCompare (2011), we have noticed an increase in long form advertising in television in general, albeit with higher scale brands. The website comments that in ‘the last couple of the weeks [we have] seen lengthy tv ad campaigns by the likes of British Airways, Virgin Atlantic and John lewis, the aim being to really sink the message into our minds.’ The website continues to also comment that they are ‘succeeding each time’ – something I personally agree with. The level of both advertisements have seen high level budgets as each airline attempt to get ahead of the game and as PlanetCompare write ‘I think the competition is good for customers and TV viewers alike’ – it isn’t a bad thing, in fact it results in a higher entertainment value and a much more creative and engaging experience, it is everything but passive advertising. 43
  44. 44. CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION & REFLECTION7.01 CONCLUSION & REFLECTION As discussed repeatedly in this report, there is the theme of the airline downturn after the tragic events on September 11th 2001. Now, over a decade on we are beginning to see airline and aviation travel growth once more and moving forward it appears this trend will continue. (CAA, 2008) An airline’s position isn’t just about annual revenue, it is about instead their position in the overall marketplace globally and that position can influence directly just how well an airline’s advertising campaign can be. I’ve looked at two world leading airlines, both of which have substantial budgets and are leaders in their field – but with increased competition from low fares carriers and the headache of the recent recession, remaining on top isn’t such an easy task for these world leading carriers. To stay at the top of the ‘airline food chain’, British Airways and Virgin Atlantic must instead not ‘brag’ about ‘what airline has got it’ or not as the case may be but continue to create the powerful, creative and innovative messages they have portrayed in their most recent marketing material, they must constantly re-iterate and re-vigorate the key factors that have kept them at the top spot. (Ries, Trout, 2001)7.02 BRINGING BACK ‘MAGIC’ AND THE ‘DREAM’ ARE CRUCIAL As aforementioned in 7.01, the headache of low-cost and cheap-frills airlines are and will cause a headache for the traditional major air carriers but what 44
  45. 45. British Airways and Virgin Atlantic have on their side is quite simply their‘dream’.This ‘dream’ which British Airways echoed throughout their recent Aviatorscampaign is critical to mainting their poll position. With recent popular tv-drama Pan Am on the BBC, people have the choice to make their owndecision and based on the results in chapter 6 there is still a substantial reachthat these major carries have at their disposal.(DailyMail,2011)Linking back to the quote in the introduction of this report by Leonardo daVinci: “For once you have tasted flight you will walk the earth with your eyes turned skywards, for there you have been and there you will long to return” [Leonardo da Vinci]By bringing that ‘hey-day’ feeling of flying from decades gone by through totoday’s technology and innovation, major airlines don’t only have theopportunity to engage with their consumers (and essentially tv audiences) butalso form a bond through the iconography of flying – these major carriers canand will not only suffice and survive, but lead the industry for decades tocome. 45
  46. 46. 7.03 EMOTION AND MOODS CAN BE ALTERED Moods, emotions and attitudes can and always will be open to alteration towards brands and products, even after a connection is established. One of the key purposes of these major advertising campaigns is in fact to change people’s perceptions and to make the brand ‘central’ in the consumer’s mind. These advertising campaigns rely directly on the viewer becoming emotionally attached to the advertisement so they can successfully sway the consumer’s emotion and essentially change his/ her attitude. In this research, it has been shown the subconscious and ideologies of particular colours associated with brands. (i.e. Red with Virgin) These brand’s can play upon this so not only does the consumer become directly connected and attached to the advertisement, they are at the same time on a subconscious level engaging that ‘colour scheme’ with that brand once more, therefore forming a much stronger engagement. Therefore, at the end of the day, the actual consumer has very little or no control over this form and the unconscious and subconscious mind – alongside some other factors it must be noted – is determining the extent of the emotional attachment and loyalty based upon the advertising campaign and marketing presented to him/ her. Essentially, what is presented as ‘emotional attachments’ are no more than a ‘willingness’ to accept a companies message and ‘dream’ in this cultured setting through ideologies – something that will benefit these major carriers for years to come. 46
  47. 47. 8.00 APPENDIXES 47
  48. 48. 8.01: HISTORICAL ADVERTISING: VIDEO CONTENT1.01 BRITISH AIRWAYS ADVERTISEMENTS ‘British Airways Fly The Flag Commercial’ from 1970. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nkbcqA1_mY ‘British Airways Face Commercial’ from 1989. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxs106rp5RQ ‘British Airways Worlds Favourite Airline’ from 1992. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TmpxTZsoZMU ‘British Airways TV Advertising’ from 1997. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiZTI-zDIxc ‘British Airways Dolphins Campaign’ from 2006. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LgQFai5kOXg1.02 VIRGIN ATLANTIC AIRWAYS ADVERTISEMENTS ‘Virgin Atlantic: 25 Years, still red hot’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6cM4EOeJzHA 48
  49. 49. 8.02: 2011 ADVERTISING: VIDEO CONTENT2.01 BRITISH AIRWAYS ADVERTISEMENT ‘British Airways Aviators’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XozHLoqwp_42.02 VIRGIN ATLANTIC AIRWAYS ADVERTISEMENT ‘Your Airline’s either got it or it hasn’t’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hbib-A6NpW8 49
  50. 50. 8.03: MASS SURVEY Virgin Atlantic Ad - 2011Q: WHAT COLOUR BEST REPRESENTS VIRGIN? Red – Black – WhiteQ: HOW WAS THE AD DURATION? Just Fine – Too Long – Too ShortQ: WHAT DOES THE COLOUR RED IN THE AD SIGNIFY TOYOU? Power – Sexy’ness – WeaknessQ: WHO DO YOU THINK THIS AD IS BEST AIMED AT? Everyone – Male – FemaleQ: HAVE YOU SEEN THE AD PRIOR TO THIS SURVEY? Yes – NoQ: DOES THIS ENCOURAGE YOU TO FLY VIRGIN? Yes – No 50
  51. 51. 8.04: MASS SURVEY British Airways ‘Aviator’ ad 2011 Survey1: WHAT DO YOU THINK OF WHEN YOU THINK OF BA? High Service – Low Cost – Sense of British’ness2: HOW WAS THE AD DURATION? Just Fine – Too Long – Too Short3: DOES THIS ENCOURAGE YOU TO FLY WITH BA? Yes – No – Not Sure 51
  52. 52. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ries, A. & Trout, J. (2001) Positioning: The Battle For Your Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional Sweney, M. (2009) £6m Virgin ad prompts complaints of sexism, The Guardian, [online], Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/feb/09/virgin-atlantic-ad-sexist-ofcom Accessed Friday 06 January 2012 Virgin (2011) Virgin Atlantic’s brand new TV advert, Virgin Atlantic, [online], Available at: http://www.virgin-atlantic.com:80/en/gb/newtvaduk.jsp Accessed Friday 06 January 2012 Guardian (2010) Virgin Atlantic Takes Off with £6m James Bond-style ad push, The Guardian, [online], Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/oct/01/virgin-atlantic-ad-muse-feeling- good Accessed Friday 06 January 2012 Creativity (2012) British Airways: Aviators, Creativity, [online], Available at: http://creativity-online.com/work/british-airways-aviators/24527 Accessed Friday 06 January 2012 PlanetContent (2011) Compare and Contrast: British Airways versus Virgin, PlanetContentLtd, [online], Available at: http://www.planetcontent.co.uk/ba-versus-virgin Accessed Friday 06 January 2012 BBH (2012) Bartle Bogle Hegarty – About Us, BBH, [online], Available at: http://www.bartleboglehegarty.com/#!/global/aboutus/about Accessed Friday 06 January 2012 Johnson, A. (2009) BBC Drama recreates the days when flying was glamorous ,DailyMail, [online], Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-2041469/Pan-Am-BBC-drama- recreates-days-flying-glamorous--VERY-racy-plotlines.html Accessed Wednesday 04 January 2012 52
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