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Reinventing the Classroom: The Challenge of a Globalized Europe

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Presentation by Dr. Emmanuelle LePichon (Utrecht University) at the Rutu Roundtable on Multilingual Education for Migrant Children in Europe.
The Roundtable was hosted by Utrecht University in Utrecht, the Netherlands and held on 6 November 2015.
More info: http://www.rutufoundation.org/rutu-roundtable-utrecht/

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Reinventing the Classroom: The Challenge of a Globalized Europe

  1. 1. Reinventing the classroom: The challenge of a globalized Europe Emmanuelle Le Pichon, Utrecht University, The Netherlands RUTU ROUNDTABLE MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN IN EUROPE 6 NOVEMBER/ UTRECHT, THE NETHERLANDS 11:20-11:35 / #RutuRT
  2. 2. REINVENTING THE CLASSROOM: THE CHALLENGE OF A GLOBALIZED EUROPE Dr. Emmanuelle Le Pichon Utrecht University e.m.m.lepichon@uu.nl
  3. 3. PART 1: SNAPSHOT OF THE SITUATION IN THE NETHERLANDS
  4. 4. Young dual language learners • quality of the relationship of young children with their teachers – predicts social and academic performance in school – partly depends on the child characteristics » Noritz Rudasill & Kaufman, 2009
  5. 5. Young dual language learners • subtractive schooling = poor academic achievements » Le Pichon, 2010; Benson, 2009; Mohanty, 2009; Cummins, 2000.
  6. 6. Young dual language learners • should be schooled as soon as possible (Yazejian & al. 2015) • in a bilingual educational system – BUT:
  7. 7. Young dual language learners • Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, China, Congo, Germany, Eritrea, Greece, Guinea, Hungary, Indonesia, Iran, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Spain, Syria, Thailand, Turkey, Venezuela, US.
  8. 8. PART 2. CHALLENGES OF EXOLINGUAL SITUATIONS OF COMMUNICATION
  9. 9. Dilemma • To be socially accepted, one has to communicate adequately; • To communicate adequately, one needs to be socially accepted.
  10. 10. Assessments - fluency and proficiency with additions Example Level 1: Example Level 2: 2+1= (3) 11+3= (14) 3+2= (5) 16+9= (25) 6+3= (9) 11+17=(28) 4+5= (9) 6+6= (12)
  11. 11. Comparisons between languages Additions grade 2 better in Dutch no difference better in home language
  12. 12. Word problems ● Ability to apply problem-solving skills to real- world problems. ● Students are read simple word problems that include set sizes of up to 12. Examples: There are 5 children in the boat. 3 children get in. How many children are in the boat altogether now? There are 4 benches in the boat. There are 3 children sitting on each bench. How many children are there altogether in the boat?
  13. 13. Comparisons between languages Word problem grade 2 better in Dutch no difference better in home language
  14. 14. • Assessments in the school language do not always provide an accurate view of the child’s real competencies. • Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) • Tavares, 2015, p. 2 Assessments
  15. 15. PART 3: HOW TO REMEDY TO THIS SITUATION?
  16. 16. Translanguaging • ‘Teaching bilingual children by means of bilingual instructional strategies in which two or more languages are used alongside each other.’ » Creese & Blackledge, 2010 • to ‘exert educational effort that takes into account and builds further on the diversity of languages and literacy practices that children […] bring to school.’ » Torres-Guzman, 2006:14
  17. 17. Intercultural mediators of knowledge • ‘Assessments using translanguaging mode would enable students to show what they know using their entire linguistic repertoire.’ » Garcia & Wei, 2014:134 • Teachers should allow and reinforce the transfer of knowledge from one language to the other
  18. 18. Translanguaging practices • According to Tavares: – Acts on the metalinguistic awareness of the pupils – Supports the development of the school language – Supports the development of content learning of the subjects
  19. 19. Translanguaging practices • Allow children to participate in more situations, to be less frustrated, less anxious • Include parents and caregivers into the school career of their child
  20. 20. Conditions to translanguaging • Having different mother tongues is not a handicap but a chance! • Parents can be resources as well and that both parents and school need support; • Teachers should be convinced that ‘Assessments using translanguaging mode would enable students to show what they know using their entire linguistic repertoire.’ • Garcia & Wei, 2014:134. • Teachers should allow and reinforce the transfer of knowledge from one language to the other.
  21. 21. Part 4: How to realize translanguaging?
  22. 22. Examples • In Ireland: David Little • In France: Nathalie Auger • In the Basque Country: Jesone Cenoz • In Quebec: www.elodil.umontreal.ca • In Ghent, Belgium: www.steunpuntdiversiteitenleren.be
  23. 23. Nathalie Auger: Let’s compare our languages
  24. 24. Conclusion From a compartmentalized view of languages and schooling to a dynamic view of language learning, cognitive and affective development » Transitions and multilingualism, 2013
  25. 25. • Auger, N. (2013) Exploring the use of migrant languages to support learning in mainstream classrooms in France in Managing Diversity in Education, C. Leung, D. Little and P. Van Avermaet (dirs.), Bristol (UK), Multilingual matters. • Auger, N. Creese, A. & Blackledge, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the Bilingual Classroom: A Pedagogy for Learning and Teaching? The Modern Language Journal, 94, i. • Auger, N. (2003). Comparons nos langues. DVD Canopé CRDP de Montpellier. • Garcia, O. & Wei, L. (2014). Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education, Palgrave Macmillan • García, O., Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Torres-Guzman, M. E. (2006). Weaving spaces and (de)constructing ways for multilingual schools: The actual and the imagined. In O.García, T.Skutnabb-Kangas, & M. E.Torres-Guzman (Eds.), Imagining multilingual schools: Languages in education and globalization, 3-50. Clevedon , UK : Multilingual Matters. • Hipfner-Boucher, K.; Lam, K.; Chen, X. (2014). The effects of bilingual education on the English language and literacy outcomes of Chinese-speaking children. Written Language & Literacy 17:1, John Benjamin • Le Pichon Vorstman, E. & Kambel, E.R. (forthcoming). Challenges of mathematics education in a multilingual post-colonial context: the case of Suriname. • Le Pichon Vorstman, E. (2010). What children know about communication. Doctorale dissertatie. 239 p. Netherlands Graduate School of Linguistics. LOT. • Le Pichon-Vorstman, E. (2013). Handling multilingualism in school context. In: Griebel W., Heinisch, R., Kieferle, C., Robe E. & Seifert, A. Transition to School and Multilingualism: a curriculum for Educational Professionals, 299-320. Dr. Kovac publishing house. • Mohanty, A. (2009). Multilingual education, A bridge too far? In T. Skutnabb-Kangas, R. Phillipson, A. Mohanty & M. Panda, ed. Social Justice Through multilingual education, 3-18. Multilingual Matters. • Moritz Rudasill, K., Rimm-Kaufman, S. (2009). Teacher-child relationship quality: The roles of child temperament and teacher-child interactions, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 107-120. • Tavares, N. (2014). How strategic use of L1 in an L2-medium mathematics classroom facilitates L2 interaction and comprehension. International Journal of Bilingual education and bilingualism. • Yazejian, N., Bryant, D.; Freel, K.; Burchinal, M.; the Educare Learning Network (ELN) (2015). Investigative Team High-quality early education: Age of entry and time in care differences in student outcomes for English- only and dual language learners. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 32, 23-39.

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