Zone of proximal development
• The zone of proximal development is the
difference between what a learner can do
without help and what he or she can do with
Total physical response (TPR)
• This teaching method is one of the most recommended ones for
young children and was developed by J.Asher. It consists of
learning through actions. Is when the children listen and follow
teachers instructions .
Target language and mother tongue
• The target language: is the language that learners are
studying, and also the individual items of language that
they want tolerant , or the teacher wants them tolerant.
• Mother tongue
1. One's native language.
2. A parent language.
• It is a metod used by teacher to teach a
Acquisition vs learning
• "Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in
which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they
are conveying and understanding." Stephen Krashen.
Priority on the written language Priority on the spoken language
Theory (language analysis) Practice (language in use)
Deductive teaching Inductive coaching
Preset syllabus Improvised activities
Activities about the language Activities in the language
Focus on form Focus on communication
Produces knowledge Produces an ability
• Is an interval of time during which students feel unable to
communicate orally in the foreign language. The length of
this period can vary depending on many factors.
Children can learn a second language more
effectively before puberty since they use the
save mechanisms they use for F1
Is a pre programmed box. Is a function of the brain is
specifically for learning language. It Is an innate
biological function of human beings.
EFL. English as a Foreign Language
•English as a Foreign Language is usually
learned in environments where the language of
the community and the school is not English.
Phonics is a method for teaching, reading
and writing of the English language by
developing learners' phonemic awareness.
(the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes).
ESL. English as a Second Language
• English as a Second Language also refers to
specialized approaches to language teaching,
designed for those whose primary language is
Multiple intelligences theory
The theory of multiple intelligences is a
theory of intelligence that differentiates it into
specific (primarily sensory), rather than
seeing intelligence as dominated by a single
Digital Literacy is the person’s ability to
perform tasks effectively in a digital
environment. Literacy includes the ability to
read and interpret media, to reproduce data
and images through digital manipulation, and
to evaluate and apply new knowledge gained
from digital environments.