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glossary english

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  1. 1. Zone of proximal development (ZPD) • The zone of proximal development is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.
  2. 2. Total physical response (TPR) • This teaching method is one of the most recommended ones for young children and was developed by J.Asher. It consists of learning through actions. Is when the children listen and follow teachers instructions .
  3. 3. Target language and mother tongue • The target language: is the language that learners are studying, and also the individual items of language that they want tolerant , or the teacher wants them tolerant. • Mother tongue 1. One's native language. 2. A parent language.
  4. 4. Approach • It is a metod used by teacher to teach a language.
  5. 5. Acquisition vs learning • "Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding." Stephen Krashen. ACQUISITION LEARNING Artificial Natural Technical Personal Priority on the written language Priority on the spoken language Theory (language analysis) Practice (language in use) Deductive teaching Inductive coaching Preset syllabus Improvised activities Activities about the language Activities in the language Focus on form Focus on communication Produces knowledge Produces an ability
  6. 6. Silent period • Is an interval of time during which students feel unable to communicate orally in the foreign language. The length of this period can vary depending on many factors.
  7. 7. Critical period Children can learn a second language more effectively before puberty since they use the save mechanisms they use for F1 acquisition.
  8. 8. LAD Is a pre programmed box. Is a function of the brain is specifically for learning language. It Is an innate biological function of human beings.
  9. 9. EFL. English as a Foreign Language •English as a Foreign Language is usually learned in environments where the language of the community and the school is not English.
  10. 10. Phonics Phonics is a method for teaching, reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness. (the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes).
  11. 11. ESL. English as a Second Language • English as a Second Language also refers to specialized approaches to language teaching, designed for those whose primary language is not English.
  12. 12. Multiple intelligences theory The theory of multiple intelligences is a theory of intelligence that differentiates it into specific (primarily sensory), rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability.
  13. 13. Digital literacy Digital Literacy is the person’s ability to perform tasks effectively in a digital environment. Literacy includes the ability to read and interpret media, to reproduce data and images through digital manipulation, and to evaluate and apply new knowledge gained from digital environments.