TWO STEP FLOW
▸ The two step flow of communication
model hypothesises that ideas flow from
mass media to opinion leaders and then
from them to a wider population.
▸ It was first introduced by sociologist Paul
Lazarfeld et al in 1944 and was
elaborated by Elihu katz and lazarfeld in
USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY
▸It is an approach to understanding why and how people actively
seek out specific media to satisfy specific needs. UGT is an
audience centred approach to understanding mass communication
1. Personal relationships: substitution of media for companionship
2. Diversion:escape from everyday problems or an emotional release
3. Surveillance:using media to find out what is around us
4. Personal identity or individual psychology: self understanding
BARTHES ENIGMA CODE
▸It is a theory that suggests that any text in television or film
makes the audience question something and intrigue the
audience to help draw them in.
▸A regular example that is used in a lot of films including
horrors, is revealing the culprit/bad guy of the film at the end.
this is done to make sure that the viewer is enticed into what
going on in the film and to make them wonder who did it.
TZVETAN TODOROV-THEORY OF
▸An interpretation of film texts with his theory of equilibrium or
disequilibrium and is shown in five stages.
THE HYPOTHERMIC NEEDLE MODEL
▸A model of communications suggesting that an intended
message is directly received and wholly accepted by the
LEVI STRAUSS- BINARY OPPOSITIONS
▸These are the contrast between two mutually exclusive
concepts or things that creates conflict and then helps drive
a narrative E.G Good and evil.
PROPP’S NARRATIVE THEORY
▸seven roles within any film/story;
1. Donor-prepares and provides hero agent
2. villain-struggles/fights with hero
3. princess- a goal to reach or a person to save
4. helper-assists, rescues and solves problems
5. dispatcher-sends the hero on adventure/mission
6. false hero-claims to be the hero but really isn’t
7. hero-departs on a search after reacting to donor