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Berkeley sustainable consumption & production lectures 1 & 2

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Sample lectures that I delivered to undergraduates as part of the Environmental Science, Policy, and Management course at Berkeley

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Berkeley sustainable consumption & production lectures 1 & 2

  1. 1. SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION & PRODUCTION Lecture One ESPM 60 Environmental Policy, Administration & Law Spring semester 2014 DR. RUTH DOYLE
  2. 2. ABOUT ME • VISITING SCHOLAR @ UC BERKELEY, PROF ALASTAIR ILES • RESEARCHER & LECTURER @ GEOGRAPHY DEPARTMENT, TRINITY UNIVERSITY DUBLIN, IRELAND • PHD SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION & INNOVATION (CONSENSUS PROJECT) • ENVIRONMENTAL COMMUNICATIONS & PUBLIC CONSULTATION CONSULTANCY • rdoyle4@tcd.ie • www.consensus.ie @consensusire @doylertweets
  3. 3. LECTURES 1 & 2: SCP INTRO • What is sustainable consumption & production (SCP) – Challenges & key issues of SCP – Ecological Footprint – how much impact do we create? • Case study – Food – Trends in consumption – Trends in production • How to promote SCP? – Policy instruments
  4. 4. LECTURES 3 & 4: BUSINESS & CITIZEN RESPONSES • How can we encourage behavior change? – Theoretical perspectives – Examples of behavior change initiatives & communications • What can businesses do? – Greening existing businesses – New business models
  5. 5. PRODUCTION-CONSUMPTION CHAIN Extraction | Production | Access | Consumption | Disposal (www.storyofstuff.com) Production-side Consumption-side
  6. 6. THE CONSUMPTION EXPLOSION $7 out of $10 spent on individual consumerism (i.e. 71% of US economy based on consumerism) v’s 50% China
  7. 7. CONSUMPTION & WELLBEING The consumption paradox • Correlation between income, consumerism and wellbeing reduces beyond a certain point. • As a society grows richer, there is evidence to suggest that social solidarity, participation & community relations, essential for social and psychological wellbeing become eroded. • Despite a doubling of personal wealth over the past 30 years in the US reported happiness has decreased from 35% to 30% (Layard 2005)
  8. 8. PEAK EVERYTHING? DEMAND PROJECTIONS • Global economic, population & societal development trends • “perfect storm” – food, energy & water resource scarcity by 2020 • Concern has now widened from a focus on ‘peak oil’, to ‘peak everything’ referring to impending declines in freshwater per capita, climate stability, agricultural land, fish harvests, fossil fuels, and uranium production” (Heinberg, 2007).
  9. 9. According to Jackson (2009), this would imply an economy x15 its current size @ economic growth of 2% pa. POPULATION: 9BN BY 2050 (UN estimate)
  10. 10. 50 million tones of toxic electronic waste accumulate globally each year. Estimated that 50-80% of the waste collected for recycling in USA is exported (UN, 2008) USA = 5% world’s population, yet consume 30% global resources, and produce 30% waste. . UNEQUAL PATTERNS OF PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION
  11. 11. MEASURING CONSUMPTION (Simms et al., 2009) How much bio-productive land required for consumption
  12. 12. COMPARISON OF ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS (Simms et al., 2009)
  13. 13. TYPICAL FOOTPRINT You can calculate your footprint here: http://footprint.wwf.org.uk/ Exercise for seminar / at home?
  14. 14. GLOBAL ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTS Countries stretched to indicate per capita consumption - worldmapper.org
  15. 15. WE HAVE A PROBLEM! • “It does not take more than a simple act of insight to realize that infinite growth of material consumption on a finite world is an impossibility” E.F. Schumacher 1973 “Small is Beautiful” “One planet living” = key goal of SCP
  16. 16. SCP @ UNCED 1992 “The major cause of the continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialized countries, which is a matter of grave concern, aggravating poverty and imbalances” (Agenda 21 – Rio UNCED Earth Summit 1992) Assumptions: 1. Earth’s resources are limited 2. Environmental damage is linked to production and exploitation of these resources to serve everyday consumption 3. Sustainable patterns of consumption need to be discovered, promoted & encouraged.
  17. 17. COMPARING FOOTPRINTS: FOOD CONSUMPTION 1. WHAT DIFFERENT FOODS DO THEY EAT & WHY? 2. WHERE ARE THE FAMILIES FROM? 3. WHAT IS THEIR WEEKLY EXPENDITURE? 4. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THEIR DIETS?
  18. 18. DIFFERENCES IN FAMILY FOOD CONSUMPTION • Food preferences – reflect trends that have emerged in the food system & reflect local contexts • Food miles – geographically dispersed chains of production, access & consumption • Packaging & Processing – large differences across cultures. • Food stuffs – meat & dairy products v’s vegetables & grains, “luxury foods” v’s “subsistence” – What is over-consumption? • Food quantities, income expenditure
  19. 19. SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION & PRODUCTION Lecture Two ESPM 60 Environmental Policy, Administration & Law Spring semester 2014 DR. RUTH DOYLE
  20. 20. PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION ISSUES: U.S. Food example
  21. 21. DIVERSIFIED, TRADITIONAL FARMING
  22. 22. INDUSTRIAL FARMING - California, Central Valley – adoption of industrialized agriculture since mid 19th century - Intensive crop based agriculture = use of mechanical ploughing, chemical fertilizers, plant growth regulators & pesticides - Mechanization allows for increase in production, yet increases environmental pollution - erosion and agricultural chemicals - The share of intensive crops grew from 4% in 1880 to 80% by 1930.
  23. 23. GEOGRAPHY OF SPECIALIZATION
  24. 24. GEOGRAPHY OF SPECIALIZATION
  25. 25. AGRICULTURE TO AGRIBUSINESS TRENDS – Reliance on external inputs: pesticides, insecticides & fertilisers (v’s ecological services), fossil fuels & seeds. Creates dependency, emissions, run-off and pollutants – Monoculture: Farms specialise in particular crops or livestock – Mechanised: Human labour replaced with machinery. – Distance: Increased distance between production and consumption (refrigeration & additives to keep food fresh). – Large-scale, intensive farming: In 2007 in the US, 35,000 farms produced 60% total food output. – Agribusinesses: E.G. 4 companies control over 83% of beef packing in the US, 4 companies responsible for 51% of turkey production. Imposition of standards
  26. 26. WASTE (Foodshift.org)
  27. 27. WASTE: PRODUCTION & CONSUMPTION http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/mb060e/mb060e02.pdf
  28. 28. SCP REQUIRES ACTION ACROSS SECTORS Business Society Policy
  29. 29. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION STRATEGIES 2000’s – SCP cast as a strategy for increasing the efficiency of natural resource use (eco-efficiency and minimizing waste). Preventative & precautionary approach
  30. 30. HOW TO PROMOTE SCP? Policy instruments (targeting producers & consumers) 1) Regulatory Codes & standards that account for social & environmental implications of production & consumption. Level playing field & accelerate change. 1) Economic instruments Encouraging innovation in business & market operations – SCP issues characterized as ‘market failure’ 1) Informative / communicative / educative (*next week’s focus) (REF: Geyer Alley & Zacarias-Farah, 2003 – ‘Policies & Instruments for promoting sustainable household consumption’ Journal of Cleaner Production, 11, 923-926).
  31. 31. 1) REGULATORY INSTRUMENTS • Product design standards – e.g. minimum energy efficiency codes DOE ‘Building Energy Codes Programme’. • Restrictions on products – e.g. pesticides – EPA. • Bans - e.g. San Francisco - plastic bag ban & impending ban on plastic bottles in city-owned property at end 2014. • Labeling – requirements to reveal sustainability impacts (e.g. FDA food labeling) or eco-standard regulation (e.g. EPA EnergyStar & WaterSense) • Extended producer responsibility – take-back requirements • Statutory targets – e.g. on pollution / emissions.
  32. 32. 2) ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS • Eco-taxes – e.g. carbon tax – price signals, “Internalising externalities”, pay per bag waste charges. • Producer incentives & innovation funds – for sustainable business operations • Consumer subsidies – for environmentally friendly products (e.g. energy retrofitting).
  33. 33. Mas. FOOD WASTE BAN
  34. 34. Responses
  35. 35. WEAK V STRONG SCP APPROACHES Weak SCP - Low regulatory intervention - Voluntary action – individuals & market - “Green consumerism” - Efficiency focus – greening existing patterns of consumption. Strong SCP - Systemic approach – recognizes macro-economic issues & requires multi-scalar governance - Sufficiency focus - Need to reduce overall consumption – “contraction & convergence”
  36. 36. SUMMARISING KEY CONCEPTS • What is SCP? Production-Consumption chain • Trends – peak everything, socio-economic trends • Unequal levels of consumption – distributive justice & questions of differentiated responsibility • Food case study – industrialization of agriculture and food waste • Policy instruments – Regulatory & Economic
  37. 37. CONCLUDING • RETURNING TO HEINBERG (Peak Everything): • “Present patterns of development….are clearly related to the availability of energy and other critical resources. Once we accept that energy, fresh water, and food will become less freely available over the next few decades, it is hard to escape the conclusion that while the 20th century saw the greatest and most rapid expansion of the scale, scope, and complexity of human societies in history, the 21st century will see contraction and simplification”.
  38. 38. STORY OF STUFF • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9GorqroigqM
  39. 39. NEXT WEEK…BUSINESS & CITIZEN RESPONSES • How can we encourage behavior change? – Theoretical perspectives – Examples of behavior change initiatives & communications • What can businesses do? – Greening existing businesses – New business models
  40. 40. READINGS READINGS: • Hinton, E. & Goodman, M. (2010) ‘Sustainable Consumption: Developments, considerations and new directions’. Chapter 16 in Woodgate, G., and Redclift M. (eds) International Handbook of Environmental Sociology (2nd edition) , London: Edward Elgar Publishing http://www.kcl.ac.uk/content/1/c6/03/95/42/mike4.pdf • Fedrigo, D. & Tukker, A. (2009) ‘Blueprint for sustainable consumption and production’, SCORE! Sustainable Consumption Research Exchange OTHERS • Living Planet Report 2012 http://assets.wwf.org.uk/downloads/lpr_2012_summary_booklet_final_7may2012.pdf • Geyer Alley & Zacarias-Farah, 2003 – ‘Policies & Instruments for promoting sustainable household consumption’ Journal of Cleaner Production, 11, 923-926 Web resources: • www.wwf.org.uk • www.ecologicalfootprint.com • www.interdependenceday.co.uk • www.thestoryofstuff.com
  41. 41. In-class assignment No. 2 • Research what food companies are or aren’t doing to address sustainability problems associated with their consumer products (for example, Wal-Mart, ADM, Heinz, Chipolte, MacDonalds) • What are the policies and approaches that companies use? • Present in class on 29th April
  42. 42. LA SURCONSOMMATION Can watch at home. Just 6 mins! http://vimeo.com/61094582

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